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rHE    DEPARTMENT  OF   STATE 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  927 


AprU  1,  1957 


ICIAI 

KLY  RECORD 

TFn  STATES 
tiUN  POLICY 


THE  UNITED  STATES  LOOKS  AT  THE  MIDDLE 

EAST   •    by  Deputy  Under  Secretary  Murphy 515 

THIRD  MEETING  OF  THE  COUNCIL  OF  THE  SOUTH- 
EAST ASIA  TREATY  ORGANIZATION 

Firuil  Communique 527 

Statements  by  Secretary  Dulles 529 

Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference,  Canberra,  March  13  .    .    .      533 

UNITED  STATES  REPLIES  TO  SOVIET  PROPOSAL 

FOR  DECLARATION  ON  MIDDLE  EAST 523 

COIMPLIANCE  WITH  U.N.  RESOLUTION  CALLING 
FOR  WITHDRAWAL  OF  ISRAEL  FROM 
EGYPTIAN  TERRITORY 

Statement  by  Ambassador  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  March  8  ,    .    .  543 
Statement   by   U.N.  Secretary-General  Dag  Hammarskjold, 

February  22 544 

Report  of  U.N.  Secretary-General,  March  8 544 


For  index  see  inside  back  cover 


THE    DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  927  •  Pubucation  6471 
April  1,  1957 


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bo  reprinted.  Citation  of  the  Department 
OF  Ptatk  Bulletin  as  the  source  will  bo 
appreciated. 


The  Department  of  State  BULLETIN, 
a  iveekly  publication  issued  by  the 
Public  Services  Division,  provides  the 
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the  Government  with  information  on 
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Service.  The  BULLETIN  includes  se- 
lected press  releases  on  foreign  policy, 
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Department,  and  statements  and  ad- 
dresses made  by  the  President  and  by 
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Publications  of  the  Department, 
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J 


The  United  States  Looks  at  the  Middle  East 


by  Deputy  Under  Secretary  Murphy  ' 


I  am  indeed  grateful  for  this  opportunity  to  ap- 
pear here  at  Georgetown  University  and  before 
this  forum  for  a  discussion  of  some  of  the  prob- 
lems of  the  Middle  East.  The  issues  which  have 
arisen  during  the  last  6  months  within  that  area 
have  engaged  the  loyalties  and  sympathies  of  the 
American  people.  There  has  been  a  high  degree 
of  involvement  of  local  American  interest  in  the 
solutions  of  the  problems  posed  by  the  Middle 
East.  We  of  the  State  Department  appreciate  a 
chance  to  talk  over  this  situation  with  an  informal 
audience  such  as  this  and  to  express  our  views  as 
to  the  best  course  to  follow  in  the  national  interest 
of  the  United  States. 

I  am  also  delighted  with  the  formulation  of  the 
topic  for  this  evening's  presentation.  It  seems 
most  appropriate  to  exchange  views  on  the  Middle 
East  at  this  time  in  hope  that  we  may  achieve 
a  better  understanding  of  the  delicate  problems 
involved.  Georgetown's  inquiries  into  our  for- 
eign relations  are  justly  famous,  and  I  hope  I  may 
be  of  even  some  small  assistance  to  you  in  your 
study  of  the  area. 

The  United  States  has  vital  security  interests 
in  the  Middle  East.  These  interests  are  magni- 
fied by  our  role  as  leader  of  the  free  world. 

In  the  first  place,  it  would  be  a  major  setback  in 
this  great  struggle  if  the  two-hundred-odd  million 
Moslems  of  the  area  should  be  persuaded  that 
they  could  achieve  their  destiny  as  nations  under 
the  sway  of  international  communism.  The 
Soviet  Union  has  become  very  active  in  this  region. 
Its  expansionist  purposes  are  unmistakable. 

'  Address  made  at  the  International  Relations  Enquiry 
at  Georgetown  University,  Washington,  D.C.,  on  Mar.  14 
(press  release  145). 


Secondly,  the  Middle  Eastern  area  specifically 
contains  perhaps  75  percent  or  more  of  the  world's 
oil  resources  under  its  sands.  The  continuing  un- 
interrupted flow  of  this  oil  is  necessary  to  the 
economic  and  military  strength  of  our  European 
allies,  which  in  turn  is  necessary  to  our  own 
security.  Although  we  can,  as  is  presently  being 
demonstrated,  temporarily  supply  our  European 
allies  with  their  fuel  needs,  the  drain  upon  the 
reserves  of  the  Western  Hemisphere  over  a  pro- 
tracted period  would  gi'eatly  weaken  the  free 
world. 

Finally,  the  Middle  East  area  itself  is  of  great 
strategic  geographic  importance.  It  controls 
both  the  land  and  sea  routes  linking  Asia,  with  its 
raw-material  resources,  with  Western  Europe, 
which  is  the  major  supplier  to  Asia  of  manufac- 
tured goods  essential  to  its  development.  It  con- 
trols the  gateway  to  Africa,  with  its  vast  human 
and  mineral  resources,  which  is  just  beginning  to 
play  its  role  upon  the  world  stage. 

Hence,  the  United  States  must  act  with  a  high 
degree  of  responsibility  and  friendly  impartiality 
in  the  clashes  of  national  interests  which  are  keep- 
ing the  Middle  East  in  a  state  of  turmoil.  We 
consider  the  people  in  the  area  our  friends,  and  we 
want  them  to  remain  our  friends. 

The  major  internal  problem,  which  over- 
shadows every  other  issue  in  the  area,  is  the  Arab- 
Israeli  dispute.  The  creation  of  the  State  of 
Israel  has  a  significant  and  illuminating  back- 
ground. In  fact,  I  should  like  this  evening  to 
dwell  on  the  origin  and  causes  of  some  of  the  situ- 
ations we  face  in  the  area,  in  the  hope  that  our 
present  objectives  and  courses  of  action  will  be 
more  readily  understood. 


April  1,   1957 


515 


Emergence  of  Nationalism  in  Middle  East 

A  good  starting  point  is  the  emergence  of  na- 
tionalism in  the  Middle  East  some  time  during  the 
latter  half  of  the  19th  century.  The  Ottoman 
Empire  had  by  then  grown  accustomed  to  its  role 
as  a  "sick  man."  But  the  forces  of  nationalism 
were  already  at  work  among  its  peoples.  A 
Viennese  journalist,  Theodore  Herzl,  motivated 
by  the  clamor  and  implications  of  the  Dreyfus 
affair  in  France,  decided  that  the  Jewish  people 
could  not  achieve  a  secure  status  until  they  had 
become  identified  with  a  national  entity.  He 
succeeded  in  restating  the  age-old  religious  long- 
ing of  the  Jews  to  return  to  the  Holy  Land  in 
modern  nationalistic  terms. 

These  same  forces  were  at  work  among  the 
Arab  peoples  of  the  Ottoman  Empire.  The  brief 
emergence  of  Egypt  under  Muhammad  Ali  in  the 
early  years  of  the  century  as  a  power  which  could 
challenge  the  world  order  had  given  new  hope  to 
those  who  dreamed  of  the  days  when  an  Arab 
caliph  had  ruled  a  united  Islam.  We  Americans 
had  more  than  a  little  to  do  with  the  emergence  of 
an  Arab  nationalism  which  thought  and  spoke  in 
the  popular  terms  of  the  day.  It  was  in  our  edu- 
cational and  missionary  institutions  in  the  area 
that  the  Arabic  language  had  a  rebirth  and  where 
our  political  philosophy  received  eager  acceptance. 

In  the  course  of  World  War  I,  the  Allied  Pow- 
ers sought  the  support  of  both  of  these  national- 
isms. The  appeal  to  Jewish  nationalism  took  the 
form  of  the  Balfour  Declaration  of  November  2, 
1917.  The  appeal  to  the  Arabs  took  the  form  of 
assurances  and  encouragement  to  the  Sharif  of 
Mecca,  Protector  of  the  Holy  Places  of  Islam,  who 
revolted  against  his  Turkish  overlords  in  the  hope 
of  assuming  a  new  caliphate.  The  romantic  fig- 
ure of  Lawrence  of  Arabia  stalks  through  these 
pages  of  history. 

At  the  close  of  the  war,  the  British  found  them- 
selves in  possession  of  a  mandated  area  handed 
them  by  the  League  of  Nations.  This  area  ap- 
peared to  be  almost  as  barren  in  resources  as  it 
was  rich  in  religious  and  historical  tradition  and 
controversy.  It  was  soon  divided  into  two  sepa- 
rate entities :  Palestine  and  Transjordan. 

Transjordan  was  brought  into  being  as  a  fief 
for  the  late  King  Abdullah.  Abdullah  was  one 
of  the  sons  of  the  Sharif  of  Mecca.  His  brother, 
Feisal,  who  had  been  proclaimed  as  King  of  Syria, 
was  beleaguered  by  the  French  in  Damascus,  who 


were  attempting  to  assert  the  authority  given 
them  by  the  League  for  their  mandate  in  Syria 
and  Lebanon.  Abdullah's  presence  in  Syria  j 
would  have  been  an  embarrassment  to  the  British ; 
so  it  was  decided  that  he  should  be  asked  to  tarry 
on  his  journey  and  remain  in  Transjordan,  where 
a  state  of  his  own  would  be  established.  Winston 
Churchill  has  told  how  he  created  Transjordan 
one  Sunday  afternoon  while  he  was  in  Jerusalem. 
All  this  came  to  pass,  and  during  King  Abdullah's 
lifetime  the  State  of  Transjordan  was  a  model  of 
the  close  collaboration  between  the  Arabs  and 
Great  Britain.  The  Arab  Legion  was  created  and 
maintained  by  the  British  and  proved  its  worth 
when  it  assisted  Allied  forces  in  putting  down  a 
revolt  in  Iraq  in  1941. 

In  Palestine,  that  portion  of  the  mandate  to  the 
west  of  the  Jordan  Kiver,  there  was  rapid  eco- 
nomic and  social  development  as  Jews  from  all 
over  the  world  came  to  take  on  the  task  of  drain- 
ing the  marshes  and  making  the  desert  bloom.  It 
soon  became  apparent,  however,  that  reconcilia- 
tion of  Jewish  and  Arab  nationalism  in  this  state 
would  not  be  an  easy  task.  There  was  bloodshed 
between  Arabs  and  Jews  almost  from  the  very 
beginning  of  the  mandate.  Indeed,  the  longest 
period  of  real  tranquillity  in  Palestine  was  the 
duration  of  World  War  II,  when  the  magnitude  of 
events  on  the  world  scene  made  pointless  the  local 
conflict. 

Partition  of  Palestine  | 

At  the  close  of  World  War  II,  violence  again 
erupted  in  Palestine.  Britain  made  a  final  su- 
preme effort  to  reach  an  amicable  settlement  be-  . 
tween  Arabs  and  Jews.  When  this  failed,  Britain  \ 
decided  to  turn  the  problem  over  to  the  United 
Nations.  After  dispatching  a  commission  to  the 
field  to  study  the  problem  and  make  recommenda- 
tions, the  United  Nations  General  Assembly  voted 
in  November  1947  to  recommend  both  the  partition 
of  Palestine  into  an  Arab  and  a  Jewish  state,  to 
be  politically  independent  but  in  economic  union, 
and  the  territorial  internationalization  of  Jerusa- 
lem. Jewish  leaders  decided  to  accept  this  recom- 
mendation, although  it  fell  considerably  short  of 
their  expectations,  and  proclaimed  their  state  in 
May  1948.  Arab  leaders  both  within  and  outside 
Palestine  decided  to  contest  it  by  force. 

The  United  States  had  strongly  supported  the 
partition  resolution  in  the  General  Assembly  and 


516 


Department  of  Stale  Bulletin 


■was  deeply  concerned  that  a  peaceful  solution 
should  be  reached  in  the  Palestine  problem. 
Fighting  broke  out  in  1948  and  continued  through 
several  broken  United  Nations  truces  until  General 
Armistice  Agreements  were  signed  in  accordance 
with  a  Security  Council  directive  in  1949.  These 
agreements  were  to  have  been  but  the  first  step 
in  a  process  leading  to  a  peace  arrangement  be- 
tween the  parties  brought  about  under  United 
Nations  auspices.  They  have  remained  to  this  day 
as  the  only  international  agreements  regulating 
relations  between  Israel  and  the  neighboring  Arab 
States.  Ralpli  Bunche  [Under-Secretary  of  the 
United  Nations],  who  is  back  in  the  area  today, 
had  a  great  deal  to  do  with  the  successful  nego- 
tiation of  these  agreements. 

The  territorial  situation  emerging  from  the 
Armistice  Agreements  was  quite  different  fi-om 
that  envisaged  in  the  partition  resolution.  Israel, 
which  had  surprised  the  world  with  its  military 
prowess,  was  in  occupation  of  considerably  more 
territory  than  that  originally  allotted  to  the  Jewish 
state.  Transjordan,  whose  Arab  Legion  was  by 
far  the  most  effective  Arab  fighting  force,  gained 
possession  of  the  Judean  hills  stretching  from 
Nabhis  to  Hebron.  This  territory  was  formally 
incorporated  into  Transjordan,  which  had  mean- 
while in  1950  changed  its  name  to  the  Hashemite 
Kingdom  of  Jordan.  The  proposal  for  an  in- 
dependent Arab  state  in  economic  union  with  the 
Jewish  state  fell  by  the  wayside,  as  did  that  for  an 
internationalized  Jerusalem.  Jerusalem  has  been 
divided  and  is  imder  de  facto  occupation  by  the 
Israelis  in  the  New  City  and  by  the  Jordanians  in 
the  Old. 

These  events  were  bound  to  have  tremendous 
repercussions  in  Jordan,  which  was  no  longer  a 
quiet  and  well-ordered  Arab  entity  oriented  toward 
the  British.  Its  population  was  trebled  overnight, 
and  one-third  of  its  inhabitants  were  Arab  refugees 
subsisting  on  a  United  Nations  dole.  The  new 
Jordan  faced  its  relationship  with  Britain  with 
distrust  arising  out  of  the  Palestine  conflict.  Like 
other  nations  in  the  region,  Jordan  desired  to  assert 
full  sovereignty  and  independence  and  to  cast  off 
longstanding  ties  with  larger  powers  in  the  "West. 
The  assassination  of  King  Abdullah,  a  stanch 
ally  of  Britain,  in  1951,  the  dismissal  of  Lieutenant 
General  Glubb  and  other  Arab  leaders  from  the 
Arab  Legion  in  1955,  the  anger  at  Britain  for  hav- 
ing undertaken  military  operations  against  Egypt, 


all  hastened  the  desire  to  minimize  British  influ- 
ence. The  Anglo-Jordan  Treaty  of  1948,  under 
which  the  British  guaranteed  Jordan's  territorial 
integrity  and  subsidized  Jordan's  defense  estab- 
lishment, was  terminated  yesterday.  Jordan, 
which  recognizes  its  lack  of  economic  viability  and 
acknowledges  its  need  for  foreign  aid,  has  sought 
such  assistance  from  the  Arab  states  of  Egypt, 
Sj'ria,  and  Saudi  Arabia.  Jordanians  have  also 
exj>ressed  the  hope  that  United  States  aid  can  be 
increased.  It  is  clifEcult  to  see  a  secure  and  pros- 
perous future  for  Jordan  in  tlie  absence  of  an 
Arab-Israel  settlement. 

Since  1948  Israel  has  seen  a  trebling  of  popu- 
lation and  considerable  economic  development. 
Economic  progress  has  been  impaired  by  the  lack 
of  political  stability  in  the  area,  however,  and 
Israel  daily  encounters  the  obstacles  to  progress 
created  by  continuing  Arab  hostility.  Israelis 
have  had  to  become  used  to  border  incidents,  eco- 
nomic warfare,  and  lack  of  any  kind  of  relations 
with  their  immediate  neighbors. 

It  might  be  worth  while  to  add  a  footnote  to  this 
historical  excursus  about  how  and  why  the  Gaza 
Strip  came  into  being.  The  territory  of  the  town 
of  Gaza  and  the  land  to  the  north  and  south  of 
it  were  allotted,  under  the  1947  partition  resolu- 
tion, to  the  Arab  state.  "Wlien  Egypt  undertook 
military  operations  in  Palestine  in  1948,  it  en- 
tered Palestinian  territory  at  the  old  international 
frontier  to  the  south  of  Gaza.  The  end  of  the 
hostilities  and  the  signing  of  the  armistice  saw 
Egypt  remaining  in  occupation  of  the  5-by-25- 
mile  strip  of  territory  along  the  Mediterranean 
with  Gaza  roughly  at  its  center.  Egypt  continued 
to  occupy  this  territory  by  virtue  of  the  Armistice 
Agreement.  Egypt  never  claimed  sovereignty 
over  the  Strip  but  said  that  it  was  held  in  military 
occupation  subject  to  an  ultimate  peace  settlement 
which  would  secure  the  rights  of  the  Palestine 
Arabs.  In  addition  to  the  indigenous  population 
of  about  60,000,  there  are  200,000  Arab  refugees 
who  fled  from  what  is  now  Israel.  So  even  before 
the  creation  of  the  United  Nations  Emergency 
Force,  the  United  Nations  had  considerable  re- 
sponsibility for  the  care  and  subsistence  of  at 
least  two-thirds  of  the  population  of  Gaza. 

The  New  Regime  in  Egypt 

Egypt  is  the  spearhead  of  Arab  hostility  to  Is- 
rael.   Egypt,    too,    has    undergone    important 


April  ?,   ?957 


517 


changes  in  the  recent  past.  New  revohitionary 
leaders  forced  the  abdication  of  King  Farouk  in 
1952  and  proclaimed  a  republic  in  1953.  The  new 
regime  set  itself  with  enthusiasm  to  the  task  of 
improving  basic  economic  conditions.  Large  es- 
tates were  broken  up.  Attention  was  given  to  ir- 
rigation projects  to  reclaim  desert  lands.  The 
passage  of  legislation  to  encourage  foreign  in- 
vestment suggested  realistic  appraisal  of  the 
country's  need  of  outside  help.  There  were  even 
faint  glimmers  of  hope  for  a  realistic  and  rational 
approach  to  the  intensely  emotional  problem  of 
Palestine. 

To  this  seemingly  devoted  leadership  the 
United  States  offered  encouragement  and  sup- 
port. We  sought  to  promote  understanding  and 
conciliation  between  Egypt  and  Britain  in  the 
longstanding  dispute  over  the  British-held  base  in 
Suez.  Without  taking  sides  or  pressuring  either 
party,  we  worked  to  keep  open  the  avenue  of  con- 
ciliation, and  just  before  the  second  anniversary 
of  the  regime  in  Egypt  agreement  in  principle 
was  announced  on  this  thorny  problem.  We  of- 
fered technical  assistance  to  stimulate  the  pace  of 
development  and  economic  aid,  in  keeping  with 
the  country's  capacity  to  absorb  it,  to  accelerate 
the  rate  of  economic  growth.  In  the  last  5  years 
we  have  provided  Egypt  with  nearly  $90  million 
of  assistance  in  various  forms. 

Recognizing  the  country's  need  to  strengthen  its 
internal  security  and  keep  its  defenses  in  readi- 
ness, the  United  States  indicated  willingness  to 
make  reasonable  quantities  of  defensive  arms 
available  to  the  new  government.  The  Egyptian 
leaders  studied  a  gi-ant-aid  agreement  which  we 
were  prepared  to  enter  into  and  decided  against  it. 
They  asked  to  buy  arms.  They  found  difficulty 
in  paying  for  them,  and  we  agreed  to  consider  al- 
ternative financing  arrangements.  We  were  un- 
derbid in  terms  of  financing.  Egypt  bought  So- 
viet arms  in  exchange  for  Egyptian  cotton — cot- 
ton, a  commodity  bulging  from  our  own  ware- 
houses, a  commodity  we  could  not  consider  im- 
porting in  quantity. 

Although  deeply  concerned  at  this  evidence  of 
new  Soviet  mischief  in  the  area,  we  sought  to  con- 
tinue fruitful  cooperation  with  Egypt  in  other 
spheres.  Egypt's  wish  to  store  within  its  own 
borders  its  share  of  the  untapped  waters  of  the 
Nile  received  our  sympathetic  consideration.  We 
were  not  unmindful  of  some  expert  opinion  that 


storage  in  the  humid  upper  reaches  of  the  Nile — 
outside  Egypt's  boundaries — might  involve  less 
loss  by  evaporation.  We  were  not  unmindful  of 
the  rights  of  other  riparian  states,  and  our  offer 
of  help  for  the  Aswan  Dam  presupposed  agree- 
ment on  division  of  waters.  But,  basically,  it 
looked  as  though  the  Egyptian  leadership  was 
fully  determined  to  commit  its  resources  to  the 
Pligh  Dam.  Their  determination  seemed  to  be  a 
driving  economic  force  in  itself.  We  offered  to 
help.  In  reply  Egypt  asked  that  our  help  be 
given  on  a  basis  which  caused  us  misgivings.  We 
reluctantly  reached  the  conclusion  that  other  com- 
mitments had  undermined  the  possibility  of  a 
sustained  economic  effort  on  Egypt's  part,  without 
which  our  assistance  would  be  unavailing. 

We  continued  willing  to  assist  on  less  ambitious 
projects.  We  announced  our  decision  regarding 
the  Aswan  Dam  on  July  19  last  year.  On  July  26 
Nasser  nationalized  the  Suez  Canal  Company. 

The  stubborn,  unpleasant  realities — the  eco- 
nomic facts  of  life — have  not  been  conducive  to  the 
kind  of  relationship  we  had  hoped  to  develop.  We 
felt  these  economic  problems  could  not  be  gain- 
said. Our  views  were  received  with  suspicion  and 
misunderstanding  by  colonial-sensitive  Arab 
opinion  as  being  animated  by  selfish  interest. 

Our  hopes  for  cooperation  were  dimmed  by  a 
historical  legacy  which  for  the  most  part  involved 
nations  other  than  the  United  States.  This  is 
ironic  but  basic  to  our  situation  in  Egypt,  in  SjTia, 
and  to  a  lesser  degree  in  other  parts  of  the  region. 
Happily  this  is  not  the  case  in  Lebanon,  a  sophis- 
ticated and  advanced  nation  with  which  we  main- 
tain friendly  relations,  nor  is  it  true  in  Saudi 
Arabia,  Iraq,  and  some  other  countries. 

The  Arabian  Peninsula 

As  we  move  away  from  the  countries  at  the  core 
of  the  Arab-Israel  dispute,  the  focus  of  our  inter- 
est and  concern  in  the  Middle  East  shifts.  The  re- 
cent visit  of  King  Saud  was  symbolic  of  the  spot- 
light being  thrown  increasingly  on  one  of  the  least 
known  parts  of  the  Arab  world,  the  Arabian  pen- 
insula. This  peninsula,  approximately  one-third 
the  area  of  the  United  States,  contains  a  variety  of 
peoples,  lands,  resources,  and  historical  back- 
grounds. It  is  the  cradle  of  the  modern  Arab  peo- 
ple. It  has  in  the  past  been  the  home  of  fabled 
rulers,  like  the  Queen  of  Sheba,  and  the  spices  and 


518 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


incenses  of  Biblical  times  probably  came  from  its 
highlands. 

Since  the  consolidation  of  the  Saudi  Kingdom 
in  1925,  Saudi  Arabia  has  been  the  largest  and  in 
many  ways  the  most  important  of  the  states  of  the 
peninsula.  The  United  States  has  had  relations  of 
special  importance  with  this  Kingdom  since  the 
1930's  and  is  currently  negotiating  an  agreement 
which  will  provide  for  further  cooperation.  King 
Saud  is  an  important  Arab  leader  and  as  Keeper 
of  the  Holy  Shrines  at  Mecca  and  Medina  is  a 
figure  of  growing  significance  in  the  Arab  world. 
Firmly  committed  against  communism,  he  follows 
his  father's  traditional  policy  of  close  friendship 
with  the  United  States. 

The  other  major  independent  kingdom  in  the 
peninsula  is  the  highland  state  of  Yemen  in  the 
southwestern  corner  of  the  peninsula.  It  is  the 
source  from  which  the  ancestors  of  the  modern 
Arabs  migrated,  and  its  ruins  give  evidence  that 
gi-eat  kingdoms  once  existed  in  its  mountains. 
Today  this  ancient  land  is  seeking  to  develop  its 
resources  and  to  modernize  its  cities.  A  conces- 
sion was  granted  in  1955  to  an  American  company 
to  explore  for  minerals.  The  Imam  has  also  been 
tempted  by  liberal  offers  of  aid  from  the  Soviet 
bloc,  and  Soviet  and  satellite  experts  have  re- 
cently begun  to  arrive.  The  Soviet  assistance  has 
included  at  least  one  shipment  of  satellite  arms 
sought  by  the  Imam  to  strengthen  Yemen  in  its 
dispute  with  the  British  over  the  Aden  Protec- 
torate. 

The  Aden  Protectorate  was  formed  through  a 
series  of  treaties  by  which  the  British  maintain 
political  control  over  some  40  minor  principali- 
ties in  the  hinterlands  to  the  north  and  the  east 
of  the  Crown  Colony  of  Aden.  An  unsettled 
border  between  these  principalities  and  Yemen, 
tribal  difficulties  in  the  area,  and  Yemeni  claims  to 
much  of  the  Protectorate  have  resulted  in  spas- 
modic outbursts  of  violence  along  the  border.  Re- 
cently, these  have  increased  in  severity,  although 
there  is  hope  that  talks  may  take  place  between 
the  two  parties  which  will  lessen  the  current 
tension. 

To  the  east  of  Aden  lies  the  Hadhramaut,  a 
highland  area  which  was  the  ancient  source  of 
frankincense  and  myrrh.  This  also  forms  a  part 
of  the  Aden  Protectorate,  but  its  ties,  strangely 
enough,  are  primarily  with  India,  where  many  of 
its  people  have  gone  as  merchants. 


In  the  southeastern  corner  of  the  peninsula  lies 
Muscat  and  Oman,  a  little  known  independent 
principality  with  which  the  United  States  has  had 
very  long  relations.  One  of  the  first  treaties 
signed  by  the  United  States  in  Asia  was  with  the 
Sultan  of  Muscat  in  1832.  The  United  States  had 
a  consulate  in  Muscat  for  over  60  years  and,  in 
view  of  the  imjiortance  of  the  area,  is  now  consider- 
ing the  reestablislunent  of  a  post  there. 

To  the  north  lies  a  series  of  small  principali- 
ties under  British  protectorate  known  as  the 
Trucial  States,  named  from  the  truce  arrange- 
ments made  with  these  states  in  the  19th  century 
in  order  to  halt  attacks  by  pirates  on  British  ships 
in  the  Persian  Gulf.  One  of  the  Trucial  States, 
Abu  Dhabi,  together  with  the  Sultan  of  Muscat, 
is  involved  in  a  dispute  with  Saudi  Arabia  over 
the  sovereignty  of  a  key  transportation  and  trade 
center  in  southeastern  Arabia,  the  Buraimi  oasis. 
The  United  States  has  exercised  informal  good 
offices  seeking  a  solution  to  this  problem  and  is 
hopeful  that,  when  diplomatic  relations  are  again 
established  between  Saudi  Arabia  and  the  United 
Kingdom,  which  represents  these  two  states, 
further  talks  can  be  held. 

On  the  western  shores  in  the  Persian  Gulf  are 
three  states  which  are  better  known  to  the  world 
because  of  their  oil  resources.  The  largest  and 
richest  is  Kuwait  at  the  north  end  of  the  Gulf, 
where  oil  production  exceeds  that  of  any  other 
state  in  the  Middle  East.  The  Shaikli  of  Kuwait 
was  recently  described  as  the  biggest  oil  man  of 
them  all.  Kuwait,  like  the  other  two  states, 
Bahrein  and  Qatar,  is  bound  by  treaty  relation- 
ship to  the  United  Kingdom,  which  provides  for 
their  foreign  affairs  and  defense. 

This  vast  peninsula  has  been  thrust  into  promi- 
nence not  only  by  fabulous  resources  but  by  the 
important  role  its  leaders  are  beginning  to  play 
in  the  events  of  the  area.  We  can  anticipate  that 
in  the  days  to  come  the  strange  names  of  places 
and  people  will  become  increasingly  known  and 
important  to  us  in  the  developing  United  States 
relationships  to  the  peoples  of  the  Middle  East. 

Iraq  lies  at  the  northeast  comer  of  the  Arabian 
peninsula  and  linlvS  it  with  Iran  and  South  Asia. 
Iraq  has  been  the  one  Arab  nation  which  has  par- 
ticipated in  Western-sponsored  collective  security 
arrangements.  It  has  been  genuinely  concerned 
with  the  Communist  threat  and  seeks  United 
States    assistance    to    strengthen    its    defenses.^ 


April   1,   1957 


519 


Prime  Minister  Nuri  Al-Said  has  since  1932  been 
the  iron  man  of  Iraqi  politics  and  has  led  the 
country  in  significant  economic  and  social  develop- 
ment. Recent  events  liave  tested  the  stability  of 
the  Iraqi  Government,  but  its  anti-Ck>mmunist 
stand  and  friendsliip  with  the  United  States  have 
not  been  impaired.  We  have  provided  Iraq  with 
substantial  assistance,  mostly  military,  to  assist 
it  in  presei-ving  its  security  and  stability. 

The  Northern  Tier 

The  Arabian  peninsula  and  the  Palestine  area 
are  insulated  against  the  direct  tlirust  of  Com- 
munist imperialism  by  two  very  important  na- 
tions— Turkey  and  Iran.  These  two,  together 
witli  Iraq  and  Pakistan,  have  consistently  demon- 
strated their  confidence  in  the  principle  of  collec- 
tive security  and  form  a  bulwark  against  Soviet 
penetration. 

Shortly  after  World  War  II,  the  Soviet  Union 
souglit  to  gain  a  military  foothold  in  northern 
Iran  and  to  establish  a  puppet  government  there. 
The  Soviet  Union  was  forced  to  withdraw  by 
Iran's  strong  protests  and  by  pressures  exerted  by 
the  United  Nations,  with  the  United  States  play- 
ing a  leading  role.  Parallel  with  these  pres- 
sures on  Iran  the  Soviet  Union  resimied  its  tra- 
ditional attempts  to  force  Turkey  into  yielding 
control  over  the  Dardanelles  and  the  Bosporus. 
Aggressive  Soviet  actions  in  Turkey  and  Greece 
were  successfully  met  and  overcome  by  the  mili- 
tary and  economic  support  furnished  under 
United  States  policies  adopted  in  1947. 

Turlvey  and  Pakistan  were  among  the  first  states 
in  the  Middle  East  to  work  actively  for  the  realiza- 
tion of  collective  defense  in  the  Middle  East.  In 
April  1954  they  signed  an  agreement  of  coopera- 
tion and  consultation,  followed  in  February  1955 
by  the  conclusion  of  an  agreement  with  similar 
objectives  between  Turkey  and  Iraq.  The  latter 
agreement,  to  which  Pakistan,  Great  Britain,  and 
Iran  eventually  adhered,  is  familiarly  known  as 
the  Baghdad  Pact,  and  it  represents  the  most  ef- 
fective step  thus  far  taken  by  tlie  nations  of  the 
Middle  East  to  fill  the  deficit  of  power  in  that 
troubled  area. 

Not  only  have  Turkey  and  Pakistan  taken  the 
initiative  in  the  Middle  East.  Each  is  contribut- 
ing to  tlie  collective  defense  of  a  wider  area,  Tur- 
key as  a  member  of  tlie  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Organization,  Pakistan  as  an  original  signatory 
of  the  Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization. 


In  short,  these  countries  have  shown  in  a  variety 
of  ways  that  they  share  with  us  certain  basic 
assumptions  about  the  need  for  collective  measures 
of  defense  to  deter  aggression  by  international 
communism.  This  fact,  as  much  as  any  other, 
has  helped  sliape  the  close  relations  that  exist  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  these  nations  of  the 
"northern  tier."  The  United  States  has  extended 
military  and  economic  aid  to  Turkey,  Iran,  and 
Pakistan  for  some  years,  the  total  amount  being 
well  over  $2  billion.  United  States  aid  has  lielped 
them  achieve  significant  economic  gains  while  at 
the  same  time  strengthening  the  effectiveness  of 
their  military  defenses.  These  countries  are  im- 
portant allies  to  the  United  States.  Their  in- 
dependence and  stability  are  of  major  interest  to 
us. 

Independent  Libya 

On  the  western  flank  of  the  Middle  East  is 
Libya,  a  relatively  new  country  strategically 
placed  in  North  Africa.  The  United  States  has 
supported  and  assisted  Libya  on  political,  eco- 
nomic, and  military  fronts  from  the  first  day  of 
its  independence  in  1951.  In  1949  we  joined  a 
large  majority  of  the  members  of  the  U.N.  General 
Assembly  in  approving  a  resolution  calling  for 
Libya's  independence  prior  to  January  1,  1952. 
Under  authority  of  this  resolution,  Libya  declared 
itself  free  and  independent  on  December  24, 1951. 

Of  the  total  Libyan  revenues  of  $30  million  in 
fiscal  year  1956,  $12  million,  or  40  percent,  will  be 
U.S.  aid.  Our  surplus  agricultural  products, 
valued  at  approximately  $10  million  since  January 
1954,  have  played  an  important  role  in  alleviating 
hunger  and  preventing  famine  conditions  in 
Libya.  United  States  technical  assistance  to 
Libya  since  fiscal  year  1954  has  totaled  almost  $7 
million.  In  addition,  the  United  States  has  con- 
tributed over  50  percent  of  all  funds  expended  by 
the  United  Nations  for  technical  assistance  in  the 
country. 

Under  terms  of  the  Mutual  Security  Act,  the 
United  States  has  programed  militai"}'  assistance 
for  Libya  and  will  equip  a  1,000-man  increment  of 
the  Libyan  Army. 

Libyan  foreign  policy  has  shown  a  marked 
friendliness  to  the  United  States  and  a  growing 
understanding  and  appreciation  of  tlie  threat  of 
international  communism.  By  agreement  with 
Libya,  the  United  States  operates  a  major  air 
base  at  "Wlieolus  Field,  near  Tripoli.     In   1956 


520 


Department  of  Stale   Bulletin 


Libya  turnexi  down  Soviet  offers  of  economic  and 
military  assistance  but  peinnitted  establishment  of 
diplomatic  relations.  Libya  also  evicted  the 
Egyptian  Embassy's  military  attache  last  fall  for 
activities  considered  inimical  to  Libyan 
sovereignty. 

We  are  proud  of  the  progress  being  made  by 
Libya  and  happy  that  we  are  able  to  assist.  The 
orderly  development  of  the  new  states  of  Africa 
to  political  stability  and  economic  well-being  is  a 
source  of  gratification. 

Major  Elements  of  U.S.  Policy 

The  main  purpose  of  this  examination  of  the 
individual  countries  and  specific  problems  of  the 
Middle  East  has  been  to  define  the  situations  we 
are  working  with  and  to  point  up  the  major  ele- 
ments of  our  policies.  To  imderstand  the  really 
critical  problems  being  headlined  today,  it  is 
essential  to  have  a  good  grasp  of  the  background 
and  the  ramifications  of  the  issues  affecting  the 
whole  area. 

TVIiere  do  we  stand  on  these  really  critical  prob- 
lems ?  I  want  to  refer  in  particular  to  the  Arab- 
Israeli  dispute,  the  Suez  Canal,  and  Soviet  efforts 
to  penetrate  the  region. 

The  Arab-Israeli  issue  has  been  a  United  Na- 
tions problem  from  its  very  beginning.  We  are 
hopeful  that  the  United  Nations  will  remain  the 
forum  because  we  believe  that  the  nations  involved 
are  responsive  to  the  ideals  of  peace  with  justice. 
Prior  to  the  events  of  last  October  and  November, 
the  tempo  of  events  had  been  building  to  fever 
pitch.  We  had  recognized  that  President  Nas- 
ser's nationalization  of  the  Suez  Canal  Company 
and,  more  particularly,  the  manner  in  which  this 
was  announced  had  provoked  the  British  and 
French  and  alarmed  the  Israelis.  But  at  the  same 
time  we  were  convinced  that  the  type  of  action 
they  chose  to  take  in  the  last  days  of  October  and 
the  early  days  of  November  was  in  error.  Fur- 
thermore, and  more  importantly,  the  painstaking 
beginnings  which  had  been  made  through  the 
United  Nations  toward  the  establishment  of  a  sys- 
tem of  world  order  were  being  jeopardized  by  this 
resort  to  force  when  the  possibilities  of  negotia- 
tions had  not  been  completely  exhausted. 

In  the  historic  debates  which  took  place  in  the 
United  Nations  around  the  clock  through  those 
crowded  days  of  early  November  it  became  clear 
that  there  was  a  realization  that  a  large  portion 
of  the  responsibility  for  the  situation  which  had 


arisen  rested  upon  the  United  Nations  for  its  fail- 
ure to  come  to  grips  with  the  basic  problems  which 
lay  at  the  root  of  the  conflict.  The  United  States 
emphasized  its  intention  to  take  advantage  of  this 
fluidity  in  the  situation  by  introducing  two  resolu- 
tions on  November  3  ^  in  the  United  Nations  Gen- 
eral Assembly  which  revealed  our  determination 
to  come  to  grips  with  the  basic  issues. 

Out  of  this  debate  came  a  very  significant  action. 
The  United  Nations  was  enabled  to  create  a  force 
in  being,  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force,  in 
record  time.  For  years  the  possibility  of  estab- 
lishing a  United  Nations  police  force  to  enforce 
decisions  of  the  United  Nations  had  been  debated 
in  a  desultory  fashion,  but  it  too  had  become  a 
casualty  of  the  cold  war  until  the  crisis  created  in 
the  Middle  East  made  the  members  put  aside  their 
hesitation.  The  Unef  under  its  present  authority 
has  a  limited  mission — to  oversee  the  withdrawal 
of  British,  French,  and  Israeli  forces  from 
Egypt — and  it  is  in  Egypt  with  the  agreement  of 
the  Egyptian  Government.  This  phase  of  its  mis- 
sion has  now  largely  been  completed,  but  there  is 
earnest  consideration  being  given,  under  a  resolu- 
tion of  February  2,^  to  authorizing  the  force  in 
being  to  act  as  a  deterrent  to  the  resumption  of 
hostilities  and  as  a  means  of  tranquilizing  the  area 
while  new  approaches  are  sought  toward  an 
eventual  settlement.  The  principle  which  was  at 
stake  was  the  authority  of  the  United  Nations  and 
its  ability  to  take  a  constructive  and  fair  approach 
in  creating  and  maintaining  conditions  under 
which  the  conflict  of  national  interests  between  the 
parties  concerned  could  be  worked  out. 

To  enable  this  situation  to  move  forward  along 
the  lines  which  all  the  members  of  the  United 
Nations  except  the  Soviet  bloc  seemed  to  desire,  it 
was  a  prerequisite  that  the  Israelis  withdraw  from 
Egypt  without  having  achieved  political  ad- 
vantages which  Israel  did  not  possess  before  it 
invaded  Egypt.  On  the  other  hand,  Israel  had 
some  very  legitimate  and  genuine  concerns  for  its 
own  security,  particularly  regarding  free  passage 
through  the  Straits  of  Tiran  and  the  danger  of 
renewed  fedayeen  raids  from  the  Gaza  Strip. 
These  two  aspects  of  the  problem  have  now  been 
fully  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  world  public, 
and  a  number  of  states,  led  by  the  United  States, 
have  made  unilateral  declarations  of  their  own 


'  U.N.  docs.  A/3272  and  3273. 

=  Bulletin  of  Feb.  25,  1957,  p.  327. 


AptW   1,   1957 


521 


policy  in  regard  to  these  issues.  These  have,  in 
turn,  enabled  Israel  to  withdraw  in  the  confidence 
that  the  world  community  would  now  earnestly 
direct  its  attention  to  remedying  the  conditions 
which  led  to  the  outbreak  of  the  conflict. 

The  Suez  Canal  problem,  which  became  linked 
in  its  latter  stages  with  the  question  of  Israel 
withdrawal,  is  also  essentially  a  problem  for  the 
United  Nations.  The  only  existing  unanimously 
approved  agreement  by  all  the  parties  concerned 
is  embodied  in  the  Security  Council  resolution  of 
October  13,  1956,*  which  sets  forth  the  six  prin- 
ciples under  which  the  parties  concerned  agree  to 
work  out  a  final  arrangement  for  the  future  opera- 
tion of  the  canal.  The  prospects  of  the  canal 
being  opened  in  the  near  future  under  an  interim 
operating  arrangement  without  prejudicing  the 
final  settlement  seem  favorable.  The  difficulties 
of  working  out  detailed  implementation  of  the  six 
principles  should  by  no  means  be  discounted.  But 
in  the  light  of  the  new  determination  of  the 
United  Nations  and  the  persistent  and  tireless 
efforts  of  Secretary-General  Hammarskjold  to 
find  a  solution  which  can  be  accepted  by  all  the 
parties,  the  United  States  is  convinced  its  best 
hope  for  achieving  the  objectives  of  the  free 
world  in  this  respect  lie  within  the  United 
Nations. 

Irresponsible  Behavior  of  Soviet  Union 

Tlie  record  of  the  events  of  the  last  6  months  in 
the  Middle  East  reveals  a  high  degree  of  irrespon- 
sible behavior  by  the  Soviet  Union.  The  repeated 
attempts  to  take  advantage  of  this  situation  to 
achieve  political  profit  with  the  Arabs  or  to  exer- 
cise pressure  upon  Israel,  Britain,  and  France 
after  they  had  already  agreed  to  withdraw  from 
this  ill-fated  adventure,  besides  the  obvious  pur- 
pose of  distracting  attention  from  their  brutal 
attack  on  Hungary,  can  lead  one  to  conclude  only 
that  the  Soviet  Union's  objectives  in  the  area  are 
to  weaken  it  to  the  maximum  extent  possible  and 
to  keep  it  in  a  constant  state  of  turmoil  and  chaos. 

To  deal  with  this  problem,  which  relates  to  the 
area  as  a  whole,  we  Iiave  devised  the  Middle  East 
plan  or  American  Doctrine  for  the  Middle  East  as 
embodied  in  the  message  of  President  Eisenhower 
to  the  Congress  of  January  5,  1957.=  The  plan 
aims  to  do  three  things,  each  of  them  with  the  con- 
sent of  the  states  involved.    First,  if  the  states  of 

*  Ibid..  Oct.  22,  1956,  p.  616. 
■  Ibid.,  Jan.  21,  1957,  p.  83. 


522 


the  area  wish  it,  we  are  prepared  to  strengthen 
their  internal  security  and  their  legitimate  na- 
tional self-defense  through  the  extension  of  mili- 
tary aid.  Secondly,  if  the  states  of  the  area  desire 
it,  we  are  prepared  to  cooperate  with  them  in  eco- 
nomic projects  designed  to  raise  the  standards  of 
living  and  strengthen  the  stability  of  the  coun- 
tries, thereby  diminishing  the  attractiveness  of 
grandiose  offers  of  economic  aid  from  the  Soviets 
designed  to  promote  subversion.  And  thirdly, 
we  are  prepared  to  use  the  armed  forces  of  the 
United  States  to  prevent  direct  overt  aggression 
by  forces  controlled  by  international  communism. 

This  proposal  has  now  received  strong  support 
from  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  and  the 
endorsement  of  a  large  majority  of  the  representa- 
tives of  the  American  people.  Ambassador 
James  Richards  left  2  days  ago  ^  to  travel 
throughout  this  area,  to  explain  to  the  various 
governments  just  precisely  in  what  ways  the 
American  Doctrine  for  the  Middle  East  could 
assist  them  in  strengthening  their  ability  to  re- 
main free  and  independent,  and  to  work  out 
recommendations  which  would  be  conducive  to 
that  end.  I 

In  our  judgment  the  major  threat  to  the  Middle 
East  is  represented  by  the  forces  of  international 
communism,  and  we  feel  deeply  that  we  must 
never  lose  sight  of  this  danger.  The  United 
States  has  a  vital  stake  in  keeping  the  Middle 
East  from  falling  under  Soviet  domination.  In- 
deed we  must  not  allow  the  situation  there  to  de- 
teriorate to  a  point  where  the  nations  of  the  area 
in  desperation  would  turn  to  the  Soviet  Union  for 
help.  Wliile  internal  quarrels  may  engage  our 
emotions  and  loyalties,  we  must  not  permit  these 
factors  to  influence  our  exercise  of  great  and 
grave  responsibility  as  a  leader  of  the  free-world 
nations  or  to  color  the  sense  of  justice  and 
friendly  impartiality  which  is  so  deeply  rooted  in 
the  traditions  of  the  American  people. 

We  are  taking  important  and  constructive  meas- 
ures in  the  Middle  East.  The  problems  ahead 
are,  to  say  the  least,  formidable  and  will  require 
the  very  best  diplomacy  of  which  we  are  capable. 
Nevertheless,  progress  has  been  made. 

We  of  the  Department  of  State  thank  George- 
town University  and  the  International  Eelations 
Enquiry  for  this  chance  to  talk  with  you.  We 
shall  watch  with  interest  the  following  discus- 
sions in  this  series  on  tlie  Middle  East, 


'  Ibid.,  Mar.  25,  1957,  p.  481. 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


United  States  Replies  to  Soviet  Proposal  for  Declaration  on  Middle  East 


Press  release  131  dated  March  11 

Following  is  the  text  of  a  note  delivered 
ly  U.S.  Charge  d'Affaires  Richard  H.  Davis  to 
the  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Andrei  Gromyko, 
at  Moscow,  March  11,  1957,  in  reply  to  a  Soviet 
note  of  February  11, 1957,  concerning  the  Middle 
East.  The  British  and  French  Governments 
also  replied   to  the  Soviet  note  on  March  11. 


U.S.  NOTE  OF  MARCH  U 

The  Embassy  of  the  United  States  of  America 
presents  its  compliments  to  the  Ministry  of  For- 
eign Affairs  of  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Re- 
publics and,  on  instructions  of  its  Government, 
has  the  honor  to  transmit  the  following  communi- 
cation in  reply  to  the  Ministry's  note  of  February 
11, 1957  concerning  the  Middle  East  area. 

It  is  noted  that  the  Government  of  the  U.S.S.R. 
proposes  that  the  Governments  of  the  United 
States,  United  Kingdom,  France  and  the  Union 
of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  should,  jointly  or 
separately,  proclaim  basic  principles  governing 
their  relations  with  countries  of  the  Middle  East. 

In  dealing  with  this  proposal,  the  United  States 
Government  deems  it  essential  to  set  forth  the  fol- 
lowing considerations : 

The  United  States  adheres  and  will  continue  to 
adhere  to  the  principles  of  the  United  Nations 
Charter  in  its  dealings  with  countries  in  the  Mid- 
dle East  as  elsewhere.  Along  with  the  other  prin- 
ciples of  the  Charter,  it  fully  supports  those 
singled  out  in  the  Ministry's  note— peaceful  settle- 
ment of  disputes ;  non-interference  in  internal  af- 
fairs; respect  for  sovereignty  and  independence. 
It  is  ready  to  cooperate  with  any  country,  great  or 
small,  sincerely  dedicated  to  carrying  them  out. 
The  United  States  Government  feels  obliged,  how- 
ever, to  point  out  that  the  Soviet  Union  could 
demonstrate  its  own  willingness  to  carry  out  the 
liigh  principles  it  sets  forth  by  itself  respecting 

kptW   1,    7957 


those  U.N.  resolutions  addressed  to  the  U.S.S.R. 
calling  for  compliance  by  the  U.S.S.R.,  such  as 
those  relating  to  its  actions  with  respect  to  Hun- 
gary. Great  Britain  and  France,  the  other  recip- 
ients of  the  Soviet  proposal,  have  just  made  such 
a  demonstration  as  a  contribution  to  world  order 
in  fully  complying  with  United  Nations  resolu- 
tions regarding  the  withdrawal  of  their  forces 
from  Egypt. 

The  form  which  cooperation  in  the  Middle  East 
should  take — with  specific  reference  to  the  pro- 
posal of  the  Soviet  Government — is  a  matter  for 
decision  in  consultation  with  the  Middle  Eastern 
states.  Because  of  its  respect  for  the  iirinciple 
of  non-interference  in  the  affairs  of  other  nations, 
the  United  States  would  not  wish  to  be  party  to 
an  attempt  by  the  great  powers,  as  suggested  by 
the  U.S.S.R.,  to  arrogate  to  themselves  decisions 
on  matters  of  vital  importance  to  the  nations  of 
the  Middle  East;  or  to  prevent  those  who  feel 
themselves  tlireatened  from  association  of  their 
own  free  will  with  other  nations  in  legitimate  col- 
lective security  arrangements,  in  accordance  with 
the  provisions  of  the  United  Nations  Charter. 
When  it  comes,  therefore,  to  such  matters  as  mili- 
tary "blocs",  the  liquidation  of  foreign  bases  and 
the  withdrawal  of  foreign  troops,  set  forth  in  the 
principles  proposed  by  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United 
States  Government  must  point  out  that  the  Middle 
Eastern  states  are  fully  capable  of  deciding  what 
cooperative  efforts  are  required  to  enable  them  to 
play  their  part  in  the  defense  of  the  area. 

The  principles  in  the  Soviet  note  include  a  caU 
for  renunciation  of  arms  shipments  to  the  Middle 
East.  With  regard  to  this  point,  the  United 
States  Government  wishes  to  make  clear  that  it  has 
consistently  recognized  a  need  on  the  part  of  the 
Middle  Eastern  states  to  maintain  a  certain  level 
of  armed  forces  to  assure  their  internal  security 
and  legitimate  self-defense  and  to  play  their  part 
in  the  defense  of  the  area  as  a  whole.  The  United 
States  has  also  consistently  sought  to  avoid  an 

523 


arms  race  between  the  Arab  states  and  Israel.  In 
carrying  out  its  policy  with  regard  to  the  export 
of  arms  to  the  Middle  East,  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment has  always  kept  in  mind  the  need  to  en- 
courage stability  and  foster  progress  toward  last- 
ing peace  and  security  there.  It  therefore  regrets 
that  the  Soviet  Government,  on  the  contraiy,  saw 
fit  to  effect  massive  shipments  of  arms  into  the  area 
at  a  time  when  regional  disputes  there  had  become 
sharply  exacerbated. 

Finally,  the  Ministry's  note  talks  of  economic 
cooperation  to  be  carried  out,  it  states,  without  any 
conditions  incompatible  with  the  dignity  and  sov- 
ereignty of  these  countries.  The  Soviet  Govern- 
ment ought  to  be  aware  that  the  United  States  pro- 
vides, and  will  continue  to  provide,  economic  as- 
sistance only  to  those  Middle  Eastern  states  re- 
questing it.  No  attempt  is,  or  will  be,  made  to 
force  this  assistance  on  any  state,  or  through  it  to 
seek  to  impose  conditions  upon  the  countries  con- 
cerned. There  is  no  basis,  therefore,  for  consider- 
ing the  acceptance  of  such  assistance  incompatible 
with  national  dignity  and  sovereignty. 

The  Soviet  proposal,  as  a  whole,  is  clearly  based 
on  a  false  premise.  It  stems,  presumably,  from 
the  distorted  interpretation  of  the  nature  and  pur- 
pose of  United  States  policies  contained  in  the 
Ministry's  note. 

Contrary  to  this  interpretation,  President 
Eisenhower's  outline  of  United  States  policy  to- 
ward the  Middle  East  envisages  genuine  practical 
efforts  directed  toward  consolidating  peace  and 
security  there  in  full  cooperation  with  the  Middle 
Eastern  countries  concerned.  These  efforts  are 
designed  to  make  a  full  contribution  to  economic 
progress  in  the  area  and  to  help  the  countries  there 
maintain  their  independence. 

Also,  there  is  cause  for  considerable  doubt  as  to 
the  seriousness  of  the  Soviet  Government's  invita- 
tion to  the  Govermnent  of  the  United  States  to 
join  it  in  cooperation  in  the  Middle  East.  It  has 
been  put  forward  at  a  time  when  certain  Soviet 
official  acts  and  statements  suggest  that  the 
U.S.S.R.  neither  desires  nor  expects  such  coopera- 
tion. In  fact,  on  the  day  following  the  delivery 
of  its  call  for  cooperation  in  the  Middle  East,  the 
U.S.S.R.  engaged  once  more  in  vilification  of  the 
United  States  by  introducing  into  the  United  Na- 
tions a  spurious  item  attacking  this  Government's 
policies  in  that  area.  This  followed  a  similar 
baseless  Soviet  item  distorting  United  States  poli- 


cies toward  Eastern  Europe.^  Consequently, 
there  is  much  reason  to  question  whether  the  coop- 
eration proffered  by  the  U.S.S.R.  is  intended  to 
further  a  mutually  desired  aim. 

On  its  part,  the  United  States  will  continue  to 
work  toward  peace  and  greater  stability  in  the 
Middle  East  through  the  United  Nations  and 
through  measures  taken  at  the  request  of,  and  in 
cooperation  with,  the  states  in  the  area  themselves. 
It  would  like  to  be  able  to  hope  that  the  Soviet 
Union  would  make  its  own  contribution  to  tran- 
quillity there.  The  United  States  naturally  de- 
sires to  see  friendly  relations,  based  on  mutual 
respect  and  confidence,  develop  not  only  among 
the  Middle  Eastern  states  but  also  between  them 
and  countries  outside  the  area,  including  the 
U.S.S.R.  However,  as  elsewhere,  this  largely  de- 
pends on  the  U.S.S.R.  itself.  If  the  U.S.S.R.  will 
indeed  conduct  itself  in  a  manner  conforming  to 
the  principles  it  proposes,  it  will  be  moving  in 
this  direction  and  not  only  make  a  contribution  to 
peace  in  the  Middle  East  but  in  other  areas  as 
well. 


SOVIET  NOTE  OF  FEBRUARY  11 

The  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  of  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics  expresses  its  respects  to  the  Embassy 
of  the  United  States  of  America  and  upon  the  instructions 
of  the  Soviet  Government  has  the  honor  to  communicate 
the  following: 

As  a  result  of  the  efforts  of  the  peace-loving  peoples, 
supported  by  the  United  Nations,  the  aggressive  actions 
against  Egypt  were  liquidated,  and  favorable  circum- 
stances have  developed  and  real  possibilities  have  been 
Created  for  insuring  peace  and  also  for  settling  inter- 
national problems  in  the  region  of  the  Near  and  Middle 
East. 

The  liquidation  of  the  hot-bed  of  war  in  this  region 
created  prerequisites  for  strengthening  national  inde- 
pendence, governmental  sovereignty  and  economic  de- 
velopment not  only  of  Egypt  but  of  all  countries  of  the 
Near  and  Middle  East,  and  also  opened  the  way  for  broad 
cooperation  of  countries  of  this  region  with  all  countries 
on  principles  of  equality  among  states,  formulated  in 
particular  in  the  decisions  of  the  Bandung  Conference. 

The  peace-loving  peoples  justly  expected  that  hence- 
forth peace  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East  would  be  pre- 
served and  strengthened,  that  an  end  would  be  placed 
to  the  policy  of  foreign  intervention  in  the  internal  affairs 
of  the  countries  of  this  region,  that  the  sovereignty  and 


'  For  a  statement  by  Senator  Knowland  on  the  Soviet 
item  on  alleged  U.S.  intervention  in  Eastern  Europe,  see 
Bxn,LETiN  of  Mar.  18, 1957,  p.  463. 


524 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


independence  of  the  countries  of  the  Near  and  Middle 
East  would  be  sincerely  respected  and  that  the  countries 
of  this  region,  especially  the  victim  of  agfrression — 
Egypt — would  be  given  unselfish  economic  assistance. 

However,  the  period  of  softening  of  the  tense  situation 
in  this  region,  regrettably,  turned  out  to  be  of  short 
duration  and  the  hopes  of  the  peoples  were  not  realized. 

As  a  result  of  the  unilateral  moves  on  the  part  of  some 
powers,  the  situation  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East  in  the 
recent  past  has  again  become  seriously  exacerbated.  This 
exacerbation  is  evoked  first  of  all  by  the  fact  that  there 
are  intentions  to  utilize  in  a  unilateral  manner  in  the 
Near  and  Middle  East  without  the  agreement  of  the 
United  Nations,  armed  forces  of  one  of  the  great  powers 
at  its  own  discretion  for  intervention  in  the  internal  af- 
fairs of  this  region.  There  is  also  in  view  the  granting  of 
so-called  economic  assistance  to  countries  of  the  Near 
and  Middle  East,  foisting  on  them  conditions  that  these 
countries  reject  any  kind  of  ties  with  specific  states — 
members  of  the  United  Nations — that  is,  with  the  ac- 
ceptance of  political  conditions  for  this  "assistance"  in- 
compatible with  the  dignity  and  sovereignty  of  these 
countries  and  with  the  high  principles  of  the  United 
Nations. 

It  is  impossible  not  to  recognize  that  Implementation 
of  such  a  policy  in  circumvention  of  the  United  Nations 
would  lead  to  a  new  dangerous  exacerbation  of  the  situa- 
tion in  this  region,  which  only  recently  was  an  arena  of 
military  operations  evoked  by  aggression  against  Egypt, 
and  would  threaten  the  cause  of  world  peace. 

The  mentioned  plans  are  nothing  other  than  a  continua- 
tion of  the  policy  of  creating  closed  aggressive  military 
blocs  of  the  type  of  NATO,  SEATO,  and  the  Baghdad 
Pact  and  erection  of  artificial  economic  and  political 
barriers  interfering  with  normal  ties  among  states. 

The  principle  of  peaceful  coexistence  of  states  regard- 
less of  differences  in  their  social  and  state  systems  is  the 
basis  of  the  foreign  policy  of  the  Soviet  Union.  It  is 
known  that  in  establishing  its  friendly  relations  with 
the  Arab  States  the  Soviet  Union  not  only  never  sought 
deterioration  of  relations  with  these  countries  with  other 
great  powers,  but  on  the  contrary  came  out  for  the  neces- 
sity of  wide  international  cooperation,  came  out  for  the 
necessity  of  guaranteeing  durable  peace  and  creating  an 
atmosphere  of  trust  in  the  region  of  the  Near  and  Middle 
East.  The  Soviet  Union  does  not  have  and  does  not 
aspire  to  have  military  bases  and  any  concessions  in  the 
Near  and  Middle  East  countries  for  the  purpose  of  ex- 
tracting profits  and  does  not  aspire  to  receive  any  privi- 
leges in  this  region,  since  all  this  is  incompatible  with  the 
principles  of  Soviet  foreign  policy. 

The  Soviet  Union  is  vitally  interested  that  peace  exists 
in  the  region  of  the  Near  and  Middle  East,  situated  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  its  borders.  It  is  sincerely  inter- 
ested in  strengthening  the  independence  of  the  countries 
of  this  region  and  in  their  economic  prosperity. 

In  the  opinion  of  the  Soviet  Government,  preservation 
of  peace  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East  is  a  necessary  con- 
dition not  only  for  the  development  of  Near  and  Middle 
East  countries,  but  also,  as  recent  events  have  demon- 
strated, for  providing  for  the  economic  welfare  of  many 
other  countries. 


The  necessity  of  consolidating  peace  and  security  in  the 
Near  and  Middle  East  demands  broad  development  of 
political,  economic,  and  cultural  ties  between  all  coun- 
tries, particularly  of  joint  actions,  in  accordance  with 
the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations,  of  great  powers  who 
bear  basic  responsibility  for  the  maintenance  of  peace. 

The  Soviet  Government  considers  that  it  would  be  pos- 
sible to  secure  firm  and  lasting  peace  in  this  region  by 
means  of  joint  efforts  of  the  great  powers — the  U.S.S.R., 
U.S.A.,  England,  and  France,  permanent  members  of  the 
United  Nations  Security  Council,  if  all  the  above-men- 
tioned great  powers  built  their  relations  with  the  Near  and 
Middle  East  countries  on  the  basis  of  general  principles 
of  a  policy  of  non-intei-vention  in  their  internal  affairs 
and  respect  for  their  national  independence  and 
sovereignty. 

Proceeding  from  the  foregoing,  the  Soviet  Government 
proposes  to  the  Governments  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  England,  and  France,  to  draw  up  and  proclaim 
basic  principles  concerning  the  question  of  peace  and 
security  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East,  and  of  non-inter- 
vention in  the  internal  affairs  of  this  region.  These  prin- 
ciples could  be  laid  down  as  a  basis  of  a  joint  declaration, 
acceptance  of  which  would  exclude  the  possibility  of  a 
dangerous  unilateral  action  of  this  or  that  great 
power  in  respect  to  the  Near  and  Middle  East  countries 
and  would  help  to  strengthen  peace  and  security  in 
this  most  important  region,  to  develop  national  economies, 
and  to  consolidafe  the  independence  of  these  countries. 

It  goes  without  saying  that  the  declaration  would  be 
open  to  adherence  by  any  government  interested  in  peace 
and  security  which  desires  to  build  relations  with  the 
Near  and  Middle  East  countries  on  the  basis  of  the  prin- 
ciples mentioned. 

The  proposals  concerning  the  corresponding  obligations 
of  the  participant  powers  of  the  declaration  could  be  im- 
mediately brought  to  the  attention  of  the  governments 
and  peoples  of  the  Near  and  Middle  East  countries. 

In  transmitting  herewith  the  basic  theses  of  a  draft 
declaration  of  the  four  powers — U.S.S.R.,  U.S.A.,  England, 
and  France,  proposed  by  the  Government  of  the  U.S.S.B., 
the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  would  be  grateful  to  the 
Embassy  of  the  United  States  of  America  for  informing 
it  regarding  the  acceptability  to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America  of  the  basic  principles  presented 
in  this  draft  of  the  declaration  concerning  the  question  of 
peace  and  security  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East  and  non- 
intervention in  the  Internal  affairs  of  the  countries  of 
this  region. 

The  Soviet  Government  would  also  have  no  objections 
if  the  Governments  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
England,  France,  and  the  Soviet  Union  issued  separate 
declarations,  identical  in  content  and  based  on  the  prin- 
ciples set  forth  in  the  enclosed  draft,  on  their  relations 
with  the  Near  and  Middle  East  countries. 
CAttacbment) 

DRAFT  DECLARATION 

Draft  of  the  basic  principles  of  the  declarations  by  the 
Governments  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States,  Britain, 
and  France  regarding  the  question  of  peace  and  security 


April   1,   1957 


525 


in  the  Near  and  Midflle  East  and  noninterference  In 
the  internal  alTairs  of  the  countries  of  this  region. 

Moscow,  February  11,  1957. 

The  basic  principles  of  the  declaration  by  the  Govern- 
ments of  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States,  Britain,  and 
France  on  the  questions  of  peace  and  security  in  the  Near 
and  Middle  East  and  noninterference  in  the  internal 
affairs  of  countries  of  this  area : 

The  Governments  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States, 
the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  French  Republic,  guided  by 
lofty  peace-loving  aims  and  the  principles  of  the  United 
Nations  expressed  in  its  Charter,  declare  their  agreement 
that  at  the  basis  of  their  policy  in  respect  of  the  countries 
of  the  Near  and  Middle  East  lies  the  aspiration  to  estab- 
lish peace  and  security  in  the  Near  and  Middle  East  and 
in  the  whole  world;  acknowledge  and  respect  the  lofty 
principles  of  relations  between  states  formulated  at  the 
Bandung  Conference  of  Asian  and  African  Countries; 
are  striving  to  create  favorable  conditions  for  the 
strengthening  of  the  national  independence  and  national 
sovereignty  of  the  countries  of  the  Near  and  Middle  East; 
express  a  sincere  desire  to  contribute  disinterestedly  by 
common  efforts  to  the  economic  development  of  the  coun- 
tries of  this  area,  and  are  in  this  proceeding  from  the 
fact  that  the  natural  wealth  of  the  underdeveloped  coun- 
tries is  the  inalienable  national  property  of  the  peoples 
of  these  countries,  which  have  the  full  right  to  dispose  of 
and  use  it  in  the  interests  of  the  development  of  their 
national  economy  and  progress. 

The  Governments  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States, 
Britain  and  France  wish  to  contribute  to  the  all-around 
development  of  economic,  business,  and  cultural  relations 
of  the  countries  of  the  Near  and  Middle  East  on  the  basis 
of  equality  and  mutual  advantage  for  all  countries.  They 
are  of  the  opinion  that  wide  economic  and  trade  relations 
of  the  countries  of  that  area  are  in  accordance  not  only 
with  the  interests  of  these  countries  but  also  with  the 
interests  of  securing  economic  prosperity  for  other  coun- 
tries of  the  world.  They  recognize  the  need  for  a  peace- 
ful settlement  of  all  international  problems  and  questions 
relating  to  the  Near  and  Middle  East,  by  way  of  negotia- 
tions. 

Being  aware  of  the  importance  of  the  responsibility 
which  they  carry  for  the  maintenance  of  peace  and 
security  throughout  the  world,  the  Governments  of  the 
U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States,  Britain,  and  France  pledge 
themselves  to  follow  in  their  policy  toward  the  Near  and 
Middle  East  the  principles  stated  below : 

1 — The  preservation  of  peace  In  the  Near  and  Middle 
East  by  settling  outstanding  questions  exclusively  by 
peaceful  means  and  by  the  method  of  negotiations ; 

2 — Noninterference  in  the  internal  affairs  of  Middle 
Eastern  countries,  and  respect  for  their  sovereignty  and 
independence ; 

3 — Renunciation  of  all  attempts  to  involve  these  coun- 
tries in  military  blocs  with  the  participation  of  the  Great 
Powers ; 

4 — Liquidation  of  foreign  bases  and  withdrawal  of 
foreign  troops  from  the  territory  of  Middle  Eastern 
countries; 


526 


5 — Reciprocal  refusal  to  deliver  arms  to  Middle  Eastern 
countries ; 

6 — Promotion  of  the  Middle  Eastern  nations'  economic 
development  without  attaching  any  political,  military,  or 
other  terms  incompatible  with  the  dignity  and  sover- 
eignty of  these  countries. 

The  Governments  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  the  United  States, 
Great  Britain,  and  France  express  the  hope  that  other 
states,  in  their  relations  with  Middle  Eastern  countries, 
will  adhere  to  the  same  principles. 


Ambassador  Richards  Leaves 
for  Middle  East 

Followmg  is  the  text  of  a  statement  made  hy 
Ambassador  James  P.  Richards.,  Special  Assist- 
ant to  the  President,  at  Washington  National  Air- 
port on  March  12  on  his  departure  for  the  Middle 

East} 

Press  release  132  dated  March  11 

President  Eisenhower  has  asked  me  to  visit  the 
nations  of  the  Middle  East  to  present  and  discuss 
his  proposals  to  promote  peace,  freedom,  and  eco- 
nomic well-being  of  the  area.  I  feel  honored  by 
his  request  and  undertake  this  mission  with  a  sense 
of  the  very  great  responsibility  it  involves. 

The  President  is  seeking  through  this  program 
to  make  an  important  contribution  to  the  security 
and  stability  of  the  independent  nations  of  the 
Middle  East  who  wish  our  cooperation.  I  share 
his  hope  that  full  explanation  and  discussion  of 
the  program  will  demonstrate  the  close  identity  of 
interests  between  Middle  Eastern  countries  and 
my  own. 

It  is  only  natural  that  a  new  initiative  such  as 
the  President's  may  not  be  completely  understood 
in  the  first  instance  and  may  even  be  misinter- 
preted in  some  quarters.  I  shall  try  to  remove 
such  misunderstandings  if  any  have  arisen. 

The  determination  of  the  United  States  to  assist 
in  the  maintenance  of  the  independence  of  free 
nations,  including  those  of  the  Middle  East,  has 
been  fully  demonstrated.  My  colleagues  and  I 
begin  this  mission  proudly  conscious  of  recent 
American  leadership  giving  practical  effect  to 
that  determination. 

The  strong  support  of  the  Congress  for  the 
President's  program  once  again  gives  assurance 
tliat  the  American  people  hold  out  a  hand  of 


'  For  background,  see  Bulletin  of  Mar.  25, 1957,  p.  4S0. 
Department  of  State  Bulletin 


friendship  to  the  historic  lands  and  peoples  of 
the  Middle  East.  It  is  the  American  hope  that 
all  governments  will  work  actively  for  freedom 
and  stability  in  a  peaceful  world. 

In  keeping  with  the  spirit  of  the  President's 
proposals,  discussions  will  be  held  only  with  gov- 
ernments who  wish  them,  and  we  will  not  try  to 
force  our  views  upon  others.  The  President  and 
I  do  not  look  upon  this  mission  as  the  inaugura- 
tion of  a  vast  new  aid  program.    We  do  believe 


that  the  greater  flexibility  which  the  Congi-ess  has 
approved  in  the  use  of  funds  will  enable  us  to 
undertake  some  new  and  more  effective  programs 
which  will  materially  contribute  to  the  strength- 
ening of  the  area. 

In  our  preparation  for  this  important  mission, 
we  have  deeply  appreciated  the  support  and  good 
wishes  of  the  American  people  and  of  those  in 
other  lands.  Our  inspiration  and  our  purpose 
are  strong.    We  shall  do  our  best. 


Third  Meeting  of  the  Council  of  the  Southeast  Asia 
Treaty  Organization 


Folloio-ing  is  the  text  of  the  final  communi- 
que issued  at  the  close  of  the  third  annual  meeting 
of  the  Council  of  Ministers  of  the  Southeast  Asia 
Treaty  Organization,  held  at  Canberra,  Australia, 
March  11  to  13,  together  with  three  statements 
Tnade  iy  Secretary  Dulles  at  the  meeting  and  the 
transcript  of  a  news  conference  held  iy  Secretary 
Dulles  at  Canberra  on  March  13. 


FINAL  COMMUNIQUE,  MARCH  13 

Press  release  141  dated  March  13 

Plans  to  consolidate  and  enhance  the  progress 
made  in  preserving  the  freedom  of  all  countries 
in  Southeast  Asia  have  been  agreed  to  by  the 
Seato  Council  at  its  third  meeting,  held  under 
the  chairmanship  of  Mr.  K.  G.  Casey,  Minister 
for  External  Affairs  of  Australia. 

These  plans  provide  for : 

Maintenance  of  the  defensive  capacity  of  Treaty 
members  to  deal  effectively  with  armed  aggres- 
sion. 

Extension  of  the  program  to  detect,  appraise, 
expose  and  combat  subversion  directed  from  with- 
out. 

Development  of  the  economic  resources  of 
Treaty  members,  particularly  the  Asian  member 
states,  by  measures  inside  and  outside  Seato. 

AprW   1,    1957 


Defense  Plans 

The  Ministers  believe  that  while  the  immediate 
military  threat  to  peace  in  Southeast  Asia  has 
diminished,  the  forces  of  international  Commu- 
nism are  still  working  for  the  ultimate  objective 
of  world  domination. 

The  Council  noted  that  in  Asia  the  Communist 
so-called  peace  front  is  in  reality  a  front  of  mil- 
lions of  armed  men.  The  military  strength  of 
Communist  China  and  of  North  Viet-Nam  is  con- 
tinually being  increased. 

In  the  circumstances  the  Council  agi-eed  that 
Seato  could  not  relax  its  vigilance  and  must  main- 
tain its  capacity  to  deter  and  repel  aggression.  In 
the  face  of  the  threat  which  is  not  itself  static, 
the  Seato  nations  by  their  united  efforts  are  con- 
tinually increasing  and  adapting  their  capacity 
to  deal  with  it.  If  the  Communists  have  chosen 
for  tactical  reasons  to  exert  their  pressure  by  other 
than  military  means  for  the  present,  this  does  not 
mean  that  they  would  not  attempt  to  exploit  any 
weakness  in  Seato  military  preparedness  if  the 
opportunity  came. 

As  a  result  of  the  work  of  the  military  advisers 
over  the  past  year,  Seato  Governments  are  agreed 
upon  the  nature  of  the  Communist  threat  in  the 
Treaty  area  and  the  kind  of  military  measures 
which  would  be  necessary  to  defeat  it. 

Military  planning  is  a  continuing  process  and 

527 


will  be  helped  by  the  setting-up  of  a  pennanent 
military  planning  office  at  Bangkok  with  staff 
representing  all  member  countries. 

Close  cooperation  among  the  forces  of  the  mem- 
ber countries  is  being  assisted  by  realistic  train- 
ing exercises  arranged  by  the  Seato  military  ad- 
visers. 

Anti-Subversion  Program 

The  Council  believes  that  the  military  threat 
to  the  region  is  deterred  by  the  very  existence  of 
Seato  and  the  collective  defense  represented  by 
its  members.  The  emphasis  in  Communist  and 
Communist-inspired  tactics  in  the  area  has  there- 
fore continued  to  move  from  the  open  threat  of 
force  to  more  flexible  tactics  of  non-violent  pene- 
tration and  undermining  of  non-Communist  states 
still  accompanied  in  some  cases  by  aimed  insur- 
rection. 

Believing  that  public  knowledge  of  these 
tactics — of  how  and  where  subversion  is  occur- 
ring— is  an  essential  prerequisite  of  effective  ac- 
tion against  them,  the  Council  agreed  to  direct  its 
civil  organization  to  intensify  its  work  of  identi- 
fying all  phases  of  subversive  tactics;  to  make 
known  its  findings  amongst  member  governments ; 
and  to  expose  them  to  the  scrutiny  of  public 
opinion. 

With  this  object  the  Council  approved  specific 
projects  for  the  exposure  of  these  activities.  Basic 
material  for  these  projects  will  come  from  analy- 
ses by  the  Committee  of  Security  Experts  and 
from  information  provided  by  the  Seato  Ee- 
search  Service  Center  and  by  member  govern- 
ments. The  Council  recognized  that  in  counter- 
ing subversion  the  primary  responsibility  rests 
with  each  government,  aided  as  necessary  by  its 
friends.  But  an  important  supplementary  role 
can  be  played  by  Seato,  and  decisions  made  by 
the  Council  at  its  present  meeting  will  make  that 
role  more  effective. 

Economic  and  Social  Progress 

The  Council  discussed  economic  activities  re- 
lating to  Article  III  of  the  Treaty.^  The  repre- 
sentatives of  Pakistan,  the  Philippines,  and  Thai- 
land drew  attention  to  the  economic  problems  in 
their  countries  requiring  cooperative  action  with 
other  members,  and  the  Council  discussed  what 


'  For  text,  see  Buixbtin  of  Sept.  20, 1954,  p.  393. 


528 


were  the  most  appropriate  arrangements  by  which 
these  problems  might  be  resolved. 

Seato  expert  Committees  have  recommended 
specific  projects  to  assist  in  relieving  the  economic 
burden  of  defense  and  to  make  a  contribution  to- 
wards the  continuation  of  economic  development 
under  Seato's  protective  shield.  Council  mem- 
bers undertook  to  consider  the  carrying  out  of 
these  recommendations. 

The  Council  noted  with  satisfaction  the  prog- 
ress made  in  the  economic  development  of  Asian 
member  states.  The  Council  also  noted  that  a 
number  of  countries,  particularly  the  United 
States,  were  providing  considerable  economic  as- 
sistance bilaterally  as  a  direct  contribution  to 
treaty  objectives.  In  addition  to  these  bilateral 
programs,  some  assistance  is  being  provided  spe- 
cifically under  the  auspices  of  Seato.  For  ex- 
ample, the  Australian  Government  is  thus  pro- 
viding 2  million  pounds. 

The  Council  decided  that  Seato  cultural  activi- 
ties should  include  encouragement  and  assistance 
to  national  activity  in  this  field.  It  urged  member 
governments  to  foster  bilateral  cultural  exchanges 
within  the  Seato  Community. 

In  addition  the  Council  approved  a  number  of 
multilateral  projects  in  the  cultural  relations  field. 

This  is  a  new  and  promising  development  which 
will  strengthen  the  spirit  of  friendship  which 
already  marks  the  relations  between  the  eight 
Seato  member  countries.  A  major  cultural  proj- 
ect approved  for  immediate  introduction  is  a 
Seato  fellowship  program  under  which  scholars 
of  Seato  countries  will  be  encouraged  to  under- 
take study  and  research  in  fields  of  special  interest 
to  Seato. 

Another  important  project  adopted  is  the  con- 
vening in  one  of  the  Asian  member  coimtries,  of 
a  "Round  Table"  meeting,  consisting  of  outstand- 
ing authorities,  in  order  to  discuss  Asian  civiliza- 
tions and  cultures. 

The  Council  also  adopted  a  French  proposal  that 
the  competent  bodies  of  Seato  should  consider 
the  problem  of  educational  assistance  in  the  Treaty 
area  and  recommend  measures  applicable  in  this 
field  within  the  framework  of  Seato. 

Permanent  Organization  and  Budget 

The  Council  considered  the  strengthening  of  the 
permanent  civil  organization  in  Bangkok  and  to 
that  end  decided  to  appoint  a  Secretary  General 

Department  of  State  Bulletin 


and  a  Deputy  Secretary  General.  They  directed 
the  Council  Representatives  to  determine  the  terms 
of  reference  of  these  officers  and  the  timing  of  the 
appointments  and  to  consider  and  report  on  nomi- 
nations from  member  governments  for  these  posts. 
The  Council  approved  a  budget  of  $787,145  for 
the  fifteen  months  ending  June  30,  1958  to  cover 
the  cost  of  their  permanent  civil  and  military  head- 
quarters in  Bangkok  and  to  help  finance  certain 
joint  jn-ograms. 

Final  Observations 

Among  the  topics  discussed  by  the  Council  was 
that  of  neutralism. 

It  was  observed  with  concern  that  some  govern- 
ments have  in  varying  degrees  adopted  a  line  of 
active  opposition  to  collective  security  arrange- 
ments such  as  Seato  which  are  in  full  accord  with 
the  Charter  of  the  United  Xations. 

It  was  hoped  that  as  time  passed  and  the  value 
of  Seato  became  more  widely  appreciated  that 
those  who  criticized  it  today  would  eventually  be 
willing  to  welcome  it.  Seato  is  not  an  exclusive 
organization  but  remains  open  to  all  those  coun- 
tries in  Southeast  Asia  who  are  willing  to  share  its 
benefits  and  responsibilities.  The  Council  mem- 
bers wish  to  stress  that  it  was  genuine  concern  for 
the  security  of  the  area  which  led  to  their  volun- 
tary association  in  Seato  ;  all  nations  of  the  area 
whether  members  of  Seato  or  not,  are  benefiting 
from  the  protection  provided  by  Seatos  collective 
deterrent  strength. 

The  members  of  the  Council  recorded  their  ab- 
horrence at  the  use  of  Soviet  forces  to  crush  the 
struggle  by  the  Hungarian  people  for  independ- 
ence. They  noted  that  the  Soviet  action  was  con- 
doned and  supported  by  Communist  China.  They 
noted  the  vivid  and  revealing  contrast  provided 
by  the  policies  of  certain  member  governments, 
which  have  already  led  or  are  now  leading  to 
full  independence  in  various  hitherto  dependent 
territories. 

The  Comicil  met  in  an  atmosphere  of  great 
friendship,  understanding  and  mutual  trust.  As 
the  organization  moves  into  its  new  and  expanded 
phase  of  activity,  the  Council  members  are  deter- 
mined that  Seato  will  work  for  the  enrichment  as 
well  as  the  defense  of  human  life  and  liberty  in 
accordance  with  the  principles  and  purposes  of  tlie 
Charter  of  the  United  Nations. 

The  representatives  attending  the  Third  Seato 

April   7,   1957 

420297 — 57 3 


Council  Meeting  were:  Australia  -  Rt.  Hon.  R.  G. 
Casey;  France  -  M.  Pierre  de  Nelice;  New  Zea- 
land -Hon.  T.  L.  MacDonald;  Pakistan -Mr.  S. 
Amjad  Ali;  Philippines-  Vice  President  Carlos 
P.  Garcia;  Tliailund-Mr.  Rak  Panyarachun; 
United  Kingdom -Rt.  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Home; 
United  States -Hon.  John  Foster  Dulles. 


STATEMENT  BY  SECRETARY  DULLES  AT  OPEN- 
ING SESSION,  MARCH  11 

Press  release  128  dated  March  11 

It  is  a  great  satisfaction  for  me  to  serve  for  the 
third  time  as  the  United  States  representative  at 
the  annual  conference  of  the  Seato  Council.  It 
is  appropriate  that  we  thus  come  together  to  take 
stock  of  our  strength  in  the  vital  Seato  area.  We 
are  happy  to  be  able  to  do  this  in  the  hospitable 
land  of  Australia. 

During  the  3  years  since  our  defensive  treaty 
M'as  signed,  Seato  has  proven  a  strong  bulwark. 
It  has  contributed  greatly  to  the  relative  peace 
and  security  which  all  the  member  nations  now 
enjoy.  Seato  is  an  effective  force  against  aggres- 
sion and  subversion.  This  fact  has  encouraged 
constructive  developments  in  many  fields.  The 
increased  stability  in  the  treaty  area  is  fully 
evident. 

One  notable  example  is  the  unity  and  strength 
developed  by  the  Republic  of  Viet-Nam.  A 
serious  problem  does,  however,  remain  in  Laos, 
where,  despite  the  Geneva  armistice  agreement, 
international  communism  continues  to  support  the 
Pathet  Lao  insurgents.  The  Republic  of  Korea, 
Japan,  and  the  Republic  of  China  are  outside  the 
treaty  area,  but  there  is  an  interlocking  connection 
with  them  because  the  United  States  does  have 
collective  defense  treaties  with  these  other  free 
Asian  nations.  It  may  therefore  be  relevant  to 
report  that  there  is  growing  strength  in  each  of 
these  three  other  free  nations. 

Political  progi-ess  within  our  treaty  area  is  at- 
tested by  the  fact  that  the  Federation  of  Malaya 
will  soon  achieve  full  independence.  With  re- 
spect to  Singapore,  amiable  and  fruitful  dis- 
cussions are  now  in  progress.  During  the  period 
of  Seato's  existence,  the  free  countries  of  the  area 
have  conducted  orderly  elections  on  a  nationwide 
basis  and  have  been  able  to  implement  their  ideals 
of  universal  suffrage  and  free  elections. 

Substantial  social  and  economic  progi-ess  has 


529 


been  made  by  all  member  states.  A  broad  inter- 
change of  visits  by  officials,  as  between  the  free 
Asian  countries,  has  served  to  create  new  bonds 
of  fi-iendship  and  understanding.  Useful  inter- 
changes have  also  taken  place  between  the  free 
Asian  nations  and  the  West.  I  recently  had  the 
pleasure  of  receiving  in  my  offices  the  1,000th  Thai 
to  come  to  the  United  States  under  the  technical 
training  program  conducted  by  our  International 
Cooperation  Administration.^  By  such  inter- 
changes in  their  lands  and  ours,  the  American 
people  learn  much  about  the  ancient  culture  and 
the  modern  aspirations  of  free  Asian  nations.  I 
hope  in  turn  tliat  they  learn  something  of  value 
from  us  and  that  it  will  serve  both  to  advance 
their  own  professional  careers  and  to  contribute  to 
the  happiness  and  well-being  of  their  peoples. 

United  States  cooj^eration  with  our  Asian 
partners  continues  through  bilateral  arrangements 
for  economic  aid,  technical  assistance,  and  cultural 
exchange.  These  include  our  recent  program  of 
Seato  cultural  gi-ants.=*  Also  of  help  is  our  mem- 
bership in  the  Colombo  Plan  and  Ecafe  [Eco- 
nomic Commission  for  Asia  and  the  Far  East], 
and  our  bilatei'al  agreements  of  sharing  knowledge 
and  materials  for  the  peaceful  uses  of  atomic 
energy.  Plans  for  an  Asian  Nuclear  Center  lo- 
cated at  Manila  are  being  actively  studied  by  the 
Colombo  Plan  nations  with  assurance  of  sub- 
stantial United  States  support,  both  technical  and 
fuiancial. 

Our  mutual  security  pacts,  including  Seato,  are 
other  manifestations  of  the  same  intent.  And  let 
there  be  no  doubt  in  any  quarter — be  it  friendly 
or  hostile — that  the  American  Nation  is  united  in 
its  determination  to  respond  to  our  obligations 
under  these  pacts.  Also  that  determination  is 
backed  by  power  in  being  and  in  useful  places. 

Beyond  the  Treaty  Area 

We  need,  however,  also  to  look  beyond  the  con- 
fines of  our  own  treaty  area.  Events  elsewhere 
have  been  dramatic  and  instructive.  Since  we  last 
met,  it  has  been  demonstrated  beyond  a  doubt  that 
the  materialistic  rule  of  communism  will  never 
meet  the  aspirations  with  which  human  beings  are 
endowed  by  their  Creator. 


'  For  an  exchange  of  corresiiondence  between  President 
Elsenhower  and  the  Prime  Minister  of  Thailand,  see 
Bulletin  of  Mar.  18,  1957,  p.  442. 

'Ibid.,  Mar.  25,  1957,  p.  503. 


Within  the  Soviet  Union,  the  rulers  have  had  to 
disavow  Stalin's  brand  of  communism.  They  have 
had  to  move,  even  though  slowly,  toward  granting 
their  people  greater  personal  security,  gi'eater 
freedom  of  thought  and  of  conscience,  and  greater 
enjoyment  of  the  fruits  of  their  labor.  Within 
Poland  and  Hungary,  12  years  of  indoctrination 
have  failed  to  persuade  the  youth  that  the  Soviet 
system  satisfies  either  national  or  their  individual 
desires.  Throughout  the  satellite  area,  there  is 
revulsion  against  the  brutal  colonialism  and  ex- 
ploitation of  Soviet  imperialism.  We  can  con- 
fidently conclude  from  this  that  international  com- 
munism now  imposed  upon  many  of  the  peoples 
of  Asia  is  a  passing  and  not  a  permanent  phase. 

On  the  other  hand,  developments  elsewhere  re- 
veal characteristics  which  should  keep  us  on  guard. 
When  the  people's  revolt  in  Hungary  could  not 
be  subdued  by  the  Eed  Army  forces  already  there, 
Hungary  was  openly  invaded  and  overrun  by  So- 
viet divisions,  spearheaded  by  tanks.  They  ruth- 
lessly slaughtered  the  j^eople  of  Hungary  who 
were  manifesting  their  desire  of  freedom.  The 
Soviet  rulers  did  this  in  defiance  of  repeated  calls 
from  the  United  Nations  that  the  Soviet  desist 
from  this  armed  attack  upon  another  member  state 
in  violation  of  the  charter. 

In  the  Middle  East,  the  Soviet  rulers  have  per- 
sistently sought  to  foment  trouble.  Wlienever  it 
seemed  that  the  difficulties  in  the  area  might  be 
peacefully  composed,  the  Soviets  have  intervened 
and  by  vicious  propaganda  and  by  large-scale 
arms  shipments  sought  to  set  the  peoples  of  the 
area  against  each  other.  All  of  this  again  is  in 
clear  defiance  of  their  obligations  to  seek  the 
settlement  of  international  disputes  by  peaceful 
means  and  in  conformity  with  the  principles  of 
justice  and  international  law. 

We  must  keep  indelibly  clear  in  our  minds  that 
international  communism  is  not  regardful  of  le- 
gality or  of  humanity  or  of  the  moral  force  of 
world  opinion  as  reflected  in  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  the  United  Nations.  For  these  reasons  it 
is  at  most  but  a  transient  if  painful  episode  in  the 
history  of  mankind. 

The  open  support  given  by  the  Communist  Chi- 
nese to  Soviet  colonialism  and  imperialism  and  to 
Soviet  defiance  of  the  United  Nations  has  ominous 
implications  for  all  free  Asian  nations.  These  ac- 
tions give  us  all  ample  warning  of  the  true  nature 
of  the  Chinese  Communist  regime.     They  also 


530 


Department  of  Stale   BuUelin 


finphiisize  the  continuing  importance  of  the  mili- 
tary side  of  Seato,  of  the  work  of  our  military  ad- 
\iser.s  and  of  our  combined  military  planning.  All 
of  this  has  been  highly  ell'cctive. 

Avoiding  Communist  Traps 

A  year  ago  at  Karachi  I  stated  (hat  the  success 
of  our  trade,  aid,  and  cultural  exchange  programs 
was  producing  imitators.''  These  imitatore,  I  said, 
would  use  such  programs  for  completely  different 
purposes.  Our  purpose  is  to  build  up  the  free  na- 
tions. Their  purpose  would  be  to  destroy  freedom 
and  independence. 

I  also  predicted  that  the  free  Asian  leaders  who 
had  shown  great  political  skill  in  winning  in- 
dependence for  their  countries  would  readily  dis- 
tinguish between  liberty  and  tyranny.  They 
would  do  so  even  though  tyranny  went  about 
disguised  in  the  pilfered  clothes  of  liberty.  I 
do  not  think  any  of  the  free  Asian  leaders  have 
been  deceived.  Some  may  not  yet  be  fully  aware 
of  the  danger  from  the  numerous  underground 
forces  which  the  Communist  conspirators  tradi- 
tionally use.  However,  in  various  free  Asian 
countries  there  is  already  evidence  of  official  action 
to  counter  Communist  penetration  of  schools, 
trade  unions,  and  minority  groups.  These  are 
encouraging  beginnings  in  meeting  a  large-scale 
and  growing  threat. 

We  who  are  members  of  Seato  may  gain  influ- 
ence beyond  the  treaty  area  as  we  ourselves  set  a 
good  example.  Let  us  put  our  own  houses  in 
order.  Let  us  avoid  Communist  traps  baited  with 
offers  of  trade  and  aid.  Let  us  expose  Communist 
techniques  of  subversion.  Let  us  make  economic 
and  social  progress.  Let  us  build  up  our  educa- 
tional systems.  T^et  us  give  fair  treatment  to 
minority  groups.  Let  us  train  capable  trade-union 
leaders.  Thus  we  can  do  much  to  show  other  free 
nations  how  to  seal  off  effectively  the  various  tra- 
ditional avenues  of  Communist  penetration. 

The  several  Seato  committees  have  done  much 
planning  to  assist  member  nations  toward  this  end. 
I  congratulate  all  who  have  taken  part  in  laying 
this  groundwork  for  Seato  activities  and  cooper- 
ation in  many  fields.  In  the  months  and  years 
ahead  those  plans  need  to  be  put  into  effect  and 
enlarged.  I  am  sure  that  in  these  meetings  here 
at  Canberra  we  shall  contribute  strongly  to  this 
achievement. 


'  Ibid.,  Mar.  19,  1956,  p.  449. 
April   h    1957 


STATEMENT    BY    SECRETARY    DULLES    ON    U.S. 
CHINA  POLICY,  MARCH  12 

Press  release  138  dated  March  13 

The  United  States  adheres  steadfastly  to  the 
three  main  aspects  of  its  China  policy,  which  is  to 
recognize  the  Republic  of  China ;  not  to  recognize 
the  so-called  People's  Republic  of  China;  and  to 
oppose  the  seating  of  this  People's  Republic  in 
the  United  Nations  as  the  accredited  representa- 
tive of  what  the  charter  calls  the  Republic  of 
China. 

This  policy  is  not  merely  an  expression  of 
emotional  dislike  of  Chinese  communism,  al- 
though the  creed  and  practices  of  the  Chinese 
Communists  are  in  fact  repugnant  to  us.  Also 
our  policy  is  not  merely  an  expression  of  senti- 
mental loyalty  to  the  Republic  of  China,  although 
we  do  feel  loyalty  to  a  Government  which  was 
loyal  to  the  Allied  cause  throughout  even  the 
darkest  days  of  the  Second  World  War. 

Our  policy  stems  primarily  from  considera- 
tions of  national  interest  and,  we  believe,  of  inter- 
national interest.  First  of  all  we  ask  ourselves: 
Will  the  interests  of  the  United  States  be  ad- 
vanced by  according  diplomatic  recognition  to  the 
Chinese  Communist  regime? 

The  answer  to  that  is  in  our  opinion  clearly 
negative.  United  States  diplomatic  recognition 
of  the  Chinese  Communist  regime  would  serve  no 
national  purpose  but  would  strengthen  and  en- 
courage influences  hostile  to  us  and  our  allies  and 
further  imperil  lands  whose  independence  is  re- 
lated to  our  own  peace  and  security. 

In  this  connection  we  recall  that  there  are  many 
millions  of  immigrant  Chinese  who  form  parts  of 
the  populations  of  free  Asian  countries.  Today 
many  of  them,  perhaps  most  of  them,  remain  loyal 
to  the  Republic  of  China  now  seated  at  Taiwan, 
which  symbolizes  the  China  that  they  know.  We 
can  see  only  loss  and  no  gain  in  action  which  would 
make  these  overseas  Chinese  more  apt  to  serve 
the  subversive  policies  of  the  Chinese  Communist 
regime. 

If  we  examine  this  matter  from  the  standpoint 
of  the  United  Nations,  we  come  to  a  similar  con- 
clusion. The  United  Nations  would  not  be 
strengthened  if  the  Communists  were  there  to 
represent  China,  and  we  cannot  see  that  they  have 
any  right  to  this  role. 

The  charter  seeks  that  membership  should  be 
made  up  of  peace-loving  governments  able  and 


531 


willing  to  carry  out  their  obligations  under  the 
charter.  There  is  no  evidence  that  the  Chinese 
Communist  regime  would  represent  China  in  the 
spirit  envisaged  by  the  charter.  It  has  fought 
the  United  Nations  in  Korea  and  still  stands  con- 
demned as  an  aggressor  against  the  United  Na- 
tions. It  seized  Tibet  by  force.  It  promoted  the 
war  in  Indochina.  It  refuses  to  renounce  resort 
to  war  as  an  instrument  of  its  policy  in  relation 
to  Taiwan  and  the  Penghus.  Its  conduct  toward 
other  nations  and  their  citizens  does  not  reflect  the 
tolerance  and  good  neighborliness  which  the  mem- 
bers of  the  United  Nations  are  supposed  to  prac- 
tice. 

If  the  Communist  regime  were  allowed  to  repre- 
sent the  Republic  of  China  in  the  United  Nations, 
it  would  presumably  sit  on  the  Security  Council 
as  a  permanent  member  with  veto  power.  That 
Council  is  the  body  which  by  the  charter  is  en- 
trusted with  primary  responsibility  for  the  main- 
tenance of  peace  and  security  in  conformity  with 
the  principles  of  justice  and  international  law.  It 
would  be  grotesque  if  that  high  responsibility  were 
to  be  conferred  upon  a  regime  which  itself  stands 
condemned  as  an  armed  aggressor  against  the 
United  Nations  and  which  itself  is  a  most  con- 
spicuous, violator  of  justice  and  international  law. 

The  United  Nations  is  faced  with  growing  re- 
sponsibilities. These  could  not  be  more  readily 
discharged  by  giving  the  Chinese  Communists  the 
opportunity  to  work  mischief  there. 

We  believe  that  United  States  policies  are  not 
merely  in  our  own  interest  and  in  the  interest  of 
the  free  world  but  also  that  they  are  in  the  in- 
terest of  the  Chinese  people  themselves,  with 
whom  the  American  people  have  historic  ties  of 
friendship. 


STATEMENT      BY      SECRETARY       DULLES      AT 
CLOSING  SESSION,   MARCH  13 

Press  release  140  dated  March  13 

We  have,  I  believe,  every  leason  to  be  gratified 
with  what  has  been  accomplished  during  the  3 
days  of  the  Seato  Council  meeting  at  Canberra. 
Inspired  by  the  opening  address  of  Prime  Minis- 
ter Menzies,  we  have  gone  on  to  adopt  sound 
recommendations  for  expanded  activities.  These 
will  promote  the  peace  and  security  of  the  area  by 
making  the  Seato  nations  better  able  to  counter 
in  all  its  varied  aspects  the  Communist  threat. 


These  programs  cover  diverse  fields,  such  as 
combined  military-defense  information  programs, 
economic  cooperation,  and  cultural  exchange.  But 
they  all  have  a  single  purpose.  Their  aim  is  to 
strengthen  spiritually  and  physically  the  peoples 
and  nations  who  wish  to  resist  the  Communist 
menace  and  to  pursue  in  freedom  their  individual 
and  national  aspirations.  These  manifold  activi- 
ties of  Seato  require  for  their  success  a  high  degree 
of  coordination.  This  will  be  promoted  by  the 
Secretary  General  and  Deputy  Secretary  General, 
new  positions  which  the  Council  here  has  agreed 
to  establish. 

I  wish,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  express  my  apprecia- 
tion and  that  of  the  entire  United  States  delega- 
tion to  our  host,  the  Government  of  Australia,  to 
you,  Mr.  Casey,  our  able  chairman,  and  to  the 
others  here  in  Canberra  who  have  done  so  much 
to  make  the  Council  meeting  the  success  it  has 
been.  We  recognize  the  enormous  effort  that  goes 
into  preparing  for  such  an  important  meeting  at- 
tended by  so  many  people  of  different  lands.  We 
have  been  met  on  all  sides  by  careful  preparation, 
courtesy,  cooperation,  and  good  humor.  It  is  the 
excellence  of  arrangements  made  for  us  here  that 
has  pennitted  us  to  accomplish  so  much  in  these 
3  days. 

These  arrangements  have  a  significance  which 
goes  far  beyond  the  personal  enjoyment  of  the  dele- 
gates themselves.  It  contributes  to  the  develop- 
ment of  the  friendship  between  our  countries 
which,  as  Prime  Minister  Menzies  pointed  out,  is 
one  of  the  imponderable  but  most  valuable  assets 
of  our  association.  In  this  connection,  I  am  sure 
that  my  colleagues  will  wish  to  join  me  in  asking 
the  chairman  to  convey  to  the  Speaker  of  the  House 
and  the  President  of  the  Senate  our  gratitude  for 
their  gracious  hospitality  and  ask  them  to  convey 
to  the  parliamentary  stall'  and  to  Hansard  our  ap- 
preciation for  their  great  assistance  and  the  skill 
with  which  they  have  handled  this  important 
conference. 

The  success  of  this  third  Council  meeting,  like 
that  of  the  previous  two,  also  owes  much  to  the 
various  Seato  committees,  the  Council  represent- 
atives, and  the  military  advisers,  who  did  such 
excellent  work  in  preparing  their  reports  and 
recommeiulafions.  Their  conscientious  efforts 
through  the  more  than  2  years  of  Se.vto's  existence 
have  made  it  possible  for  us  to  look  forward  each 
year  with  increased  confidence  in  ourselves  and  in 


532 


Deparfment  of  State  Bulletin 


our  capacity  to  resist  the  vaT-iod  forms  of  attack 
wliich  we  know  are  being  made  and  will  continue 
to  be  made  against  us  by  the  Communists. 

At  this  meeting  we  have  again  aflirmed  our  be- 
lief that  only  through  the  exercise  of  wliat  the 
United  Nations  Charter  calls  the  inherent  right 
of  collective  defense  backed  by  adequate  force  can 
we  exfject  to  remain  free.  By  constant  vigilance 
and  dedication  to  the  high  purposes  expressed  in 
our  treaty  and  in  the  Pacific  Charter,  we  can  hope 
that  in  the  coming  year  Seato  will  contribute  fur- 
ther to  the  peace  and  security  not  only  of  South- 
east Asia  but  of  the  world.     Thank  you. 


SECRETARY       DULLES'       NEWS      CONFERENCE, 
CANBERRA,   MARCH  13 

Press  release  Hi  dated  March  14 

Secretary  Dulles:  I  am  very  happy  to  have  a 
chance  to  meet  with  you  for  a  few  minutes.  Our 
conference  has  just  closed,  and  I  shall  be  going 
back  to  Washington  the  first  thing  tomorrow 
morning.  It  has  been,  I  think,  a  good  conference. 
It  has  not  been  spectacular;  it  has  been  harmo- 
nious and  in  that  respect  perhaps  it  has  not  made 
much  news,  but  from  the  standpoint  of  a  member 
of  the  Council  I  would  rather  have  it  that  way. 
We  have  built,  I  think,  constructively,  and  I  have 
tlie  feeling  more  than  ever  before  that  Seato  is  a 
real  solid  going  concern.  My  feeling  in  that  re- 
spect is  somewhat  increased  perhaps  by  the  fact 
that  I  am  told  that  the  Communist  propaganda  is 
attacking  us  very  viciously  and  blaming  all  the 
evils  of  much  of  the  world  upon  Seato.  That,  at 
least,  proves  that  we  are  not  insignificant.  I 
might  say  in  reply  that  I  think  events  of  recent 
years  have  demonstrated  beyond  the  possibility  of 
doubt  that  the  Communists  try  to  make  trouble 
where  there  is  none  and,  if  there  is  any  anywhere, 
they  try  to  make  it  worse.  That  has  certainly 
been  our  experience  during  this  last  year.  Now 
if  you  have  any  questions  I  would  be  glad  to  try 
to  answer  them. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  is  it  correct  that  under  tchat  is 
noio  knoion  a.s  the  Eisenhower  Doctrine,  if  one  of 
the  middle  East  powers  asked  for  military  aid  to 
frotect  therii  from  armed  aggression,  the  United 
States  will  give  such  aid? 

A.  Well,  there  are  three  aspects  of  the  so-called 
Eisenhower  Doctrine.    One  is  to  assist  the  coun- 


tries to  build  up  their  economies  so  they  can  be 
strong  and  independent.  The  second  is  to  help 
them  to  develop  their  own  defensive  capabilities 
so  that  they  will  have  a  dependable  security- 
defense  force.  And  the  third  is,  if  they  are  at- 
tacked by  a  Communist-controlled  country  and  if 
they  want  our  assistance,  the  President  is  author- 
ized to  give  it. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  the  situation  in  the  Middle 
East — do  you  see  any  alarming  portents  in  the 
nei'j  developments  there? 

A.  Well,  I  would  not  like  to  answer  that  ques- 
tion because  I  am  not  fully  up  to  date.  I  would 
prefer  not  to  talk  about  the  recent  developments 
in  that  part,  of  the  world.  Those  are  being 
handled — from  the  standpoint  of  the  United 
States — being  handled  from  Washington.  And  I 
am  not  kept  fully  informed,  and  I  would  prefer 
not  to  comment  on  the  basis  of  inadequate  in- 
formation on  what  is  obviously  a  delicate  situa- 
tion. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles.^  could  you  ansioer  a  subsidiary 
question  stemming  from  the  first  one? 

A.  All  right. 

Q.  Why  toas  it  that  the  United  States  did  not 
give  military  aid,  to  Hungary  when  she  appealed 
to  the  United,  States  to  protect  her  from  Russia? 

A.  Well,  there  was  no  basis  for  our  giving  mili- 
tary aid  to  Hungary.  We  had  no  commitment  to 
do  so,  and  we  did  not  think  that  to  do  so  would 
either  assist  the  people  of  Hungary  or  the  people 
of  Europe  or  the  rest  of  the  world. 

U.S.  Negotiations  With  the  Philippines 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  has  there  been  any  progress  in 
the  United  States  negotiations  with  the  Philip- 
pine Government  on  the  question  of  American 
bases  in  the  Philippines? 

A.  There  has  been  no  recent  progress  made. 
The  talks  have  been  temporarily  suspended.  I 
expect  that  they  will  be  resumed  soon.  The  dif- 
ferences between  us  are,  I  think,  not  insurmount- 
able, and  I  expect  that  there  will  be  an  amicable 
settlement,  but  at  the  moment  the  discussions  are 
in  suspension. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  the  question  I  have  been  try- 
ing to  ask  is  whether  or  not  the  events  in  the  Mid- 
dle East  have  caused  any  change  in  your  plans  to 


April    I,   7957 


533 


return  home.     You  are  still  planning  to  stay  over- 
night here  and  start  hack  tomorrow  morning? 

A.  Yes,  I  am  going  back  according  to  schedule, 
going  back  tomorrow  morning.  I  hope  to  spend 
a  day  at  Honoluhi  and  rest  up,  and  I  will  be  back 
in  Washington  on  Saturday  or  Sunday  and  get 
ready  for  the  Bermuda  conference  with  Mr. 
Harold  Macmillan,  which  will  begin  on  Wednes- 
day afternoon. 

Q.  We  should  not  put  any  significance  to  your 
leisurely  trip  tomorrow?  You  donH  regard  the 
Middle  East  situation  as  alarming? 

A.  No,  all  I  can  say  is  that  I  am  conscious  that 
the  people  in  Washington  are  perfectly  able  to 
take  care  of  it. 

Q.  That  means  you  tuill  miss  the  National  Se- 
curity Cowncil  meeting  that  is  called  for  Thurs- 
day? 

A.  They  have  them  every  Thursday ;  so,  if  I  am 
ever  absent  on  a  Thursday,  I  miss  that  meeting. 

Q.  I  understand  that  this  was  specially  called 
for  the  Middle  East  discussion. 

A.  I  don't  think  so.  I  think  it  is  a  regular 
Thursday  meeting. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles.,  is  Ameiica  introducing  atomic 
weapons  to  Southeast  Asia  for  SEATO  defense  in 
the  area? 

A.  No,  not  that  I  am  aware  of.  We  have  atomic 
capabilities  in  our  own  mobile  forces  in  the  area, 
but  they  are  confined,  as  far  as  I  am  aware,  to 
our  own  forces. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  could  you  say  why  it  is  that 
President  Eisenhower  has  not  asked  for  authority 
to  protect  any  European  country  against  armed 
aggression? 

A.  We  have  such  authority  in  the  North  Atlan- 
tic Treaty.  You  see,  we  get  the  authority  in  any 
one  of  two  ways.  One  is  by  a  congressional  res- 
olution, and  the  other  is  by  a  treaty.  A  treaty  be- 
comes a  law  of  the  land  in  the  same  way  that  a 
congressional  joint  resolution  becomes  law  of  the 
land.  So  that  we  can  operate  in  either  of  two 
ways,  either  under  the  treaty  form,  which  is  the 
case  of  Europe,  or  the  joint  resolution  form,  which 
is  that  adopted  in  the  case  of  the  Middle  East. 

Q.  Gould  I  just  ask  you  to  explain  why  the 
United  States,  after  suggesting  the  formation  of 
the  Baghdad  Pact,  subsequently  withdrew  from  it? 


Baghdad  Pact 

A.  Well,  it  would  be  hardly  accurate  to  say  we 
witlidrew  from  it  because  we  were  never  a  member 
of  the  Baghdad  Pact.  We  did  suggest  the  desir- 
ability of  an  organization  for  secm-ity  purposes 
of  what  I  call  the  nortliern-tier  countries.  I  made 
that  suggestion  after  having  been  out  there  the 
first  year  I  was  Secretary  of  State  some  4  years 
ago.  We  were  very  glad  to  see  the  Baghdad  Pact 
formed.  We  are  associated  with  it  in  many  re- 
spects, and  I  hope  will  become  even  more  closely 
associated  with  it  without  necessarily  becoming  a 
formal  member  of  the  treaty  organization. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  in  your  opening  address  to  the 
Council  and  those  of  the  other  Ministers,  there  was 
reference  to  the  primary  requirement  of  insuring 
the  security  of  countries  in  South  and  Southeast 
Asia.  Could  you  tell  us  how  SEATO  proposes  to 
apply  that  to  the  Kashmir  prohlem? 

A.  Well,  I  am  not  sure  that  Seato  will  interest 
itself  in  the  Kashmir  problem.  I  don't  think  that 
is  a  problem  for  Seato.  You  will  recall  perhaps 
that  the  United  States,  at  least  in  adhering  to  the 
Seato  treatj',  said  that  the  aggression  with  which 
we  concerned  ourselves  was  Communist  aggres- 
sion, and  we  limited  our  participation  to  that  kind 
of  aggression. 

Q.  Would  that  he  direct  aggression,  sir,  or 
Commjunist-inspired  aggression? 

A.  I  think  that  the  actual  language  of  the  treaty 
is  "Communist  aggi-ession." 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  you  are  reported  to  have  told  the 
United  States  Congress  on  January  £5  that  an 
American  soldier  called  upon  to  fight  in  the  Middle 
East  could  "feel  a  lot  safer"  if  he  did  not  have 
British  and  French  troops  alongside  him.  WJiat 
do  you  mean  hy  that? 

A.  I  was  referring  to  the  fact  that  some  of  the 
Senators  were  suggesting  that,  if  there  were  mili- 
tary operations  in  the  area,  they  should  be  under- 
taken jointly  with  the  British  and  the  French.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  United  Nations  had  just  called 
upon  the  British  and  the  French  to  withdraw  and 
had  created  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force 
without  participation  by  the  Britisli  and  the 
French.  It  did  not  seem  to  me  under  the  circum- 
stances it  would  be  desirable  for  us  to  try  to  bring 
back  the  British  and  French  forces  into  the  area 
from  which  they  had  just  retired  as  a  result  of 
the  recommendations  of  the  United  Nations. 


534 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  is  the  United  States  jmtting  ojf 
naming  an  American  amhassculor  to  the  Philip- 
pines until  after  the  elections  there  and,  as  a  con- 
sequence, putting  ojf  the  bases  talks? 

A.  No,  I  hope  that  we  will  be  able  to  ask  the 
agrcment,  as  it  is  called,  of  the  Philippine  Gov- 
ernment for  the  appointment  of  an  ambassador 
shortly. 

Q.  And  who  is  that? 

A.  We  will  have  to  tell  the  Government  that 
first. 

Possibility  of  Sudden  Communist  Attack 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  would  you  feel  that  things  are 
just  as  delicate  in  the  Southeast  Asia  area  as  in 
the  Middle  East? 

A.  I  would  say  that  there  exists  here  about  the 
same  danger  of  Communist  attack  as  there  does  in 
the  Middle  East.  I  spoke  to  that  point  somewhat 
this  morning  at  the  conference,  pointing  out  the 
fact  that  the  danger  of  attack  from  Communist- 
controlled  countries  can  never  be  foreseen  with 
any  confidence.  When  it  comes,  if  it  comes,  it  will 
be  because  in  the  Communist  type  of  dictatorship 
they  can  make  their  preparations  in  entire  se- 
crecy. There  is  no  2:)arliamentary  situation  to  con- 
cern them,  no  public  relations  situation  to  concern 
them ;  there  is  no  free  press  to  concern  them,  and 
they  can  always  act  and,  if  they  wish,  strike  in  a 
way  which  will  take  us  by  surprise.  Therefore, 
we  must  always  be  prepared  and  ready  as  long  as 
they  have  the  kind  of  military  potential  which 
they  do  have,  and  as  long  as  they  have  the  ex- 
pansionist ambitions  which  they  do  have. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  what  are  you  hoping  will  he  the 
outcome  of  the  Bermuda  talks? 

A.  Well,  these  talks  are  the  kind  of  talks  which 
we  have  periodically  with  the  heads  of  other  gov- 
ernments with  whom  we  have  many  relations. 
There  are  always  a  series  of  these  talks  throughout 
each  year,  and  there  are  a  number  of  matters  of 
common  concern  to  the  British  and  ourselves  that 
we  will  talk  over,  and  I  think  we  will  come  to  a 
better  understanding  between  ourselves. 

Q.  Is  the  United  States  concerned  about  the 
presence  of  Russians  in  Antarctica,  and  is  the 
United  States  prepared  to   do  anything  about 

them? 


A.  We  are  concerned  about  their  presence  there. 
In  fact,  we  are  concei'ned  about  their  presence 
almost  anywhere.  I  have  had  talks  on  that  sub- 
ject with  your  Prime  Minister  and  your  Foreign 
Minister.  I  think  we.  want  to  be  very  careful  that 
the  Soviets,  under  the  guise  of  the  Geophysical 
Year,  don't  engage  in  activities  which  are  not 
contemplated  by  the  scientists  who  outlined  that 
year. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  in  view  of  what  you  just  said 
about  the  danger  of  sudden  Communist  attach  it 
ivould  be  possible  legally  for  tlie  United  States  to 
act  immediately  under  the  SEATO  treaty  if  that 
attack  occurred  in  this  region? 

A.  Yes,  it  would  be. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  has  the  Australian  viewpoint  on 
Dutch  New  Guinea  been  put  to  you,  and,  if  so,  have 
you  had  any  reaction  to  it? 

A.  About  New  Guinea,  no,  we  have  not  had  any 
particular  talks  about  that.  I  think  the  problem 
comes  up  annually  at  the  United  Nations.  It 
came  up  again  this  year.  I  forget  what  the  dispo- 
sition was.  But  our  position  in  that  matter  is 
well  known.  There  is  nothing  new  to  develop  on 
that. 

■Middle  East 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  do  you  feel  that  the  United 
Nations  should  take  a  stronger  line  with  Egypt, 
as  it  took  with  Israel? 

A.  I  think  that  we  should  try  to  stand  for  the 
principles  of  the  charter,  the  principle  that  dis- 
putes should  be  settled  by  peaceful  means  and  in 
conformity  with  the  principles  of  justice  and  in- 
ternational law.  That  is  the  first  article  of  the 
charter.  We  have  tried  to  make  that  prevail  as 
against  Israel,  and  I  believe  we  should  also  try  to 
make  it  prevail  as  against  Egypt. 

Q.  lias  the  United  States  of  America  ever  re- 
gretted its  decision  to  cancel  the  loan  to  Egypt  for 
the  Astoan  Dam? 

A.  No,  I  think  if  anything  events  have  con- 
firmed that  fact  that  it  would  not  have  been  a 
wise  operation  for  us  to  have  tried  to  conduct  to- 
gether. That  was  a  gigantic  proposition  wlrich 
involved  expenditures  of  probably  a  billion  and 
a  half  dollars,  by  far  the  largest  operation  of  the 
kind  ever  known  in  the  history  of  the  world.     It 


April   1,   1957 


535 


would  have  taken  about  15  years  of  close  associa- 
tion ;  it  would  have  involved  an  austerity  progi-am 
on  the  part  of  Egj-pt  which  I  think  the  people 
would  have  come  to  resent  and  would  have  blamed 
the  foreigners  who  were  the  partners  in  the  enter- 
prise. The  more  we  studied  it,  the  more  we  came 
to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  not  a  suitable  project 
for  the  United  States  and  the  United  Kingdom, 
because  they  were  in  it  also,  to  try  to  conduct  with 
Egjpt. 

Q.  Do  you  think  it  hastened  the  seizure  of  the 
canal  company  iy  Egypt? 

A.  Well,  it  is  hard  to  say  whether  that  hastened 
it  or  not.  We  now  know  from  statements  made 
by  President  Xasser  and  also  made  by  President 
Tito  that  there  had  been  plans  to  seize  the  Uni- 
versal Canal  Company  made  approximately  2 
years  before.  The  plans  wei'e  all  ready  and  this 
may  have  provided  the  occasion,  but,  if  there  had 
not  been  this  occasion,  I  am  quite  sirre  another  one 
would  have  been  found. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  was  it  the  hope  of  yowr  Govern- 
ment when  the  United  Nations  first  moved  into 
the  Gaza  Strip  that  they  would  remain  for  some 
considerable  time? 

A.  We  believe  that  it  would  be  desirable  to  have 
the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  function  as 
a  barrier  between  Israel  and  the  neighboring  Arab 
countries.  That  has  been  difficult  to  work  out, 
partly  because  Israel  has  not  wanted  to  have  any 
elements  of  the  United  Nations  Force  on  the 
Israeli  side  of  the  boundary  and  Egypt  has  not 
wanted  to  have  them  exclusively  on  the  Egyptian 
or  Gaza  Strip  of  the  boundary.  But  I  still  hope 
something  can  be  worked  out  there  to  give  greater 
stability  and  tranquillity  to  the  area  and  to  put 
a  stop  to  the  raiding  back  and  forth. 

Q.  Did  the  Israeli  Government  agree  to  with- 
draic  its  forces  on  the  assumption  of  the  United 
Nations  barrier? 

A.  No,  I  would  hardly  say  that,  because  Israel 
itself  has  been  the  principal  obstacle  to  creating 
that  ban-ier.  As  I  pointed  out,  they  have  not 
wanted  to  have  the  United  Nations  forces  actually 
on  the  boundary  line. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  since  the  Philippines  loill  not 
yield  on  this  question  of  jurisdiction,  wiill  the 
United  States  eventually  meet  the  Philippine 
demands? 


A.  I  don't  believe  the  issue  is  quite  as  sharp  as 
your  question  suggests,  and  I  am  confident  of  this, 
that  two  countries  which  have  as  much  in  com- 
mon as  the  Philippine  Republic  and  the  United 
States  have  are  going  to  find  a  mutually  satisfac- 
tory answer  to  this  problem.  It  is  unthinkable 
that  our  whole  problem  of  mutual  security,  which 
is  so  important  to  both  of  us,  should  collapse  on 
this  issue.  I  am  sure  it  will  not  collapse  because 
I  have  faith  in  the  reasonableness  and  concilia- 
tory nature  of  both  parties. 

Q.  Could  you  give  us  some  information  on  the 
ideas  of  the  United  States  thinking  of  the  present 
infernal  strife  in  Indonesia? 

A.  Well,  it  is  always  difficult  and  a  little  bit 
dangerous  to  try  to  diagnose  what  is  essentially, 
I  think,  an  internal  development  within  In- 
donesia. But  from  the  information  that  I  have  it 
would  seem  as  though  this  was  largely  a  problem  J 
of  the  degree  of  autonomy  to  be  accorded  to  the  " 
different  islands.  It  is  a  question  of,  you  might 
say,  the  balance  of  power  between  the  Federal 
Government  and  the  various  island  communities. 
I  do  not  believe  that  in  its  present  manifestation 
it  has  any  international  aspects  of  significance. 

Communist  China 

Q.  What  assurances,  undertakings,  and  actions 
would  the  United  States  reguire  of  Communist 
China  hefoi'e  it  would  consider  recognition  of  the 
Comm/unist  regime? 

A.  Well,  as  I  said  in  my  statement,  the  United 
States  looks  at  it  from  the  standpoint  of  doing  or 
not  doing  what  will  serve  the  best  interests  of  the 
United  States.  Now  when  you  have  a  regime 
which  is  avowedly  hostile  to  us  and  all  that  we 
stand  for,  to  my  mind  it  doesn't  make  much  sense 
that  we  should  take  action  to  make  it  stronger  and 
enhance  its  influence  and  prestige  in  the  world. 
The  reason  for  our  action  is  what  basicallj'  I  de- 
scribed and,  if  that  reason  disappeared,  then  I 
suppose  we  would  have  to  reconsider  the  situation, 
but  basically  a  nation  conducts  its  foreign  policy 
in  such  a  way  as  to  protect  itself  and  recognition 
is  something  that  is  a  privilege,  not  a  right.  No 
government  has  a  right  to  have  recognition.  It 
is  a  privilege  that  is  accorded,  and  we  accord  it 
when  we  think  it  will  fit  in  with  our  national  in- 
terest, and  if  it  doesn't,  we  don't  accord  it. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  have  you  had  talks  today  or  talks 


536 


Department  of  Stale   Bulletin 


at  (HI  hei'e  with  Lord  Home  and  Mr.  Menzles  on 
the  sititatwn  in  the  Middle  East,  specifically  the 
Gaza  Strip? 

A.  Well,  we  have  not  discussed  it  except  in  the 
most  casual  way  because,  as  I  have  said,  I  have 
not  here  in  Canberra  tried  to  keep  in  touch  with 
that  situation.  That  is  being  dealt  with,  from 
the  standpoint  of  the  United  States,  in  Washing- 
ton. And  while  we  have  alluded  to  it  casually  as 
we  have  met  together  on  various  topics,  we  have 
not  had  any  serious  talks  about  the  matter  because 
I  have  said  to  them  the  same  thing  that  I  have 
said  to  you  here — I  am  not  handling  that  phase  of 
the  matter  for  the  Government  of  the  United 
States.  At  the  present  time  it  is  being  handled  by 
the  Acting  Secretary  of  State  in  Washington. 

Q.  Can  you  express  your  views  on  the  jwbu/re 
form  of  administration  of  the  Suez  Canal? 

A.  Well,  the  views  that  we  hold  are  those  that 
were  expressed  first  at  the  conference  in  London 
where  the  18  nations,  including  the  United  States, 
adopted  certain  proposals  and  the  matter  was  fur- 
ther discussed  in  the  Security  Council  of  the 
United  Nations  and  there  the  United  States,  as 
a  member  of  the  Security  Council  of  the  United 
Nations,  voted  for  the  so-called  six  principles. 
Then  there  were  private  discussions  on  the  ap- 
plication of  those  six  principles  which  were  con- 
ducted by  the  Secretary-General  as  between  the 
Foreigii  Secretaries  of  the  United  Kingdom, 
France,  and  Egypt,  and  those  were  expressed  and 
embodied  in  a  letter  which  the  Secretary-General 
made  public  to  the  members  of  the  United  Na- 
tions. That  all  advanced  the  matter  quite  a  long 
way  toward  what  we  think  is  an  acceptable  so- 
lution, and  if  that  could  be  brought  to  a  conclu- 
sion, as  was  forecast  at  that  time,  I  think  it  would 
be  generally  acceptable. 

Q.  Mr.  Dulles,  referring  again  to  atomic  xoeap- 
ons,  would  the  United  States  forces  in  the  Pa- 
cific have  quick  access  to  them,  in  an  emergency? 

A.  The  United  States  forces,  yes  indeed.  Our 
forces  almost  everywhere  nowadays  have  atomic 
weapons  as  almost  a  normal  part  of  their  equip- 
ment. Now  we  don't  take  them  everywhere,  but 
so  far  as  they  are  on  American  soil  and  under 
American  jurisdiction  or  on  American  ships, 
American  planes,  they  have  immediate  access  to 
atomic  capabilities. 


Q.  Folloiving  that,  Mr.  Dulles,  the  Commander 
in  Chief  of  NATO  said  on  his  appointment  that 
he  would  use,  on  hehalf  of  NATO,  he  would  make 
the  fullest  use  of  all  atomic  weapons.  Does  that 
policy  also  apply  to  the  combined  forces  of 
SEATO? 

A.  Well,  of  course  we  don't  have  quite  the 
same  military  setup.  There  is  no  commander  of 
a  joint  operation  in  Seato  as  is  the  case  with 
Nato,  where  there  is  a  Saceur,  the  Supreme  Com- 
mander of  Europe,  who  has  the  operational  re- 
sponsibility for  forces  of  a  number  of  different 
nationalities.  But  the  United  States  forces  which 
are  committed  to  the  defense  of  Seato  would  have 
the  same  atomic  capability  as  the  United  States 
forces  do  in  Nato. 

Q.  Does  the  United  States  envisage  ever  using 
the  Woomera  rocket  range  for  rocket  testing? 

A.  Now  you  are  out  of  my  depth.  I  don't  know. 
That  is  a  matter  that  the  Defense  people  would 
Imow  about,  but  I  don't  know. 

Q.  There  was  some  speculation  that  Mr.  Menzies 
loould  he  asking  you  for  a  clear  definition  of 
United  States  policy  on  the  Middle  East  during 
your  visit  here.  I  guess  it  was  only  speculation, 
but  I  loonder  if  you  had  been  asked  for  that. 

A.  No,  I  wasn't  asked  for  that.  I  think  our 
position  is  fairly  clear.  I  will  take  one  more  ques- 
tion, and  I  have  to  get  ready  for  dinner  with  Lord 
Home. 

Q.  Have  you  a  clear  view  of  United  States  pol- 
icy on  the  Middle  East? 

A.  Have  I  a  clear  Adew  of  it  ?     I  think  so,  yes. 


Working  Group  on  German  Reunifica- 
tion Completes  Report 

Press  release  149  dated  March  15 

The  Working  Group,  consisting  of  representa- 
tives of  the  United  States,  the  United  Kingdom, 
France,  and  the  Federal  Republic  of  Germany, 
which  has  been  meeting  at  Washington  to  review 
the  problem  of  German  reunification  in  relation 
to  European  security,  has  now  completed  a  report 
for  the  consideration  of  the  four  governments.^ 


'  For  an  announcement  of  the  meeting,  which  began  on 
Mar.  6,  and  the  names  of  the  chief  representatives  of  the 
four  governments,  see  Bdxletin  of  Mar.  25,  1957,  p.  491. 


AptW  7,  7957 


537 


German  Minister  for  Atomic  Affairs 
To  Visit  the  United  States 

The  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  Commission  and  the 
Department  of  State  announced  on  March  12 
(press  release  136)  that  Siegfried  Balke,  German 
Federal  Minister  for  Atomic  Affairs,  would  arrive 
March  13,  aboard  the  S.S.  United  States.  He  will 
be  in  the  United  States  about  10  days. 

In  response  to  an  invitation  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  and  Lewis  L.  Strauss,  Chairman  of 
the  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  Dr.  Balke  will 
proceed  to  Washington  for  talks  with  officials  of 
the  Department  of  State  and  the  Atomic  Energy 
Commission.  Afterward,  the  Minister  will  visit 
the  first  full-scale  nuclear  power  plant  mider  con- 
struction at  Shippingport,  Pa.,  and  the  Commis- 
sion's National  Laboratories  at  Lemont,  111.,  and 
Oak  Ridge,  Tenn.  Before  returning  to  Germany, 
Dr.  Balke  will  visit  Canada. 


Mr.  Stassen  To  Represent  U.S. 
at  London  Disarmament  Meetings 

Press  release  139  dated  March  13 

Harold  E.  Stassen,  Special  Assistant  to  the 
President,  will  represent  the  U.S.  Government  at 
the  forthcoming  meetings  of  the  Disarmament 
Subcommittee  of  the  United  Nations  Disarma- 
ment Commission,  which  are  expected  to  convene 
at  London  on  March  18, 1957. 

Amos  J.  Peaslee,  formerly  American  Ambas- 
sador to  Australia,  will  be  the  Deputy  U.S. 
Representative. 

The  United  Nations  Disarmament  Commission 
was  established  by  the  General  Assembly  in  1952 
and  is  concerned  with  preparing  proposals  on  all 
aspects  of  the  regulation  of  armed  forces  and 
armaments,  including  nuclear  weapons.  The 
Commission  is  composed  of  the  11  members  of  the 
United  Nations  Security  Council  and  Canada. 
In  1953,  on  recommendation  of  the  General  As- 
sembly, the  Disarmament  Commission  set  up  a 
Subcommittee  of  Five — Canada,  France,  the 
United  Kingdom,  the  United  States,  and  the 
Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics — to  seek  in 
private  an  acceptable  solution  of  the  disarmament 
problem.  This  Subcommittee  met  most  recently 
at  Ijondon  in  the  spring  of  1956.    It  has  now  been 


reconvened  to  continue  its  efforts  in  accordance 
with  a  United  Nations  General  Assembly  reso- 
lution which  passed  76-0  on  February  15,  1957.^ 


Hungary's  National  Holiday 

Statement  hy  President  Eisenhower 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  15 

March  15th  is  a  day  of  special  significance  to 
the  Hungarian  people.  As  a  traditional  Hun- 
garian national  holiday  commemorating  the  Hun- 
garian people's  struggle  of  1848-49  against  for- 
eign domination,  it  symbolizes  their  enduring 
aspirations  for  freedom  and  national  independ- 
ence. 

It  is  most  fitting  at  this  time,  when  the  world 
has  again  witnessed  the  courageous  sacrifice  of  the 
Hungarian  people  for  these  cherished  ideals,  that 
we  should  affirm  our  understanding  of  the  mean- 
ing which  this  day  has  in  the  hearts  and  minds 
of  Hungarians  everywhere. 

The  struggle  for  human  freedom  has  been  a 
vital  force  in  the  history  and  progress  of  civilized 
mankind.  In  our  highly  interdependent  modern 
society  this  struggle,  wherever  waged,  has  neces- 
sarily become  the  common  concern  of  all  human- 
ity. Today,  as  in  the  time  of  Louis  Kossuth,  the 
American  people  deeply  sympathize  with  the  just 
demands  of  the  Himgarian  people  for  freedom  and 
independence. 

The  suffering  which  the  Hungarian  people  have 
undergone  for  the  sake  of  these  principles  has 
forged  an  vmbreakable  bond  with  the  free-world 
community.  The  Hungarian  people  have  in  their 
lifeblood  written  anew  the  message  that  an  alien 
and  unwelcome  ideology  cannot  forcibly  be  im- 
posed on  a  free-spirited  people.  Wlien  attempted, 
the  inevitable  result  is  the  complete  rejection  of 
that  ideology  and  hatred  of  those  who  seek  to  im- 
pose such  tyranny  upon  others.  In  recognition 
of  this  truth  which  the  Hungarian  people  have 
demonstrated,  we  can  do  no  less  than  express  our 
confident  hope  and  our  profound  belief  that  the 
processes  of  enlightemnent  and  justice  among  men 
and  nations  will  triumph  in  the  end  in  Hungary 
and  in  all  other  oppressed  nations. 


^  For  backgi-oiind,  see  Bdi,i.etin  of  Feb.  11,  1957,  p.  225, 
and  Mar.  11,  1957,  p.  423. 


538 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Department  Announcement  Regarding 
Canadian  Ambassador  to  Egypt 

Press  release  152  dated  March  16 

The  Canadian  Embassy  has  had  discussions 
■with  the  Department  of  State  with  regard  to  state- 
ments concerning  E.  H.  Norman,  now  Canadian 
Ambassador  to  Egypt,  made  on  March  14  during 
hearings  of  the  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcom- 
mittee. 

The  Department  of  State  notes  that  comments 
were  made  in  the  committee  hearings  which  could 
be  interpreted  as  assigning  to  Mr.  Norman  certain 
questionable  political  affiliations.  It  should  be 
pointed  out  that  the  investigation  being  under- 
taken by  the  committee  lies  entirely  within  the 
conti'ol  of  the  committee.  Allegations  which  may 
have  been  made  regarding  Mr.  Norman  in  the 
course  of  the  hearing  do  not  represent  opinions  of 
the  U.S.  Government. 

The  United  States  maintains  the  friendliest  re- 
lations with  Canada  and  has  every  confidence  in 
the  Canadian  Government's  judgment  in  the  selec- 
tion of  its  official  representatives. 


Tenth  Anniversary  of 
Greek-Turkish  Aid  Program 

Following  are  the  texts  of  messages  sent  hy 
President  Eisenhoioer  on  March  12  to  King  Paul 
of  Greece  and  President  Celal  Bayar  of  Turkey 
on  the  10th  anniversary  of  the  Greeh-Turkish  Aid 
Program. 

Message  to  King  of  Greece 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  12 

YoTjR  Maji:sty:  I  am  delighted  to  convey  to 
you  my  greetings  on  the  occasion  of  the  anniver- 
sary of  a  decade  of  Greek-American  coopera- 
tion in  the  interest  of  security  and  economic 
progress. 

Ten  years  ago,  Greece  was  fighting  bravely  for 
its  very  existence  against  the  onslaught  of  com- 
munist imperialism.  I  acclaim  Greek  achieve- 
ment in  winning  that  struggle  and  then  repairing 
the  devastation  it  had  caused,  and  in  continuing  to 
play  an  important  part  in  the  defense  of  the  free 
world. 

I  am  proud  that  Greece  and  the  United  States 


have  stood  together  during  this  difficult  period. 
The  partnership  of  our  countries  is  a  striking  ex- 
ample of  the  way  in  which  free  nations  working 
together  can  contribute  to  the  peace  and  security 
of  the  international  community. 
Most  respectfully, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 

Message  to  President  of  Turkey 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  12 

Dear  Mr.  President:  On  the  occasion  of  the 
anniversary  of  a  decade  of  Turkish-American  co- 
operation in  the  interest  of  security  and  economic 
progress,  I  am  delighted  to  convey  to  you  my 
greetings.  I  acclaim  the  accomplishments  of  Tur- 
key during  the  past  ten  years  in  strengthening  its 
position  of  enlightened  leadership,  and  in  taking 
an  important  part  in  the  defense  of  the  free  world. 

I  am  proud  that  Turkey  and  the  United  States 
have  stood  together  during  this  difficult  period. 
The  partnersliip  of  our  countries  is  a  striking  ex- 
ample of  the  way  in  which  free  nations  working 
together  can  contribute  to  the  peace  and  security 
of  the  international  community. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


Pan  American  Games 

Press  release  142  dated  March  13 

In  view'  of  extensive  'press  inquiries  regarding 
the  appropriation  for  the  Pan  American  games 
scheduled  to  he  held  at  Cleveland  in  1959,  Roy  R. 
Rubottom,  Jr.,  Acting  Assistant  Secretary  for 
Inter-Amencan  Affairs,  and  I.  W.  Carpenter,  Jr., 
Assistant  Secretary-Controller,  made  the  follow- 
ing statements  on  March  13: 


STATEMENT  BY  MR.  RUBOTTOM 

The  Pan  American  games  were  inaugurated 
after  World  War  II  by  the  Pan  American  Sports 
Congress,  an  organization  composed  of  29  nations 
of  the  Western  Hemisphere.  They  are  patterned 
after  the  Olympic  games  and  are  to  be  held  every 
4  years,  the  first  having  been  held  in  Buenos  Aires 
in  1951  and  the  second  in  Mexico  City  in  1955.  It 
is  my  understanding  that  representatives  of  the 


AptW   7,    7957 


539 


city  of  Cleveland  issued  an  invitation  to  this  group 
to  hold  the  1959  games  in  their  city,  and  on  March 
11,  1955,  this  invitation  was  accepted  by  the  Pan 
American  Sports  Congress  and  Cleveland  was 
designated  as  the  site  for  the  1959  games. 

Wlien  the  legislation  was  proposed,  the  Depart- 
ment commented  as  follows : 

This  occasion  will  provide  our  country  with  an  oppor- 
tunity to  further  promote  pan-American  friendship 
through  the  effective  media  of  amateur  sportsmanship. 
Our  facilities,  our  hospitality  and  our  treatment  of  the 
many  visitors  from  abroad,  both  participants  in  the 
games  and  spectators,  will  be  compared  with  that  which 
was  provided  by  Argentina  and  Mexico.  It  is  important 
that  this  comparison  not  be  to  our  discredit.  Not  only 
foreigners  coming  to  Cleveland,  but  the  millions  who  will 
follow  the  games  abroad  by  press,  radio  and  television 
will  be  apprised  of  the  importance  and  attention  our  coun- 
try gives  these  games.  They  can  make  a  long-term  con- 
tribution to  our  foreign  policy  objectives  by  creating  a 
broader  understanding  of  our  country  and  people  and  our 
recognition  of  the  importance  of  our  good  neighbors  of 
this  hemisphere. 

It  is  the  position  of  the  Department  that  this  under- 
taking by  the  city  of  Cleveland  to  be  host  to  the  Pan- 
American  Games  in  1959  merits  appropriate  support  from 
the  Federal  Government.  It  may  be  appropriate  to  point 
out  that  the  National  Governments  of  both  Argentina  and 
Mexico  provided  substantial  financial  support  in  the 
organization  of  the  games  In  their  capitals. 

On  July  30, 1956,  a  joint  resolution  of  Congress 
was  approved  as  Public  Law  833  and  reads  as 
follows : 

Resolved  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representa- 
tives of  the  United  States  of  America  in  Congress  as- 
sembled. That  there  is  hereby  authorized  to  be  appropri- 
ated out  of  moneys  in  the  Treasury  not  otherwise  appro- 
priated tie  sum  of  $5,000,000  for  III  Pan  American  Games 
(1959).  The  said  appropriation  shall  be  available  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  and  insuring  the  success  of  the 
Pan  American  games  to  be  held  in  Cleveland,  Ohio,  in 
1959  and  shall  be  expended  in  the  discretion  of  the  organi- 
zation sponsoring  said  games,  subject  to  such  audit  as 
may  be  prescribed  by  the  Comptroller  General  of  the 
United  States. 


STATEMENT  BY  MR.  CARPENTER 

The  Department  of  State  is  in  no  way  responsi- 
ble for  the  issuance  of  the  invitation  for  the  games 
to  be  held  in  Cleveland.  The  Department's  inter- 
est is  based  on  its  desire  that  the  games  be  held  in 


circumstances  and  in  an  atmosphere  which  will 
promote  friendly  relations  among  the  nations  of 
this  hemisphere.  Since  an  American  city  is  the 
host,  it  is  particularly  important  that  our  foreign 
guests  depart  with  a  feeling  that  they  have  been 
among  sincere  friends. 

An  appropriation  has  been  included  in  the  De- 
partment's budget  for  fiscal  year  1958.  The  De- 
partment is  not  in  a  position  to  speak  to  the  de- 
tails for  which  these  funds  are  required.  Officials 
of  the  city  of  Cleveland  and  of  the  Pan  American 
Games  Foundation  are  familiar  with  that. 

The  Department  has  no  substantive  responsi- 
bility for  these  games.  Neither  will  it  have  a 
voice  with  regard  to  the  manner  in  which  these 
funds  will  be  spent.  It  would  seem  appropriate, 
therefore,  that  justification  for  these  funds  should 
be  advanced  by  the  representatives  of  the  Cleve- 
land Pan  American  Games  Foundation,  which 
organization  would  have  the  responsibility  rather 
than  the  Department. 

The  Department  believes  that  the  inclusion  of 
this  type  of  estimate  in  the  State  Department 
appropriation  stinicture  is  vmdesirable  since  the 
State  Department  does  not  customarily  engage 
in  actually  spending  funds  for  activities  of  this 
kind  within  the  United  States.  The  Department 
will  have  no  objection  if  this  item  were  to  be  re- 
moved from  its  appropriation  chapter. 


Letters  of  Credence 

Haiti 

The  newly  appointed  Ambassador  of  Haiti, 
Dantes  Bellegarde,  presented  his  credentials  to 
President  Eisenhower  on  March  11.  For  the 
texts  of  the  Ambassador's  remarks  and  the  Presi- 
dent's reply,  see  Department  of  State  press  release 
127. 

Chile 

The  newly  appointed  Ambassador  of  Chile, 
Mariano  Puga,  presented  his  credentials  to  Presi- 
dent Eisenhower  on  March  12.  For  the  texts  of 
the  Ambassador's  remarks  and  the  President's  re- 
ply, see  Department  of  State  press  release  133. 


540 


Departmenf  of  Stafe   Bulletin 


INTERNATIONAL  ORGANIZATIONS  AND  CONFERENCES 


Calendar  of  Meetings ' 

Adjourned  During  March  1957 

U.N.  General  Assembly:  11th  Session New  York Nov.  12,  1956-Mar. 

9,  1957. 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Subcommission  on  Prevention  of  Discrimination  and  New  York Feb.  18-Mar.  15 

Protection  of  Minorities:  9th  Session. 

ICAO  Technical  Panel  on  Teletypewriter Montreal Feb.  19-Mar.  8 

U.N.  ECE  Working  Party  on  Gas  Problems:  2d  Session Geneva Feb.  25-Mar.  1 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Population  Commission:  9th  Session New  York Feb.  25-Mar.  8 

ILO  Governing  Body:  134th  Session  (and  Committees) Geneva Feb.  25-Mar.  9 

International  Sugar  Council:  Statistical  Committee London Mar.  4  (1  day) 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Committee  on  Nongovernmental  Organizations    .    .  New  York Mar.  4-6 

SEATO  Engineering  Workshop  Study  Group Rawalpindi,  Pakistan     .    .    .  Mar.  4-7 

International  Sugar  Council:  Executive  Committee London Mar.  5  (1  day) 

International  Sugar  Council:  12th  Session London Mar.  6-7 

FAO  Committee  on  Relations  with  International  Organizations     .  Rome Mar.  7-8 

U.N.  ECAFEIndustrv  and  Trade  Committee:  9th  Session    ....  Bangkok Mar.  7-17 

SEATO  Council:  3d  Meeting Canberra Mar.  11-13 

Technical  Advisory  Council  of  Inter-American  Institute  of  Agri-  Turrialba,   Costa  Rica  .    .    .  Mar.  11-14 

cultural  Sciences:  2d  Meeting. 

FAO  Ad  Hoc  Intergovernmental  Meeting  on  Wheat  and  Coarse  Rome Mar.  11-15 

Grains. 

International  North  Pacific  Fisheries  Commission:  Ad  Hoc  Com-  Tokyo Mar.  11-17 

mittee  for  Study  of  Reports  Submitted  Under  Article  III  1  (a)  of 

the  International  North  Pacific  Fisheries  Convention. 

9th  Pakistan  Science  Conference Peshawar,  West  Pakistan  .    .  Mar.  11-18 

ILO  Inland  Transport  Committee:  6th  Session Hamburg Mar.  11-23 

International  North  Pacific  Fisheries  Commission:  Standing  Com-  Tokyo Mar.  18-23 

mission  on  Biology  and  Research. 

U.N.  Economic  Commission  for  Asia  and  the  Far  East:  13th  Ses-  Bangkok Mar.  18-28 

sion. 

FAO  Committee  on  Commodity  Problems:  28th  Session     ....  Rome Mar.  18-29 

International  Tin  Study  Group  and  Management  Committee:  9th  London Mar.  19-20 

Meeting. 

WMO  Working  Group  on  Networks  of  the  Commission  for  Synoptic  DeBilt,  Netherlands  ....  Mar.  19-30 

Meteorology.  .,,  ,  >,».»» 

U.S.-U.K.  Bermuda  Meeting Bermuda Mar.  21-23 

in  Session  as  of  March  31,  1957 

U.N.  Trusteeship  Council:  Standing  Committee  on  Petitions.    .    .  New  York Feb.  18- 
U.N.  Arf //oc  Committee  on  Establishment  of  Special  U.N.  Fund  for  New  York Mar.  11- 

Economic  Development  (SUNFED).  ,,         „ 

ICAO   Aerodromes,   Air  Routes,   and   Ground  Aids  Division:  6th  Montreal Mar.  12- 

Session.  ..t       -.r    ,  i>i       , . 

U.N.  Trusteeship  Council:  19th  Session New  York Mar.  14- 

U.N.  Disarmament  Commission:  Subcommittee  of  Five London Mar.  18- 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Commission  on  Status  of  Women:  11th  Session     .  New  York Mar.  18- 

ICEM  Executive  Committee:  7th  Session Geneva Mar.  28- 

Scheduied  April  1-June  30,  1957 

FAO  Cocoa  Studv  Group:  Statistical  Subcommittee Rome Apr.  1- 

UPU  Executive  and  Liaison  Committee Lausanne Apr.  1- 


*  Prepared  in  the  Office  of  International  Conferences,  Mar.  1.5.  1957.  Asterisks  Indicate  tentative  dates  and  places. 
Following  is  a  list  of  abbreviations:  U.N.,  United  Nations;  ECOSOC,  Economic  and  Social  Council:  ICAO,  International 
Civil  Aviation  Organization ;  ECE,  Economic  Commission  for  Europe ;  ILO,  International  Labor  Organization ;  SEATO, 
Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization :  FAO,  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization ;  ECAFE,  Economic  Commission  for  Asia 
and  the  Far  East  •  WMO,  World  Meteorological  Organization  ;  ICEM,  Intergovernmental  Committee  for  European  Migra- 
tion- UPU  Universal  Postal  Union:  UNESCO,  United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  Organization; 
UNICEP  United  Nations  Children's  Fund :  GATT,  General  Agreement  on  Tariffs  and  Trade ;  ITU,  International  Tele- 
commimication  Union ;  NATO,  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization  ;  WHO,  World  Health  Organization  ;  UNREF,  United 
Nations  Refugee  Fund ;  PAIGH,  Pan  American  Institute  of  Geography  and  History ;  PASO,  Pan  American  Sanitary 
Organization. 

April    I,   7957  541 


Calendar  of  Meetings — Continued 

Scheduled  April  1-June  30, 1957 — Continued 

ILO  Advisory  Committee  on  Salaried  Employees  and  Professional  Geneva Apr.  1- 

Workers:  4th  Session. 

UNESCO  Intergovernmental  Advisory  Committee  on  the  Major  Paris Apr.  1- 

Project  on  Mutual  Appreciation  of  Asian  and  Western  Cultural 

Values:  1st  Meeting. 

FAO  European  Commission  for  Control  of  Foot-and-Mouth  Disease:  Rome Apr.  2- 

4th  Session. 

FAO  Special  Committee  on  Observer  Status Rome Apr.  2- 

FAO  Cocoa  Study  Group:  Executive  Committee Rome Apr.  4- 

ICEM  Subcommittee  on  Coordination  of  Transport Geneva Apr.  5- 

ICEM  Council:  6th  Session Geneva Apr.  8- 

U.N.  Scientific  Committee  on  the  Eflfects  of  Atomic  Radiation:  3d  Geneva Apr.  8- 

Meeting. 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Commission  on  Human  Rights:  13th  Session  .    .    .  Geneva Apr.  8- 

U.N.  ECAFE:  5th  Regional  Conference  of  Asian  Statisticians  .    .    .  Bangkok Apr.  8- 

UNICEF  Executive  Board  and  Program  Committee New  York Apr.  8- 

ILO  Tripartite   Working  Party  on   Wages,   Hours  of  Work,  and  Geneva Apr.  11- 

Manning  on  Board  Ship. 

United  States  World  Trade  Fair New  York Apr.  14- 

U.N. Economic  and  Social  Council:  23d  Session New  York Apr.  16- 

Inter- American   Commission   of   Women:   Technical   Experts   and  Mexico,  D.  F Apr.  20- 

Administrative  Heads  of  Women's  Labor  Bureaus. 

FAO  International  Poplar  Commission:  9th  Session Paris Apr.  22- 

International  Poplar  Congress Paris Apr.  22- 

ICAO    Legal    Committee:  Subcommittee   on   Hire,    Charter,    and  Madrid Apr.  24- 

Interchange  of  Aircraft. 

2d  European  Civil  Aviation  Conference Madrid Apr.  24- 

9th  ILO  International  Conference  of  Labor  Statisticians     ....  Geneva Apr.  24- 

U.N.  ECE  Steel  Committee  and  Working  Parties Geneva Apr.  24- 

Inter-American    Committee    of    Presidential    Representatives:    3d  Washington Apr.  29- 

Meeting. 

ITU  Administrative  Council:  12th  Session Geneva Apr.  29- 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Narcotic  Drugs  Commission:  12th  Session  .    .    .    .  New  York Apr.  29- 

U.N.  Economic  Commission  for  Europe:   12th  Session Geneva Apr.  29- 

South  Pacific  Commission:  Conference  on  Review  of  the  Commis-  Canberra Apr.  30- 

sion. 

International  Commission  on  Irrigation  and  Drainage:  3d  Congress.  San  Francisco May  1- 

10th  International  Cannes  Film  Festival Cannes May  2- 

NATO  Council:  Ministerial  Meeting Bonn May  2- 

ILO  Mptal  Trades  Committpe:  6th  Si'ssion Geneva May  6- 

FAO  Technical  Meeting  on  Soil  Fertility  for  Latin  America  ....  Turrialba,  Costa  Rica    .    .    .  May  6- 

U.N.  ECE  Seminar  on  Industrial  Statistics Athens May  6- 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Social  Commission:   11th  Session New  York May  6- 

FAO  European  Forestrv  Commission:  9th  Session Rome May  7- 

WHO:   10th  World  Hpalth  Assembly Geneva May  7- 

International  Hydrographic  Bureau:  7th  Congress Monte  Carlo May  7- 

Inter- American    Travel    Congresses:  Permanent    Executive    Com-  Washington May  10- 

mittee. 

FAO  Indo-Pacific  Fisheries  Council:  7th  Session Bandung May  13- 

U.N.    ECAFE    Highway    Subcommittee:  Seminar    on    Highway  Tokyo Mav  13- 

Safety. 

U.N.  Economic  Commission  for  Latin  America:  7th  Session  ...  La  Paz May  15- 

International  Conference  for  Uses  of  Radar  in  Marine  Navigation  .  Genoa May  16- 

International  Cotton  Advisory  Committee:   16th  Plenary  Meeting  .  Istanbul May  20- 

Intf'rnational   Commission   for   Northwest  Atlantic  Fisheries:  7th  Lisbon May  20- 

Meeting. 

Customs  Cooperation  Council:  10th  Session Brussels May  27- 

WHO  Executive  Board:  20th  Session Geneva May  27- 

ILO  Governing  Body:  135th  Session Geneva May  27- 

U.N.  ECE  Housing  Committee:   14th  Session  and  Working  Parties .  Geneva May  27- 

UNREF  Standing  Program  Subcommittee:  5th  Meeting Geneva May  27- 

UNESCO  Executive  Board:  48th  Session Paris May  27- 

PAIGH  Directing  Council:  2d  Meeting Rio  de  Janeiro May* 

Inter-Ameriean  Commission  of  Women:  12th  General  Assembly .    .  Washington June  1- 

FAO  Council:  26th  Session Madrid June  3- 

UNREF  Executive  Committee:  5th  Session G?neva June  3- 

U.N.  ECAFE  Working  Party  on  Small-Scale  Industries  and  Handi-  India June  3- 

craft  Marketing:  5th  Meeting. 

World  Power  Conference :  International  Executive  Council ....  Belgrade June  4- 

World  Power  Conference:  Sectional  Meeting Belgrade June  5- 

International  Labor  Conference:  40th  Session Geneva June  5- 

FAO  Asia-Pacific  Forestry  Commission:  4th  Session Bandung June  8- 

542  Deparfment  of  Sfafe  BuUefin 


Calendar  of  Meetings — Continued 


Scheduled  April  1-June  30,  1957 — Continued 

GATT  Balance-of-Payments  Consultations 

U.N.  ECE  Inland  Transport  Committee:  Working  Party  on  Trans- 
port of  Dangerous  Goods. 

PASO  Executive  Committee:  31st  Meeting 

ICAO  Panel  on  Future  Requirements  for  Turbo-jet  Aircraft:  3d 
Meeting. 

WMO  Commission  for  Aerology:  2d  Session 

WMO  Commission  for  Instruments  and  Methods  of  Observation: 
2d  Session. 

7th  International  Film  Festival 

FAO  Technical  Advisory  Committee  on  Desert  Locust  Control:  7th 
Meeting. 

International  Rubber  Study  Group:  13th  Meeting 

International  Council  for  the  Exploration  of  the  Sea:  45th  Meeting  . 

International  Whaling  Commission:  9th  Meeting 

U.N.  ECAFE  Iron  and  Steel  Subcommittee:  7th  Session 

FAO  Desert  Locust  Control  Committee:  4th  Session 

U.N.  ECOSOC  Coordination  Committee 

International  Wheat  Council:  22d  Session 


Geneva   June  10- 

Geneva June  11- 

Washington June  12- 

Montreal June  17- 

Paris June  18- 

Paris June  18- 

Berlin June  21- 

Morocco* June  23*- 

Djakarta June  24- 

London June  24- 

London June  24- 

Bangkok  .    .  June  24- 

Morocco* June  2.5*- 

Geneva June  25- 

London June 


Compliance  With  U.N.  Resolution  Calling  for  Withdrawal  of  Israel 
From  Egyptian  Territory 


FoUoioing  is  the  text  of  a  statement  made  hy 
Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  U.S.  Representative  to  the 
General  Assembly,  on  March  8,  together  with  a 
statement  made  by  Secretary-General  Dag  Ham- 
marskjold  in  the  plenary  session  of  February  22 
and  a  report  by  the  Secretary-General  on  March  8. 


STATEMENT  BY  AMBASSADOR  LODGE,  MARCH  8 

U.S.  delegation  press  release  2640 

Today  marks  compliance  with  our  first  resolu- 
tion of  February  2  ^  for  the  withdrawal  of  Israel 
from  Egypt.  The  way  now  lies  open  to  cari-y  out 
our  second  resolution,  which  aims  at  acliieving 
peaceful  conditions  after  withdrawal. 

This  is  an  event  in  the  history  of  the  United 
Nations  which  is  full  of  deep  meaning  for  all 
people  in  the  world — wherever  they  may  be— who 
wish  to  be  saved  from  the  scourge  of  war. 

It  is  an  event  which  reflects  credit  on  Israel,  a 
nation  which  heeded  the  call  of  world  opinion. 

It  is  an  event  which  reflects  credit  on  those  mem- 
bers, notably  Egypt,  who  by  patience  and  forbear- 


ance demonstrated  their  steadfast  faith  in  the 
United  Nations. 

It  is  an  event  which  reflects  credit  on  the  skill, 
wisdom,  and  devotion  to  duty  of  the  Secretary- 
General. 

It  is  an  event  which  proves  again  the  value  of 
the  United  Nations  as  an  organization  which  plays 
an  indispensable  part  in  causing  the  world,  as  in 
this  case,  to  take  a  turn  away  from  war. 

The  United  States  welcomes  the  report  of  the 
Secretary-General  and  pledges  its  support  to  as- 
sure that  what  has  now  been  achieved  will  be  used 
as  a  foundation  on  which  to  build  a  good  future 
for  the  people  of  the  Near  East  free  from  the  dan- 
ger of  conflict. 

As  is  fitting,  the  report  dwells  on  the  construc- 
tive purposes  of  our  second  resolution  of  February 
2}  This  resolution  stated  that  after  full  with- 
drawal of  Israel  from  the  Sharm  el-Sheikh  and 
Gaza  areas  the  scrupulous  maintenance  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement  required  the  placing  of 
Unef  on  the  Egyptian-Israel  demarcation  line  and 
the  implementation  of  other  measures  proposed  in 
the  Secretary-General's  report  of  24  January  ^  to 


'  Bulletin  of  Feb.  25,  1957,  p.  327. 


'  Ihid.,  Feb.  18,  1957,  p.  275. 


April   ?,   1957 


543 


assist  in  achieving  a  situation  conducive  to  the 
maintenance  of  peaceful  conditions  in  the  area. 

The  steady  worsening  of  conditions  along  the 
armistice  line  which  culminated  in  the  hostilities 
of  last  October  demonstrated  how  fear  of  aggres- 
sion on  one  side  begets  fear  on  the  other.  Out  of 
this  fear  comes  the  danger  for  the  future. 

It  was  to  head  off  this  danger  that  the  Assembly 
endorsed  the  deployment  of  the  United  Nations 
Emergency  Force  on  the  armistice  line  and  at  the 
Straits  of  Tiran.  It  was  with  this  danger  in 
mind  that  I  pointed  out  on  January  28  ^  that  the 
deployment  of  the  United  Nations  Emergency 
Force  must  be  such  as  to  assure  a  separation  of  the 
armed  forces  of  both  sides  as  required  by  the 
Armistice  Agreement. 

Now  that  we  approach  this  new  stage  in  the  de- 
ployment of  the  Unef,  the  United  States  appeals 
to  all  concerned  to  cooperate  in  giving  effect  to 
the  practical  and  sensible  measures  which  are  set 
out  in  the  reports  by  the  Secretary-General  of 
January  24,  February  22,  and  March  8,  and  which 
are  called  for  by  the  second  resolution  of  Febru- 
ary 2.  The  United  States  in  particular  is  con- 
vinced that  the  continued  deployment  of  the 
United  Nations  Emergency  Force  in  accordance 
with  the  second  resolution  of  February  2  affords 
the  best  hope  of  allaying  the  fear  which  has  ani- 
mated both  sides  and,  thus,  of  establishing  a  basis 
for  further  progress  toward  peace  and  tranquillity 
in  that  part  of  the  world. 

We  have  made  a  wonderful  beginning.  We 
have  nursed  the  patient  through  several  crises. 
Now  let  us  give  him  a  chance  to  put  some  flesh  on 
his  bones,  and  build  up  an  immunity  to  future 
illness. 


STATEMENT     BY    SECRETARY-GENERAL,     FEB- 
RUARY 22 

United  Nations  press  release  dated  February  22 

On  February  11th  I  submitted  the  report  (A/3527),'  in 
pursuance  of  the  resolution  of  the  General  Assembly  of  2 
February  (A/Res/461).  Events  since  then  have  not 
called  for  .i  further  report  and  I  have  presented  none. 

It  is  well-known,  however,  that  discussions  have  been 
carried  on  outside  this  house  in  the  continuing  resolve  to 
attain  the  goals  defined  in  the  several  resolutions  of  the 


'Ibid.,  p.  270. 

'Ibid.,  Mar.  11,  1057,  p.  394. 


General  Assembly.  I  have  maintained  close  contact  with 
these  activities  and  have  been  kept  well-informed  on  them. 
These  serious  efforts  to  break  through  the  unfortunate 
Impasse  and  to  unlock  the  door  to  constructive  endeavour 
are  deserving  of  warm  appreciation. 

Insofar  as  United  Nations  activities  and  positions  are 
concerned,  developments  in  the  interim  have  given  no 
reason  to  revise  any  of  the  substance  of  the  previous  re- 
port. However,  in  the  light  of  some  subsequent  discus- 
sions in  which  I  have  engaged,  I  may  make  the  following 
statement  in  the  nature  of  a  supplement  to  that  report. 

"The  Secretary-General  states  with  confidence  that  it  is 
the  desire  of  the  Government  of  Egypt  that  the  take-over 
of  Gaza  from  the  military  and  civilian  control  of  Israel — 
which,  as  has  been  the  case,  in  the  first  instance  would  be 
exclusively  by  UNEF — will  be  orderly  and  safe,  as  it  has 
been  elsewhere.  It  may  be  added  with  equal  confidence 
that  the  Government  of  Egypt,  recognizing  the  present 
special  problems  and  complexities  of  the  Gaza  area  and 
the  long-standing  major  responsibility  of  the  United  Na- 
tions there  for  the  assistance  of  the  Arab  refugees,  and 
having  in  mind  also  the  objectives  and  obligations  of  the 
Armistice  Agreement,  has  the  willingness  and  readiness 
to  make  special  and  helpful  arrangements  with  the  United 
Nations  and  some  of  its  auxiliary  bodies,  such  as  UNEWA 
and  UNEF.  For  example,  the  arrangement  for  the  use  of 
UNEF  in  the  area  should  ensure  its  deployment  on  the 
Armistice  line  at  the  Gaza  Strip  and  the  effective  inter- 
position of  the  Force  between  the  armed  forces  of  Egypt 
and  Israel.  Similarly,  the  assistance  of  the  United  Na- 
tions and  its  appropriate  auxiliary  bodies  would  be  en- 
rolled toward  putting  a  definite  end  to  all  incursions  and 
raids  across  the  border  from  either  side.  Furthermore, 
with  reference  to  the  period  of  transition,  such  other  ar- 
rangements with  the  United  Nations  may  be  made  as  will 
contribute  towards  safeguarding  life  and  property  in  the 
area  by  providing  eflicient  and  effective  police  protection; 
as  will  guarantee  good  civilian  administration ;  as  will 
assure  maximum  assistance  to  the  U.N.  refugee  pro- 
gramme; and  as  will  protect  and  foster  the  economic 
development  of  the  territory  and  its  people." 


REPORT    OF   SECRETARY-GENERAL,    MARCH    8 

U.N.  doe.  A/.3568 

I 

1.  The  General  Assembly,  on  2  February  1957,  adopted 
a  resolution  (A/Res/460)  in  which,  after  recalling  its 
previous  resolutions  on  the  same  subject,  the  Assembly 
called  upon  Israel  to  complete  its  withdrawal  behind  the 
Armistice  Demarcation  Line  without  further  delay. 

2.  The  Foreign  Minister  of  Israel,  on  1  March,  an- 
nounced in  the  General  .\ssembly  the  decision  of  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Israel  to  act  in  compliance  with  the  re<iuest 
in  this  resolution.  The  same  day  the  Secretary-General 
instructed  the  Commander  of  the  United  Nations  Emer- 
gency Force,  as  a  matter  of  the  utmost  urgency,  to  arrange 
for  a  meeting  with  the  Israel  Conniiander-iu-Chief,  in 
order  to  agree  with  him  on  arrangements  for  the  com- 


544 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


plete  and  unconditional  withdrawal  of  Israel  in  accord- 
ance with  the  decision  of  the  General  Assembly. 

3.  On  4  March,  the  Foreign  Aliuister  of  Israel  conflrnied 
to  the  General  Assembly  the  Government  of  Israel's 
declaration  of  1  March.  The  same  day  the  Commander 
of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  met  at  Lydda 
with  the  Israel  Commander-in-Chief.  Technical  arrange- 
ments were  agreed  upon  for  the  withdrawal  of  Israel  and 
the  entry  of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  in  the 
Gaza  Strip  during  the  hours  of  curfew  on  the  night  of 
6/7  March.  Arrangements  were  made  for  a  similar  take- 
over of  the  Sharm-al-Shaik  area  on  8  March. 

4.  On  6  March,  General  Burns  reported  that  the  "United 
Nations  Emergency  Force  troops  are  now  in  position  in 
all  camps  and  centres  of  population  in  Gaza  Strip".  At 
that  stage  the  operation  had  been  carried  out  according 
to  plan  and  without  incidents.  At  0400  GMT  7  March 
all  Israelis  had  withdrawn  from  the  Gaza  Strip  with 
the  exception  of  an  Israel  troop  unit  at  Rafah  camp.  By 
agreement,  that  last  Israel  element  was  to  be  withdrawn 
by  1600  GMT  8  March.  Full  withdrawal  from  the  Sharm- 
al-Shaik  area  would  be  effected  by  the  same  time. 

5.  On  7  March,  the  Commander  of  the  United  Nations 
Emergency  Force  notified  the  population  of  Gaza  that  "the 
United  Nations  Emergency  Force,  acting  in  fulfilment  of 
its  functions  as  determined  by  the  General  Assembly  of 
the  United  Nations  with  the  consent  of  the  Government 
of  Egypt,  is  being  deployed  in  this  area  for  the  purpose 
of  maintaining  quiet  during  and  after  the  withdrawal  of 
the  Israeli  defense  forces.  Until  further  arrangements 
are  made,  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  has  as- 
sumed responsibility  for  civil  affairs  in  the  Gaza  Strip. 
.  .  .  UNRWA  will  continue  to  carry  out  its  resjMnsibility 
and  will  continue  to  provide  food  and  other  services  as 
in  the  past.  UNEF  and  UNRWA  will  do  their  best  to 
relieve  pressing  needs  which  may  arise  from  the  present 
situation". 

6.  The  Secretary-General,  thus,  is  now  in  a  position  to 
report  full  compliance  with  General  Assembly  resolution 
I  of  2  February  1957  (A/Res/460). 

II 

7.  On  2  February,  the  General  Assembly  adopted  a  sec- 
ond resolution  (A/Res/461)  "recognizing  that  with- 
drawal by  Israel  must  be  followed  by  action  which  would 
assure  progress  towards  the  creation  of  i)eaceful  con- 
ditiou.s"  in  the  area.  Under  the  terms  of  this  resolution, 
the  completion  of  withdrawal  puts  its  operative  para- 
graphs into  full  effect. 

S.  In  the  resolution  on  action  to  foUow  a  withdrawal, 
the  General  Assembly  requested  the  Secretary-General,  in 
consultation  with  the  parties  concerned,  to  carry  out 
measures  referred  to  in  the  resolution  and  to  report  as 
appropriate  to  the  General  Assembly.  The  Secretary- 
General  will  now  devote  his  attention  to  this  task.  The 
stand  of  the  General  Assembly  in  the  resolution  is  to  be 
interpreted  in  the  light  of  the  report  of  the  Secretary- 
General  of  24  January  (A/3512),  which  the  Assembly 
noted  "with  appreciation". 

9.  Specifically,  the  General  Assembly  called  upon  the 
Governments  of  Egypt  and  Israel  scrupulously  to  observe 
the  provisions  of  the  General  Armistice  Agreement  be- 


tween Egypt  and  Israel  of  24  February  1949  and  stated 
that  it  considered  that,  after  full  withdrawal  of  Israel 
from  the  Sharm-al-Shaik  and  Gaza  areas,  the  scrupulous 
maintenance  of  the  Armistice  Agreement  "requires  a  plac- 
ing of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  on  the  Egypt- 
Israel  Armistice  Demarcation  Line". 

10.  The  Assembly  further  stated  that  it  considered  that 
the  maintenance  of  the  Armistice  Agreement  requires  the 
implementation  of  "other  measures  as  proposed  in  the 
Secretary-General's  report",  with  due  regard  to  the  con- 
siderations set  out  therein,  with  a  view  to  assist  in 
achieving  situations  conducive  to  the  maintenance  of 
peaceful  conditions  in  the  area.  This  statement,  as  it 
was  formulated,  read  together  with  the  request  to  the 
Secretary-General  to  consult  with  the  parties,  indicates 
that  the  General  Assembly  wished  to  leave  the  choice  of 
these  "other  measures"  to  be  decided  in  the  light  of 
further  study  and  consultations. 

Ill 

11.  Arrangements  made  by  the  Commander  of  the 
United  Nations  Emergency  Force  provided  for  an  initial 
take-over  in  Gaza  by  the  Force.  This  was  in  accordance 
with  the  statement  of  the  Secretary-General  to  the  General 
Assembly  on  22  February,  that  "the  take-over  of  Gaza 
from  the  military  and  civilian  control  of  Israel  ...  in 
the  first  instance  would  be  exclusively  by  UNEF".  In- 
structions from  the  Secretary-General  to  the  Commander 
of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  reflected  the 
position  thus  reported  to  the  General  Assembly.  The 
notification  by  the  Commander  quoted  in  section  I  above 
indicates  the  basis  for  this  initial  take-over  as  well  as  its 
extent.  The  same  statement  indicates  the  importance  of 
the  role  that  UNRWA  can  play  in  the  initial  take-over. 

12.  In  accordance  with  decisions  of  the  General  Assem- 
bly, UNRWA  has  important  functions  in  relation  to  the 
refugees  in  Gaza,  which  constitute  the  major  part  of  the 
population  of  the  area.  Because  of  these  normal  functions 
and  of  the  additional  contributions  which  that  agency 
can  make  in  aiding  the  non-refugee  population,  UNRWA 
is  of  essential  assistance  to  the  United  Nations  Emergency 
Force  in  its  present  operation.  Therefore,  and  on  the  as- 
sumption that  this  course  is  in  accordance  with  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly's  wishes,  the  Director  of  UNRWA  has 
agreed  with  the  Secretary-General  in  this  phase  of  the 
development  to  extend  its  immediate  assistance  beyond 
its  normal  functions.  This  would  be  done  in  fields  which 
are  related  to  those  functions  and  in  which  a  sharing  of 
responsibilities  devolving  on  the  United  Nations  Emer- 
gency Force  at  the  initial  take-over  seems  indicated.  The 
Secretary-General  wishes  to  express  his  appreciation 
for  this  assistance,  of  which  he  feels  he  can  avail  himself 
within  the  terms  established  for  the  United  Nations  Emer- 
gency Force  as  they  have  to  be  applied  in  the  present  phase 
of  its  activities.  To  the  extent  that  UNRWA  in  this  con- 
text is  incurring  additional  costs,  the  reason  for  which 
is  within  the  sphere  of  the  responsibilities  of  the  United 
Nations  Emergency  Force,  a  question  of  compensation  will 
arise  for  later  consideration. 

13.  The  United  Nations  may  also  incur  other  additional 
costs  than  those  caused  by  the  assistance  rendered  by 


April   1,   1957 


545 


DNRWA.  The  Emergency  Force  may  be  in  need  of  ex- 
pert advice  that  can  properly  be  provided  by  the  Secre- 
tariat. If  members  of  the  Secretariat  are  taken  over  by 
the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  on  a  secondment 
basis,  the  cost  obviously  will  be  finally  provided  for  as 
UNEP  expenditures  under  the  relevant  resolutions  of 
the  General  Assembly.  In  other  cases  costs  should  be 
carried  by  the  Secretariat  in  the  normal  veay. 

14.  The  Secretary-General  finally  wishes  to  inform  the 
General  Assembly  that  arrangements  will  be  made 
through  which,  without  any  change  of  the  legal  structure 
or  status  of  the  United  Nations  Truce  Supervision  Or- 
ganization, functions  of  UNTSO  in  the  Gaza  area  will  be 
placed  under  the  operational  control  of  the  Force.  A 
close  co-operation  between  UNTSO  and  UNEF  will  be 
maintained. 

U.S.  Delegations  to 
International  Conferences 

Inland  Transport  Committee  of  ILO 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  March 
11  (press  release  129)  that  the  United  States 
would  be  represented  by  the  following  tripartite 
delegation  at  the  sixth  session  of  the  Inland  Trans- 
port Committee  of  the  International  Labor  Or- 
ganization, convening  at  Hamburg,  Federal 
Republic  of  Germany,  from  March  11  to  23: 

Representinq  the  Govebnment  op  the  United  States 

Delegates 

Kenneth  H.  Tuggle,  Commissioner,  Interstate  Commerce 
Commission 

Leon  Greenberg,  Chief,  Division  of  Productivity  and  Tech- 
nological Development,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  De- 
partment of  Labor 

Adviser 

George  Tobias,  Labor  Attach^,  American  Consulate  Gen- 
eral, Geneva,  Switzerland 

Representing  the  Employees  op  the  United  States 

Delegate 

Ernest  W.  Harlan,  Bruce  Motor  Freight,  Des  Moines, 
Iowa 

Representing  the  Workers  op  the  United  States 

Delegates 

Rudolph  Faupl,  International  Representative,  Interna- 
tional Association  of  Machinists,  AFL-CIO,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C. 

Harold  Ulrlch,  General  Chairman,  Brotherhood  of  Rail- 
way and  Steamship  Clerks,  Freight  Handlers,  Express 
and  Station  Employees,  Boston,  Mass. 

The  Inland  Transport  Committee,  one  of  eight 
industrial  committees  established  by  the  Ilo  in 
1945,  is  composed  of  government,  worker,  and 
employer  representatives  from  specific  industries. 


These  committees  examine  labor  problems  in  their 
particular  industries. 

The  agenda  of  the  sixth  session  of  the  Inland 
Transport  Committee,  as  fixed  by  the  Governing 
Body  at  its  127th  session  (Eome,  November  1954), 
includes  reports  concerning  labor  inspection  in 
road  transport;  methods  of  improving  organiza- 
tion of  work  and  output  in  ports;  and  a  general 
report,  dealing  particularly  with  (a)  action  taken 
in  the  various  countries  in  light  of  the  conclusions 
adopted  at  previous  sessions  of  the  Committee; 
(i)  steps  taken  by  the  International  Labor  Office 
to  follow  up  the  studies  and  inquiries  proposed  by 
the  Committee ;  and  (c)  recent  events  and  develop- 
ments in  inland  transport. 

The  26  countries  which  have  been  invited  to  send 
tripartite  delegates  to  this  meeting  are:  Argen- 
tina, Australia,  Austria,  Belgium,  Brazil,  Canada, 
Colombia,  Denmark,  Egypt,  Finland,  France,  the 
Federal  Republic  of  Germany,  Greece,  India, 
Italy,  Japan,  Mexico,  the  Netherlands,  Norway, 
Pakistan.  Portugal,  Sweden,  Switzerland,  Tur- 
key, the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  United  States. 

UNESCO  Executive  Board 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  March 
11  (press  release  130)  the  United  States  delegation 
to  the  47th  session  of  the  Executive  Board  of  the 
United  Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cul- 
tural Organization  (Unesco),  which  will  meet  at 
Paris  on  March  18.  Prior  to  the  convening  of  this 
session,  an  ad  hoc  committee  will  meet  from 
March  11  to  15. 

Athelstan  F.  Spilhaus,  Dean  of  the  Institute  of 
Technology,  University  of  Minnesota,  is  the  U.S. 
representative  on  the  Executive  Board  of  Unesco. 
Dr.  Spilhaus  will  be  assisted  by  the  following  ad- 
visers :  Henry  J.  Kellermann,  Counsel  for  Unesco 
Affairs,  American  Embassy,  Paris;  Guy  Lee, 
Unesco  Relations  Staff,  Department  of  State;  and 
Byron  Snyder,  Office  of  International  Administra- 
tion, Department  of  State. 

In  addition  to  considering  the  report  of  the  ad 
hoc  committee  on  the  reorganization  of  the  Execu- 
tive Board  and  the  schedule  of  meetings  for  the 
next  2  years,  the  47th  session  will  also  consider 
necessary  readjustments  in  Unesco's  program  and 
budget  for  1957-58  to  implement  the  decisions 
reached  at  the  Ninth  General  Conference  held  at 
New  Delhi  in  November  1956. 

It  is  expected  that  the  Executive  Board's  47th 
session  will  adjourn  on  March  28. 


546 


DeparlmenI  of  Slate  Bulletin 


TREATY  INFORMATION 


U.S.  Signs  Agreement  With  France  on 
Defense  Use  of  Technology 

Press  release  135  dated  March  12 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  March 
12  the  signing  of  an  agreement  with  France  to 
facilitate  the  exchange  of  patent  rights  and  tech- 
nical information  for  defense  purposes.  The 
agreement  was  signed  at  Paris  on  March  12, 1957, 
by  Christian  Pineau,  French  Minister  of  Foreign 
Affairs,  and  Charles  W.  Yost,  U.S.  Charge  d'Af- 
faires.  The  agreement  with  France  entered  into 
force  on  the  date  of  signature. 

The  agreement  is  expected  to  foster  the  ex- 
change of  technology  for  defense  purposes  be- 
tween the  two  Governments  and  between  the  pri- 
vate industries  of  the  two  countries.  Thus,  it 
should  be  of  reciprocal  benefit  in  providing  for 
national  defense  and  in  contributing  to  the  mutual 
defense  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  area. 

The  agi-eement  with  France  is  the  latest  to  be 
signed  of  a  series  negotiated  with  the  Xato  coun- 
tries and  other  countries  with  which  the  United 
States  has  mutual  defense  ties.  Similar  agree- 
ments have  been  signed  with  Italy,  the  United 
Kingdom,  Belgium,  Norway,  the  Netherlands, 
Greece,  the  Federal  Eepublic  of  Germany,  Turkey, 
and  Japan. 

These  agi-eements  recognize  that,  whenever 
practicable,  privately  owned  technology  should 
generally  be  exchanged  through  commercial  agree- 
ments between  owners  and  users.  They  also  note 
that  rights  of  private  owners  of  patents  and  tech- 
nical information  should  be  fully  recognized  and 
protected  in  accordance  with  laws  applicable  to 
such  rights.  The  agreements  are  also  intended  to 
assure  fair  treatment  of  private  owners  when  they 
deal  directly  with  a  foreign  government.  In  addi- 
tion, the  agreements  provide  for  the  protection  of 
technical  information  communicated  through  gov- 
ernment channels  and  for  the  establishment  of 
arrangements  by  which  owners  of  patentable  in- 
ventions placed  under  secrecy  by  one  government 
may  obtain  comparable  protection  in  the  other 
country.  The  agreements  further  provide  that, 
as  a  general  rule,  when  government-owned  inven- 

Aprit    1,    1957 


tions  are  interchanged  for  defense  purposes,  this 
interchange  will  take  place  on  a  royalty-free  basis. 

Each  of  the  agreements  provides  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  Technical  Property  Committee  to  be 
composed  of  a  representative  of  each  government. 
These  committees  are  charged  with  general  respon- 
sibility for  considering  and  making  recommenda- 
tions on  any  matters  relating  to  the  agreements 
brought  before  them  by  either  government,  either 
on  their  own  behalf  or  on  behalf  of  their  nationals. 
One  of  the  specific  functions  of  the  committee  is 
to  make  recommendations  to  the  governments, 
either  in  particular  cases  or  in  general,  concern- 
ing disparities  in  their  laws  affecting  the  compen- 
sation of  owners  of  patents  and  technical  informa- 
tion. 

The  U.S.  representative  to  the  Technical  Prop- 
erty Committees  in  Europe  is  assigned  to  the 
staff  of  the  Defense  Adviser,  United  States  Mis- 
sion to  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization 
and  European  Regional  Organizations  (Usro),  2 
Rue  St.  Florentin,  Paris. 

Policy  guidance  for  the  U.S.  representatives  on 
the  Technical  Property  Committees  is  provided 
by  the  Interagency  Technical  Property  Commit- 
tee for  Defense,  which  is  chaired  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Defense  and  includes  representatives  of 
the  Departments  of  State,  Justice,  and  Commerce, 
the  International  Cooperation  Administration, 
and  the  Government  Patents  Board.  This  com- 
mittee is  assisted  by  an  industry  advisory  group 
representing  major  sectors  of  American  industry 
concerned  with  defense  production. 

Educational  Exchange  Agreement 
With  Ireland 

Press  release  151  dated  March  16 

An  educational  exchange  agreement  was  signed 
at  Dublin  on  March  16  between  Ireland  and  the 
United  States  in  connection  with  the  use  of  the 
American  grant  counterpart  fimd.  The  agree- 
ment was  signed  by  Liam  Cosgrove,  Minister  for 
External  Affairs,  on  behalf  of  Ireland,  and  "Wil- 
liam Howard  Taft  III,  American  Ambassador, 
on  behalf  of  the  United  States. 

The  agreement  provides  that  a  sum  of  500,000 
pounds  sterling  out  of  the  grant  counterpart  fund 
(which  totals  approximately  6,142,000  pounds 
sterling)  is  to  be  allotted,  in  the  words  of  the 
agreement,  "to  promote  further  mutual  under- 

547 


standins:  between  the  peoples  of  Ireland  and  the 
United  States  of  America  by  wider  exchange  of 
knowledge  tlirough  educational  contacts." 

The  terms  of  the  agreement  provide  that  ap- 
proximately 25,000  pounds  sterling  shall  be  ex- 
pended annually  for  the  purpose  of  financing 
studies,  research,  instruction,  teaching,  lecturing, 
and  other  educational  activities  on  the  part  of 
Irish  citizens  in  American  schools,  universities, 
and  other  institutions  of  higher  learning  on  the 
one  hand,  and  of  American  citizens  in  like  educa- 
tional institutions  in  Ireland  on  the  other.  The 
funds  available  under  the  agreement  may  be  used 
to  finance  transportation,  tuition,  maintenance, 
and  other  expenses  for  such  educational  activities. 

The  scholarship  exchange  program  will  be  ad- 
ministered by  a  joint  Irish-American  board  in 
Dublin.  The  agreement  will  come  into  force  when 
the  Government  of  Ireland  has  notified  the  U.S. 
Government  that  the  necessary  legislative  steps 
have  been  taken  to  implement  the  agreement.' 
Further  details  as  to  the  operation  of  the  agree- 
ment, and  as  to  the  manner  in  which  applications 
for  scholarship  benefits  under  it  are  to  be  applied 
for,  will  be  announced  at  a  later  date. 


Current  Actions 


MULTILATERAL 

Aviation 

Agreement  on  joint  financing  of  certain  air  navigation 

services  in  Greenland  and  the  Faroe  Islands.     Done  at 

Geneva  September  25,  1956." 

Signatures :  Sweden,  November  15,  1956;  Belgium,  Can- 
ada, Federal  Republic  of  Germany,  Israel,  and  Italy, 
November  28,  1956. 

Acceptances  deposited:  Canada,  January  18, 1957 ;  Ice- 
land, February  18,  1957. 
Agreement  on  joint  financing  of  certain  air  navigation 

services  in  Iceland.     Done  at  Geneva   September  25, 

1956.' 

Signatures:  Sweden,  November  15,  1956;  Belgium,  Can- 
ada, Federal  Republic  of  Germany,  Israel,  and  Italy. 
November  28,  1956. 

Acceptances  deposited:  Canada,  January  18,  1957;  Ice- 
land, February  18,  1957. 

Copyright 

Universal  copyright  convention.     Done  at  Geneva  Septem- 
ber 6,   19,52.     Entered  into  force  September  16,  1955. 
TIAS  .3324. 
Accession  deposited:  Ecuador,  March  5,  1957. 

Protocol  1  concerning  application  of  the  convention  to  the 
works   of   stateless   persona   and    refugees.      Done    at 


Geneva    September  6,   19.52.     Entered   into  force   Sep- 
tember 16,  1955.     TIAS  3324. 
Accession  deposited:  Ecuador,  March  5,  1957. 
Protocol  2  concerning  application  of  the  convention  to 
the  works  of  certain  international  organizations.    Done 
at  Geneva  September  6,  1952.     Entered  into  force  Sep- 
tember 16,  1955.     TIAS  3324. 
Accession  deposited:  Ecuador,  March  5,  1957. 

Slave  Trade 

Convention  to  suppress  the  slave  trade  and  slavery. 
Signed  at  Geneva  September  25,  1926.  Entered  into 
force  March  9,  1927.  46  Stat.  2183. 
Accession  deposited:  Libya,  February  14,  19.57. 

Trade  and  Commerce 

International  convention  to  facilitate  the  importation  of 
commercial  samples  and  advertising  material.  Dated 
at  Geneva  November  7,  1952.  Entered  into  force 
November  20,  1955." 

Notification  iij  United  Kingdom  of  extension  to:  Aden, 
Barbados,  British  Guiana,  British  Honduras,  Cyprus, 
Falkland  Islands,  Fiji,  Gambia,  Gibraltar,  Gold 
Coast,  Hong  Kong,  Jamaica,  Kenya ',  Leeward  Islands 
(Antigua,  Montserrat,  St.  Christopher,  Nevis,  An- 
guilla,  and  British  Virgin  Islands),  Federation  of 
Malaya,  Malta,"  Mauritius,  North  Borneo,  Federation 
of  Nigeria,  St.  Helena,  Sarawak,  Seychelles,  Sierra 
Leone,  Singapore,  Somaliland  Protectorate,  Tan- 
ganyika," Trinidad  and  Tobago,"  Uganda,"  the  Wind- 
ward Islands  (Tonga,  Dominica,  Grenada,  St.  Lucia, 
and  St.  Vincent),  and  Zanzibar,  February  5,  1957. 


BILATERAL 

El  Salvador 

Treaty    of    friendship,    commerce    and    consular    rights. 
Signed  at  San  Salvador  February  22,  1926.     Entered 
Into  force  September  5,  1930.    46  Stat.  2817. 
Notification  hy  the  United  States  of  elimination  of  arti- 
cle VI:  February  8, 1957. 

Mexico 

Air  transport  agreement.  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes 
at  Mexico  March  7,  1957.  Enters  into  force  June  5, 
1957. 

Sweden 

Agreement  amending  the  agreement  of  .January  18,  1956 
(TIAS  3477)   for  cooperation  concerning  civil  uses  of 
atomic  energy.     Signed  at  Washington  August  3,  1956. 
Entered  into  force:  March  12,  1957  (date  on  which  each 
Government  received  from  the  other  written  notifica- 
tion that  it  has  complied  with  statutory  and  constitu- 
tional requirements). 

Thailand 

Agricultural  commodities  agreement  under  title  I  of  the 
Agricultural  Trade  Development  and  Assistance  Act  of 
1954,  as  amended  (68  Stat.  454,  4.55;  69  Stat.  44,  721). 
Signed  at  Bangkok  March  4,  1957.  Entered  into  force 
March  4,  1957. 

United  Kingdom 

Agreement  amending  sections  5  and  6  of  the  financial 
agreement  of  December  6.  3945  (TIAS  1545)  by  provid- 
ing for  the  conditions  under  which  annual  installments 
may  be  deferred.  Signed  at  Washington  March  6,  1957. 
Enters  into  force  when  each  Government  notifies  the 
other  that  it  has  approved  the  agreement. 


'  Not  in  force. 
548 


■  Not  in  force  for  the  United  States. 
"  With  reservation. 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


DEPARTMENT  AND   FOREIGN  SERVICE 


Foreign  Service  Examination 

Press  release  125  dated  March  8 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  Marclv 
8  that  the  semiannual  Foreign  Service  officer  ex- 
amination will  be  given  on  June  24, 1957,  at  more 
than  65  centers  throughout  the  United  States. 
This  examination  is  open  to  all  who  meet  the  age 
and  citizenship  requirements  outlined  below. 

Officials  of  the  Department  of  State  estimate 
that  several  hundred  new  Foreign  Service  officers 
will  be  required  during  the  next  year  to  fill  posi- 
tions overseas  and  in  Washington,  D.C.  After 
completing  3  months  of  training  at  the  Foreign 
Service  Institute  in  Washington,  some  of  the  new 
officers  will  take  up  duties  at  the  270  American 
embassies,  legations,  and  consulates  around  the 
world.  At  these  posts,  which  range  in  size  from 
the  large  missions  such  as  Paris  and  London  to 
the  one-man  posts  such  as  Perth,  Australia,  the 
new  officer  may  expect  to  do  a  variety  of  tasks,  in- 
cluding administrative  work ;  political,  economic, 
commercial,  and  labor  reporting;  consular  duties; 
and  assisting  and  protecting  Americans  and  pro- 
tecting U.S.  property  abroad.  Other  new  officers 
will  be  assigned  to  the  Department's  headquarters 
at  Washington,  where  they  will  engage  in  research 
or  other  substantive  work,  or  in  the  many  adminis- 
trative tasks  which  are  essential  to  the  day-to-day 
conduct  of  foreign  affairs. 

To  explain  fully  these  opportunities  in  the 
Foreign  Service  which  await  the  qualified  young 
men  and  women  of  the  United  States,  Foreign 
Service  officers  will  visit  a  large  number  of  col- 
leges and  universities  this  spring.  In  order  to 
make  known  the  diversified  needs  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  and  Foreign  Service,  these  officers 
will  talk  not  only  with  promising  students  of  his- 
tory, political  science,  and  international  relations 
but  also  with  those  who  are  specializing  in  eco- 
nomics, foreign  languages,  and  business  and  public 
administration. 

Those  successful  in  the  1-day  written  examina- 
tion, which  tests  the  candidate's  facility  in  Eng- 
lish expression,  general  ability,  and  background, 
as  well  as  his  proficiency  in  a  modern  foreign 


language,  will  subsequently  be  given  an  oral  ex- 
amination by  panels  which  will  meet  in  regional 
centers  throughout  the  United  States.  Those  can- 
didates who  pass  the  oral  test  will  then  be  given 
a  physical  examination  and  a  security  investiga- 
tion. Upon  completion  of  these  phases,  the  candi- 
date will  be  nominated  by  the  President  as  a 
Foreign  Service  officer  of  class  8,  vice  consul,  and 
secretary  in  the  diplomatip  service. 

To  be  eligible  to  take  the  examination,  candi- 
dates must  be  at  least  20  years  of  age  and  under  31, 
as  of  May  1, 1957,  and  must  also  be  American  citi- 
zens of  at  least  9  years'  standing.  Although  a 
candidate's  spouse  need  not  be  a  citizen  on  the 
date  of  the  examination,  citizenship  must  have 
been  obtained  prior  to  the  date  of  the  officer's 
appointment. 

Starting  salaries  for  successful  candidates  range 
from  $4,750  to  $5,350  per  year,  depending  upon 
the  age,  experience,  and  family  status  of  the  indi- 
vidual. In  addition,  insurance,  medical,  educa- 
tional, and  retirement  benefits  are  granted,  as  well 
as  annual  and  sick  leave. 

Application  forms  may  be  obtained  by  writing 
to  the  Board  of  Examiners  for  the  Foreign  Serv- 
ice, Department  of  State,  Washington  25,  D.  C. 
The  closing  date  for  filing  the  application  is  May 
1,  1957. 


Confirmations 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  David  K.  E.  Bruce 
to  be  Ambassador  to  the  Federal  Republic  of  Germany. 
(For  biographic  details,  see  press  release  89  dated  Feb- 
ruary 25.) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  C.  Douglas  Dillon 
to  be  a  Deputy  Under  Secretary  of  State.  (For  bio- 
graphic details,  see  press  release  22  dated  January  14.) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  Elbridge  Durbrow 
to  be  Ambassador  to  Viet-Nam.  (For  biographic  details, 
see  press  release  104  dated  March  1.) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  Amory  Houghton 
to  be  Ambassador  to  France.  (For  biographic  details, 
see  press  release  88  dated  February  25. ) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  Thorsten  V.  Kali- 
jarvl  to  be  an  Assistant  Secretary  of  State.  (For  bio- 
graphic details,  see  press  release  98  dated  February  28.) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  G.  Frederick  Rein- 
hardt  to  be  Counselor  of  the  Department  of  State.  (For 
biographic  details,  see  press  release  56  dated  February  7.) 

The  Senate  on  March  14  confirmed  William  J.  Sebald 
to  be  Ambassador  to  Australia.  (For  biographic  details, 
see  press  release  90  dated  February  25.) 


April   1,    1957 


549 


Resignations 

Herman  Phleger  as  Legal  Adviser,  effective  about  April 
1.  ( For  text  of  Mr.  Plileger's  letter  to  the  President  and 
the  President's  reply,  see  White  House  press  release  dated 
March  13.) 


PUBLICATIONS 


Foreign  Relations  Volume 

Press  release  107  dated  March  4 

The  Department  of  State  on  March  16  released 
Foreign  Relations  of  the  United  States,  1939, 
Volume  II,  General,  The  British  Commonwealth, 
and  Europe.  All  the  other  volumes  of  the  five 
for  1939  have  previously  been  published  except 
Volume-  V,  The  American  Republics,  -which  is  in 
process  of  preparation. 

The  first  212  pages  of  this  volume  contain 
papers  on  various  general  subjects:  Antarctic 
claims  and  exploration,  assistance  to  refugees, 
fisheries  off  the  coast  of  Alaska,  and  a  number  of 
technical  and  economic  pi'oblems. 

Documentation  on  relations  with  the  British 
Commonwealth  (pages  213-364)  includes  sections 
on  the  United  Kingdom,  Australia,  Canada,  and 
India.  Problems  of  relations  between  the  United 
States  as  a  neutral  and  the  British  as  belligerents 
are  covei'ed,  as  well  as  other  usual  matters  of  di- 
plomacy. Among  the  war  subjects  treated  is  the 
sinking  of  the  S.  S.  Athenia  with  loss  of  American 
lives.  It  was  only  after  the  war  that  it  was  fully 
established  that  this  was  an  act  of  a  German 
submarine. 

The  remaining  534  pages  of  documentation 
cover  relations  with  individual  continental  Euro- 
pean countries.  The  Soviet  Union  is  omitted, 
since  the  record  for  that  country  has  already  been 
published  in  Foreign  Relations  of  the  United 
States,  The  Soviet  Union,  1933-1939.  As  would 
be  expected  for  a  year  in  which  the  general  Euro- 
pean war  began,  subjects  of  diplomacy  included 
normal  peacetime  diplomatic  relations  as  well  as 
subjects  connected  with  the  crises  leading  to  war 
and  into  the  war  itself.  "Wliile  the  coming  of  the 
war  is  primarily  treated  in  volume  I,  this  volume 
contains  the  record  on  the  absorption  of  Albania 
by  Italy,  problems  arising  from  the  annexation  of 
Austria  by  Germany,  and  the  Spanish  Civil  War. 


In  the  section  on  Italy  are  recorded  suggestions  by 
President  Roosevelt  regarding  the  opportunity 
for  Mussolini  to  contribute  to  the  maintenance  of 
peace.  The  appointment  of  Myron  C.  Taylor  as 
the  President's  personal  representative  to  Pope 
Pius  XII  is  documented  in  a  section  on  the 
Vatican. 

Copies  of  volume  II  (vii,  911  pp.)  may  be  ob- 
tained from  the  Government  Printing  Office, 
Washington  25,  D.C.,  for  $4  each. 


Check  List  of  Department  of  State 
Press  Releases:  March  11-17 

Releases  may  be  obtained  from  the  News  Division, 
Department  of  State,  Washington  25,  D.  C. 

Press  releases  issued  prior  to  March  11  which 
appear  in  this  issue  of  the  Bulletin  are  Nos.  107 
of  March  4  and  125  of  March  8. 

Subject 

Haiti   credentials    (rewrite). 

Dulles:   SEATO  Council,  March  11. 

Delegation  to  ILO  Inland  Transport 
Committee  (rewrite). 

Delegation  to  UNESCO  Executive 
Board   (rewrite). 

U.S.  reply  to  Soviet  note  on  Middle 
East. 

Ambassador  Richards :  departure 
statement. 

Chile  credentials  (rewrite). 

Herter :  death  of  Admiral  Byrd. 

U.S.-French  agreement  on  defense  use 
of  technology. 

Visit  of  German  Minister  for  Atomic 
Affairs. 

Statement  on  accident  Involving  Yugo- 
slav U.N.  representative. 

Dulles:  SEATO  Council,  March  12. 

Delegation  to  Disarmament  Subcom- 
mittee meetings. 

Dulles:    SB.\TO   Council,   March   13. 

SEATO  communique. 

Statement  on  Pan  American  games. 

Lightner :  statement  ou  amendments 
to  Smith-Mundt  Act. 

Dulles :  press  conference,  Canberra, 
March  13. 

Murphy :  "The  U.S.  Looks  at  the  Mid- 
dle East." 

Folger  nominated  Ambassador  to 
Belgium. 

Kalijarvi:  statement  on  amending 
Anglo-American  financial  agreement 
of  1945. 

Christie  retirement. 

Working  Group  on  German  reunifica- 
tion completes  report. 

U.S.  note  to  Dominican  Government 
on  disappearance  of  Gerald  Murphy. 

Educational  exchange  agreement  with 
Ireland. 

Announcement  on  Canadian  Ambassa- 
dor to  Egypt. 

♦Not  printed. 

tHeld  for  a  later  issue  of  the  Bulletin. 


No. 

Date 

127 
128 
129 

3/11 
3/11 
3/11 

130 

3/11 

131 

3/11 

132 

3/11 

133 

*134 

135 

3/12 

3/12 
3/12 

136 

3/12 

*137 

3/i;j 

138 
139 

3/13 
3/13 

140 

141 

142 

tl43 

3/13 
3/13 
3/13 
3/13 

144 

3/14 

145 

3/14 

*146 

3/14 

tl47 

3/15 

*148 
149 

3/15 
3/15 

tloO 

3/16 

151 

3/16 

152 

3/16 

550 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


April  1,  1957  I  n  d 

American  Republics.    Pan  American   Games     .     .      539 

Asia.  Third  Meeting  of  the  Council  of  tlie  South- 
east Asia  Treaty  Organization  (Dulles,  text  of 
communique) 527 

Atomic  Energy.  German  Minister  for  Atomic  Af- 
fairs To  Visit  the  United  States 538 

Australia.    Confirmations  (Sebald) 549 

Canada.    Department     Announcement     Regarding 

Canadian  Ambassador  to  Egypt 539 

Chile.    Letters   of   Credence    (Puga) 540 

China,  Communist.  Third  Meeting  of  the  Council 
of  the  Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization 
(Dulles) 527 

Communism.  Third  Meeting  of  the  Council  of  the 
Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization  (UuUes,  text 
of  communique) 527 

Congress,  The.  Department  Announcement  Re- 
garding Canadian  Ambassador  to  Egypt    .     .     .      539 

Department  and  Foreign  Service 

Confirmations  (Bruce,  Dillon,  Durbrow,  Houghton, 
Kalijarvi,  Reinhardt,  Sebald) 549 

Foreign  Service  Examination 549 

Resignations    (Phleger) 550 

Disarmament.    Mr.  Stassen  To  Represent  U.S.  at 

London  Disarmament  Meetings 53S 

Economic  Affairs.  Inland  Transport  Committee  of 
ILO  (delegation) 546 

Educational  Exchange.  Educational  Exchange 
Agreement  With  Ireland 547 

Egypt.  Compliance  With  U.N.  Resolution  Calling 
for  Withdrawal  of  Israel  From  Egyptian  Terri- 
tory  (Lodge,  Hammarskjold) 543 

Europe.    Foreign    Relations   Volume 550 

France 

Confirmations  (Houghton) 549 

U.S.  Signs  Agreement  With  France  on  Defense  Use 
of  Technology 547 

Germany 

Confirmations     (Bruce) 549 

German  Minister  for  Atomic  Affairs  To  Visit  the 

United  States 538 

Working  Group  on  German  Reunifiication  Completes 

Report 537 

Greece.    Tenth  Anniversary  of  Greek-Turkish  Aid 

Program     (Eisenhower) 539 

Haiti.    Letters  of   Credence    (Bellegarde)     .     .     .      540 

Hungary.  Hungary's  National  Holiday  (Eisen- 
hower)        538 

International  Organizations  and  Conferences 

Calendar    of    Meetings 541 

Inland  Transport  Committee  of  ILO  (delegation)     .  546 
Mr.  Stassen  To  Represent  U.S.  at  London  Disarma- 
ment Meetings 538 

UNESCO  Executive  Board  (delegation)     ....  546 

Ireland.    Educational  Exchange  Agreement  With 

Ireland 547 


e  X                                           Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  927 

Israel.  Compliance  With  U.N.  Resolution  Calling 
for  Withdrawal  of  Israel  From  Egyptian  Terri- 
tory  (Lodge,  Hammarskjold) 543 

Middle  East 

Ambassador  Richards  Leaves  for  Middle  East     .     .  526 

Compliance  With  U.N.  Resolution  Calling  for  With- 
drawal   of    Israel    From    Egyptian     Territory 

(Lodge,  Hammarskjold) 543 

The    United    States    Looks    at    the    Middle    East 

(Murphy) 515 

United  States  Replies  to  Soviet  Proposal  for  Dec- 
laration   on    Middle    East    (te.xts   of    U.S.    and 

Soviet  notes) 523 

Mutual    Security.      U.S.    Signs    Agreement    With 

France  on  Defense  Use  of  Technology     ....  547 

Presidential  Documents 

Hungary's   National   Holiday 538 

Tenth  Anniversary  of  Greek-Turkish  Aid  Program  .  539 

Publications.    Foreign    Relations    Volume    .     .     .  550 

Treaty  Information 

Current  Actions 548 

Educational  Exchange  Agreement  With  Ireland     .  547 
U.S.  Signs  Agreement  With  France  on  Defense  Use 

of  Technology 547 

Turkey.    Tenth  Anniversary  of  Greek-Turkish  Aid 

Program 539 

U.S.S.R.  United  States  Replies  to  Soviet  Proposal 
for  Declaration  on  Middle  East  (texts  of  U.S.  and 

Soviet  notes) 523 

United  Kingdom.    Foreign  Relations  Volume    .    .  550 

United  Nations 

Compliance  with  U.N.  Resolution  Calling  for  With- 
drawal   of    Israel     From    Egyptian    Territory 

(Lodge,  Hammarskjold) 543 

Inland  Transport  Committee  of  ILO  (delega- 
tion)         546 

UNESCO  Executive  Board  (delegation)     ....  546 

The    United    States    Looks    at    the    Middle    East 

(Murphy) 515 

Viet-Nam.      Confirmations     (Durbrow)     ....  549 

Name  Index 

Balke,  Siegfried 538 

Bellegarde,  Dantes 540 

Bruce,  David  K.E 549 

Carpenter,  I.W.,  Jr 540 

Dillon,  C.  Douglas 549 

Dulles.     Secretary 529 

Durbrow,  Elbridge 549 

Eisenhower,  President 538,  5.S9 

Hamm.Trskjold,     Dag 544 

Houghton,    Amory 549 

Kalijarvi,    Thorsten    V 549 

Lodge,    Henry   Cabot 543 

Murphy,  Robert 515 

Norman,    E.    H 539 

Phleger,     Herman 550 

Puga,     Mariano 540 

Reinhardt,   G.   Frederick 549 

Richards.  James  P 526 

Rubottom.  Roy  R..  .Tr 539 

Sebald,  William  J 549 

Stassen,  Harold  E 538 


V.  S.  fiOVERHHENT  PR1NTIN6  OFFICE,  1917 


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DIVISION  OF  PUBLIC  DOCUMENTS 

Washington  25,  D.  C. 


PENALTY    FOR    PRIVATE    USE   TO    AVOID 

PAYMENT   OF    POSTAGE,  S300 

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OFFICIAL    BUSINESS 


Foreign  Relations  of  the  United  States 

The  basic  source  of  information  on 
U.  S.  diplomatic  history 

1939,  Volume  II 

General,  The  British  Commonwealth,  and  Europe 


The  first  212  pages  of  this  volume  contain  papers  on  various  general 
subjects:  Antarctic  claims  and  exploration,  assistarice  to  refugees,  fisheries 
off  the  coast  of  Alaska,  and  a  number  of  technical  economic  problems. 

Documentation  on  relations  with  the  British  Commonwealth  (pp.  213- 
364)  includes  sections  on  the  United  Kingdom,  Australia,  Canada,  and 
India.  Problems  of  relations  between  the  United  States  as  a  neutral  and 
the  British  as  belligerents  are  covered,  as  well  as  other  usual  matters  of 
diplomacy.  Among  the  war  subjects  treated  is  the  sinking  of  the  S.S. 
Athenia  with  loss  of  American  lives.  It  was  only  after  the  war  that  it  was 
fully  established  that  this  was  an  act  of  a  German  submarine. 

The  remaining  534  pages  of  documentation  cover  relations  with 
individual  continental  European  countries.  The  Soviet  Union  is  omitted, 
since  the  record  for  that  country  has  already  been  published  in  Foreign 
Relations  of  the  United  States,  The  Soviet  Union,  1933-1939.  As  would 
be  expected  for  a  year  in  which  the  general  European  war  began,  subjects 
of  diplomacy  included  normal  peacetime  diplomatic  relations  as  well  as 
subjects  connected  with  the  crises  leading  to  war  and  into  the  war  itself. 
While  the  coming  of  the  war  is  primarily  treated  in  volume  I,  this  volume 
contains  the  record  on  the  absorption  of  Albania  by  Italy,  problems  arising 
from  the  annexation  of  Austria  by  Germany,  and  the  Spanish  Civil  War. 
In  the  section  on  Italy  are  recorded  suggestions  by  President  Koosevelt 
regarding  the  opportunity  for  Mussolini  to  contribute  to  the  maintenance 
of  peace.  The  appointment  of  Myron  C.  Taylor  as  the  President's  per- 
sonal representative  to  Pope  Pius  XII  is  documented  in  a  section  on  the 
Vatican. 

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FHE    DEPARTMENT  OF   STATE 


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Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  928 


April  8, 


ICIAL 

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ING    •    by  Assistant  Secretary  Wilcox 555 

AMENDING  THE  U.S.  INFORMATION  AND  EDUCA- 
TIONAL EXCHANGE  ACT  OF  1948  •  Statement  by 
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THE  COLD  WAR  AND  THE  UNIVERSITIES    •   Article 

by  Frederick  Cable  Oechsner 571 

For  index  see  inside  back  cover 


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OF  State  Bulletin  as  the  source  will  be 
appreciated. 


The  Department  of  State  BULLETIN, 
a  weekly  publication  issued  by  the 
Public  Services  Division,  provides  the 
public  and  interested  agencies  of 
the  Government  ivith  information  on 
developments  in  the  field  of  foreign 
relations  and  on  the  work  of  the 
Department  of  State  and  the  Foreign 
Service.  The  BULLETIN  includes  se- 
lected press  releases  on  foreign  policy, 
issued  by  the  White  House  and  the 
Department,  and  statements  and  ad- 
dresses made  by  the  President  and  by 
the  Secretary  of  State  and  other 
officers  of  the  Department,  as  well  as 
special  articles  on  various  phases  of 
international  affairs  and  the  func- 
tions of  the  Department.  Informa- 
tion is  included  concerning  treaties 
and  international  agreements  to 
which  the  United  States  is  or  may 
become  a  party  and  treaties  of  gen- 
eral international  interest. 

Publications  of  the  Department, 
United  Nations  documents,  and  legis- 
lative material  in  the  field  of  inter- 
national relations  are  listed  currett  tly. 


The  United  Nations  and  Public  Understanding 


J)y  Francis  0.  Wilcox 

Assistant  Secretary  for  International  Organization  Ajfairs^ 


I  am  glad  to  have  the  opportunity  to  discuss 
some  aspects  of  critical  issues  before  the  United 
Nations.  The  intense  glare  of  publicity  that  has 
attended  the  negotiations  on  Hungary  and  on  the 
Middle  East  has  not  always  been  illuminating. 
It  has  at  times  highlighted  the  unessential,  even 
the  nonexistent,  and  at  other  times  cast  into  deep 
shadow  the  main  lines  of  policy  and  action.  I 
should  like  to  try  to  set  in  focus  the  role  of  the 
United  States  and  the  United  Nations  in  dealing 
with  world  problems,  especially  aggression  and 
threats  to  the  peace. 

Set  in  simple  terms,  it  is  United  States  policy 
to  support  the  United  Nations  and  to  work 
through  it  to  establish  and  maintain  peace  and 
well-being  among  nations.  We  believe  it  holds 
the  best  hope  for  the  security  and  well-being  of 
the  American  people. 

We  attempt  to  conduct  our  relations  with  other 
nations  in  conformity  with  the  purposes  and  prin- 
:iples  of  the  United  Nations  Charter.  We  avoid 
the  use  of  force  as  a  means  of  settling  disputes 
between  ourselves  and  other  states.  If  a  problem 
irises  which  properly  belongs  in  the  United  Na- 
tions, we  use  our  influence  to  bring  it  there.  If, 
in  our  opinion,  it  is  not  a  United  Nations  mat- 
ter, we  urge  its  settlement  by  other  means. 

The  United  Nations  is  a  political  organization 
which  has  its  proper  uses  and  its  limitations.  It 
is  not  a  remedy  for  all  the  world's  ills.  Misunder- 
standing on  this  score  is,  I  think,  the  basis  of 


^  Adilress  made  before  the  National  Council  of  Jewish 
Women  at  Washington,  D.C.,  on  Mar.  19  (press  release 
160). 


most  criticism  of  both  the  United  States  role  in 
the  United  Nations  and  the  role  of  the  United  Na- 
tions when  attempting  to  deal  with  world  crises. 

Limitations  of  the  United  Nations 

This  past  year  has  been  a  year  of  grave  tests 
for  the  United  Nations  and  a  time  of  peril  for 
world  peace.  The  situations  that  arose  in  Egypt 
and  in  Hungary  provided  both  the  peril  to  man- 
kind and  the  tests  for  the  United  Nations.  These 
issues  have  in  common  the  fact  that  military  force 
w-as  used  by  one  nation  against  another.  This 
is  the  ultimate  issue  the  United  Nations  was  de- 
signed to  meet  and  solve.  The  degree  of  success 
achieved  by  the  United  Nations  in  restoring  peace 
with  justice  is  a  gage  of  its  capabilities  and  its 
limitations  as  a  peace-enforcing  institution.  Even 
more  important,  it  is  a  measure  of  the  extent  to 
which  member  states  will  permit  it  to  perform  its 
peacemaking  f  imctions. 

The  criticism  has  been  leveled  at  the  United 
Nations  that  it  has  proved  weak  and  ineffective. 
This  was  charged  not  only  in  the  case  of  Hungary, 
because  of  the  Assembly's  inability  to  get  the 
Soviet  Union  to  withdraw  its  forces,  but  also  in 
the  Middle  East  when  compliance  with  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  General  Assembly  lagged. 

We  must  face  the  fact  that,  with  great-power 
disunity  reflected  in  the  Security  Council,  the 
United  Nations  is  handicapped  in  preventing 
breaches  of  the  peace  and  bringing  about  restora- 
tion of  peace.  The  role  of  the  General  Assembly 
is  largely  one  of  discussion  and  recommendation. 

This  does  not  mean,  however,  that  the  United 
Nations  is  without  power  to  influence  the  conduct 


i^prW  8,    1957 


555 


of  nations.  In  some  ways  it  may  be  likened  to 
the  role  of  the  policeman  in  a  community.  In  a 
well-ordered  community  he  is  a  symbol  of  law  and 
order,  an  arbiter,  created  by  the  community  for 
its  own  protection.  Called  in  on  a  dispute,  he 
is  not  set  upon  by  the  mob.  He  is  permitted  to 
exercise  a  power  which  he  docs  not,  in  himself, 
possess.  But  this  means  that  the  community  must 
be  back  of  him. 

The  world,  unfortunately,  is  not  yet  wholly 
made  up  of  such  communities.  The  General  As- 
sembly must  still  play  a  limited  role  based  largely 
on  the  constructive  power  of  world  public  opinion. 
This  state  of  affairs  has  not  been  fully  appreciated 
in  the  two  great  issues  with  which  the  United 
Nations  is  still  seized. 

The  United  States,  because  of  the  leading  role 
it  has  played  in  this  General  Assembly,  has  shared 
to  a  considerable  degree  both  the  public  approval 
of  the  United  Nations  successes  and  the  criticisms 
of  its  failures. 

In  this  connection,  may  I  remind  you  that  the 
United  Nations  can  only  do  what  its  members  want 
and  permit  it  to  do.  We  should  not  make  the  mis- 
take of  blaming  the  organization  for  the  doubts, 
the  uncertainties,  and  shortcomings  displayed  by 
its  members. 

The  Crises  in  Egypt  and  Hungary 

The  problems  presented  to  the  United  Nations 
by  the  crises  in  Egypt  and  Hungary  are  well 
known.  There  was  a  fundamental  difference  in 
the  nature  of  these  problems,  however.  In  Hun- 
gary Soviet  troops,  ostensibly  there  to  protect 
Hungarian  territory  from  outside  aggression, 
turned  their  guns  inward  against  the  defenseless 
Hungarian  people.  In  Egypt,  on  the  other  hand, 
the  clash  was  between  the  armed  forces  of  the 
states  involved. 

Moreover,  the  Israeli  attack  occurred  after  a 
long  series  of  serious  provocations  and  violations 
of  the  Armistice  Agreement.  There  was  no  such 
conceivable  excuse  in  the  case  of  the  Soviet  use  of 
armed  force  against  Hungary. 

Events  so  turned  out  that  the  United  States 
found  itself  taking  the  lead  in  United  Nations  ac- 
tion in  the  case  of  both  Egypt  and  Hungary.  In 
neither  instance  did  we  really  have  any  choice  of 
the  role  we  were  to  play.  Both  were  instances 
of  the  use  of  force  against  the  territorial  integrity 
of  another  state. 


556 


In  the  former  case,  it  was  our  grievous  task  to 
bring  the  charge  of  violation  of  the  United  Na- 
tions Charter  against  our  friends  and  allies ;  in  the 
latter,  against  a  government  and  a  system  which 
is  the  implacable  foe  of  freedom. 

We  pride  ourselves  on  being  a  nation  of  laws, 
not  of  men.  The  charter  likewise  provides  that 
nations  conduct  their  relations  on  the  basis  of 
international  law  and  justice.  We  had  to  say 
to  ourselves  that,  if  we  ever  hope  to  get  anywhere 
with  the  peaceful  settlement  of  disputes,  we  must 
constantly  take  a  stand  against  recourse  to  mili- 
tary force,  as  a  matter  of  principle  and  in  the  in- 
terest of  our  own  Nation  as  well  as  world  peace. 
Speaking  to  the  Nation  on  the  Middle  East  situa- 
tion on  February  20,^  President  Eisenhower  said : 
"It  is  an  issue  which  can  be  solved  if  only  we  will 
apply  the  principles  of  the  United  Nations." 

Our  reason  for  going  to  the  United  Nations, 
then,  was  to  defend  this  fundamental  principle — 
not  because  we  were  pro- Arab  or  pro-Israel  or 
anti-Russian  or  because  we  were  for  or  against 
any  state  or  group  of  states. 

I  think  there  was  no  lack  of  public  support 
in  this  country  for  the  decisions  taken  by  the 
United  Nations  on  both  areas  of  conflict.  There 
was,  however,  great  public  impatience  with  the 
delay  in  the  Middle  East  and  the  flat  refusal 
in  Hungary  to  comply  with  the  resolutions 
adopted  by  the  General  Assembly.  It  was  quickly 
forgotten  that  in  both  cases  what  the  United  Na- 
tions was  trying  to  do  was  dependent  on  the  volun- 
tary cooperation  of  the  offending  states  and  the 
states  offended  against.  The  reason  for  this,  of 
course,  is  that  only  the  Security  Council  may  take 
decisions  of  a  compulsory  character  in  such  in- 
stances. With  the  power  of  the  Security  Council 
weakened  by  the  veto,  the  United  Nations  has  had 
to  fall  back  on  the  General  Assembly,  which  has 
only  the  power  to  recommend. 

Given  these  circumstances,  we  should  be  en- 
couraged by  what  the  United  Nations  has  so 
far  accomplished  in  the  Middle  East.  It  has 
shown  that  the  conscience  and  the  moral  consensus 
of  the  vast  majority  of  United  Nations  members, 
when  the  chips  are  down,  favor  peaceful  settle- 
ment of  disputes  and  adherence  to  commitments 
assumed  under  the  charter,  even  when  such  course 


'  Bulletin  of  Mnr.  11,  1957,  p.  387. 

Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


seems  to  run  counter  to  individual  national 
interest  s. 

In  the  case  of  Hungary,  the  United  Nations' 
inability  to  secure  compliance  with  its  repeated 
recommendations  has  caused  deep  concern  not 
only  among  the  American  people  but  among  free 
peoples  everywhere.  In  the  circumstances,  it  has 
been  natural  for  segments  of  public  opinion  to 
oversimplify  the  problem  in  seeking  to  place  the 
blame.  It  has  been  charged  that  the  United  Na- 
tions is  weak  and  futile;  it  has  been  urged  tliat 
Hungary  and  the  Soviet  Union  be  tlirown  out  of 
the  United  Nations  for  their  defiance ;  it  has  been 
argued  that  the  United  Nations  and  the  United 
States  have  applied  a  "double  standard" — one  for 
the  weak  and  one  for  the  strong. 

I  would  like  to  attempt  some  clarification  of 
this  latter  point.  In  his  broadcast  to  the  Ameri- 
can people  on  October  31st  ^  President  Eisen- 
hower said :  "There  can  be  no  peace  without  law. 
And  there  can  be  no  law  if  we  were  to  invoke 
one  code  of  international  conduct  for  those  who 
oppose  us  and  another  for  our  friends." 

Though  he  was  speaking  about  the  attack  on 
Egj'pt,  the  record  shows  that  the  United  States 
and  the  United  Nations  consistently  adhered  to 
this  principle.  The  standard  applied  to  the  use 
of  force  in  Egypt  was  likewise  applied  in  Hun- 
garj\  The  essential  difference  was  that  the  coun- 
tries directly  concerned  in  the  Middle  East  crisis 
responded  to  offers  of  United  Nations  assistance 
to  bring  about  a  peaceful  settlement.  In  Hun- 
gai-y,  such  assistance  was  refused.  Had  the  re- 
sponse been  the  reverse,  there  would  now  be  no 
United  Nations  Emergency  Force  in  the  Middle 
East,  with  a  deterioration  of  the  situation  there 
which  I  leave  to  your  imagination. 

The  Hungarian  Situation 

The  crux  of  the  problem  of  Hungary  was,  what 
can  the  United  Nations  do  when  one  of  the  major 
powers  refuses  to  cooperate  with  the  General 
Assembly  ? 

The  answers  are  fairly  simple  but  not  very  satis- 
factory. We  could  attempt  to  expel  it  from  the 
United  Nations.  This  is  obviously  not  a  practical 
solution  since  the  concurrence  of  the  permanent 
members  of  the  Security  Council  is  required. 


^Ibid.,  Nov.  12,  1956,  p.  743. 
April  8,   7957 


The  General  Assembly  could  recommend  cer- 
tain political  measures,  such  as  breaking  diplo- 
matic relations.  Unless  it  could  persuade  a  large 
proportion  of  United  Nations  members  to  cooper- 
ate, this  would  not  be  a  very  effective  sanction 
and  in  the  case  of  the  United  States  would  cut 
us  off  from  a  useful  diplomatic  contact. 

The  General  Assembly  could  also  recommend 
economic  sanctions.  Again,  unless  a  large  num- 
ber of  nations  could  be  persuaded  to  join  in  such 
sanctions,  the  pressure  exerted  would  be  rela- 
tively slight.  This  is  especially  the  case  with  the 
U.S.S.R.  and  its  satellites,  whose  total  resources 
are  great  and  whose  economic  relations  with  the 
West  are  already  on  a  very  small  scale. 

There  is,  of  course,  the  possibility  of  attempt- 
ing to  introduce  United  Nations  observers,  but 
their  entrance  would  require  the  consent  of  the 
state  concerned. 

The  final  recourse  would  be  to  recommend  the 
use  of  military  forces.  There  is  not  the  remotest 
likelihood,  with  the  dangers  involved  in  the  atomic 
age,  that  the  United  Nations  would  vote  for  such 
action. 

Depressing  as  this  picture  may  be,  it  reflects  the 
situation  in  which  the  world  finds  itself  today. 
This  does  not  mean,  however,  that,  because  out- 
laws exist  in  the  world  community,  the  rule  of 
law  should  not  be  applied  wherever  possible. 

May  I  add  a  word  about  the  so-called  "double 
standard."  This  is  nothing  new.  In  effect,  the 
double  standard  was  built  into  the  charter  when 
the  veto  provision  was  inserted.  This  gave  the 
great  powers  a  privileged  position  in  the  organ- 
ization. 

But  I  think  that  we  seriously  misread  recent 
history  if  we  believe  United  Nations  resolutions 
on  Hungary  failed  to  have  a  harmful  impact  on 
the  Soviet  Union  and  its  satellite  system.  These 
resolutions  put  the  Soviet  Union's  barbarous  mis- 
deeds squarely  under  the  white  light  of  world 
opinion.  They  did  more  to  expose  the  diabolical 
nature  of  international  communism  than  almost 
anything  that  has  happened  since  World  War  II. 
Perhaps  more  important,  the  inherent  weakness  of 
a  system  that  has  to  rely  on  force  alone  to  im- 
pose its  will  on  the  majority  was  shockingly  re- 
vealed. 

The  Secretary  of  State  at  Canberra  last  week 
said,  "Throughout  the  satellite  area,  there  is  a 
revulsion  against  the  brutal  colonialism  and  ex- 


557 


ploitation  of  Soviet  imperialism."  It  is  my  opin- 
ion that  this  revulsion,  as  a  result  of  the  facts 
revealed  in  General  Assembly  debate,  has  ex- 
tended to  the  corners  of  the  free  world. 

The  Middle  East 

There  was  a  great  deal  of  public  controversy 
over  the  possibility  of  the  United  Nations'  impos- 
ing sanctions  against  Israel.  Now  it  is  true  that 
at  one  time  it  appeared  that  a  majority  of  United 
Nations  members  might  have  tried  to  impose  sanc- 
tions if  other  methods  had  failed  to  bring  about 
Israel  troop  withdrawal  from  Egj'pt  and  the  Gaza 
Strip.  As  a  member  of  the  United  Nations,  the 
United  States  would  have  had  to  take  its  stand 
on  such  an  issue  should  it  have  arisen. 

We  believed  it  essential  that  Israel  should  with- 
draw in  its  own  best  interests.  This  we  felt  was 
a  necessary  prelude  to  a  solution  of  other  jjrob- 
lems  in  the  Middle  East. 

I  think  it  significant  that  the  use  of  traditional 
bilateral  diplomacy  to  supplement  United  Nations 
action  in  the  Middle  East  was  of  major  im- 
portance in  preventing  the  matter  of  sanctions 
from  becoming  a  divisive  issue  in  the  United  Na- 
tions. In  this  connection,  I  would  like  to  quote  a 
statement  of  the  delegate  of  Ceylon  made  after 
Israel  had  annomaced  its  intention  to  withdraw : 

I,  as  a  humble  representative  of  a  small  nation,  would 
like  to  pay  my  tribute  to  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  of  America  for  creating  a  set  of  circumstances  which 
enabled  the  withdrawal  of  Israel  troops.  It  is,  in  my 
opinion,  a  very  useful  act  in  the  solution  of  the  troubles 
before  us. 

United  States  Position  on  Gaza  and  Sharm  el-Sheikh 

The  United  States  position  on  the  Middle  East 
problem  has  been  made  clear  in  various  public 
documents  beginning  with  the  February  11  aide 
memoire.^  During  the  long  weeks  in  which  the 
Assembly  has  been  occupied  with  the  Middle  East, 
we  have  sought  a  solution  which  would  be  based 
on  justice  and  which  would  take  account  of  the 
legitimate  interests  of  all  parties.  On  March  1 
Israel  announced  that  it  had  decided  to  make  full 
and  prompt  withdrawal  behind  the  armistice  lines 
in  accordance  with  the  General  Assembly's  reso- 
lution of  February  2, 1957. 

In  the  course  of  this  announcement,  the  Foreign 


Minister  of  Israel  made  certain  declarations  which, 
for  the  most  part,  constituted  restatements  of 
what  had  been  said  in  the  General  Assembly  or  by 
the  Secretary-General  in  his  reports,  or  hopes  and 
expectations  which  seemed  to  the  United  States 
not  unreasonable  in  the  light  of  prior  actions  of 
the  Assembly. 

On  March  1,  Ambassador  Lodge,  speaking  for 
the  United  States  in  the  General  Assembly,*  took 
note  of  the  statement  of  the  Secretary -General  of 
February  22d  in  which  he  reported  Egypt's  readi- 
ness and  willingness  to  make  special  and  helpful 
arrangements  in  Gaza  with  the  United  Nations 
and  some  of  its  auxiliary  bodies.  In  this  connec- 
tion, Ambassador  Lodge  said : 

Obviously  these  matters  are  not  for  the  United  States 
alone  to  decide,  but  the  United  States  can,  I  think,  prop- 
erly entertain  the  hope  that  such  a  useful  role  for  the 
United  Nations  and  its  appropriate  subsidiary  bodies  as 
the  Secretary-General  has  described  could  usefully  con- 
tinue until  there  is  a  definitive  settlement  respecting  the 
Gaza  Strip  or  some  final  general  agreement  between  the 
parties. 

With  respect  to  the  area  along  the  Gulf  of 
Aqaba  and  the  Straits  of  Tiran,  the  United  States 
position  remains  as  stated  in  Ambassador  Lodge's 
speech : 

It  is  essential  that  units  of  the  United  Nations  Emer- 
gency Force  be  stationed  at  the  Straits  of  Tiran  in  order 
to  achieve  there  the  separation  of  Eg.vptian  and  Israeli 
land  and  sea  forces.  This  separation  is  essential  until  it 
is  clear  that  the  nonesercise  of  any  claimed  belligerent 
rights  has  established  in  practice  the  peaceful  conditions 
which  must  govern  navigation  in  waters  having  such  an 
international  interest.  All  of  this  would,  of  course,  be 
without  prejudice  to  any  ultimate  determination  which 
may  be  made  of  any  legal  questions  concerning  the  Gulf 
of  Aqaba. 

Since  then  developments  in  Gaza  have  moved 
rapidly.  We  have  kept  in  close  touch  with  Sec- 
retary-General Hammarskjold  and  with  various 
members  of  the  United  Nations.  Just  yester- 
day Mrs.  Meir,  Foreign  Minister  of  Israel,  called 
at  the  Department  of  State  to  express  her  "deep 
concern  at  the  return  of  Egypt  to  Gaza,  the  re- 
establishment  of  its  control  therein  and  the  reduc- 
tion of  the  responsibilities  of  the  United  Nations 
in  the  Gaza  area." "  Mrs.  Meir  pointed  out  that 
Israel  viewed  this  situation  as  contrary  to  the  as- 
sumptions and  expectations  expressed  by  her  and 


*  Ibid.,  Mar.  11, 1957,  p.  392. 
558 


'  Ibitl.,  Mar.  18,  1957,  p.  431. 
'  See  p.  562. 


Departmenf  of  State   Bulletin 


others  in  the  United  Nations  on  March  1  and  sub- 
sequently. She  also  expressed  her  anxiety  at  re- 
ports and  statements  envisaging  restrictions 
against  Israeli  shipping  in  the  Suez  Canal  and  the 
Gulf  of  Aqaba  and  tlie  maintenance  of  belliger- 
ency by  Egypt. 

Secretary  Dulles  reaffirmed  that  the  United 
States  policy  continued  to  be  as  expressed  in 
the  speech  of  Ambassador  Lodge  in  the  General 
Assembly  on  Marcli  1  and  in  the  President's 
letter  of  March  2  to  Prime  Mhiister  Ben-Gurion.' 
The  Secretary  reaffirmed  "that  the  United  States 
would  continue  to  use  its  influence  in  seeking 
the  objectives  of  peace  and  tranquillity  and  the 
avoidance  of  any  situation  which  would  negate 
the  great  ell'orts  whicli  had  been  made  by  the 
world  community  to  settle  the  current  disputes 
in  accordance  with  the  principles  of  the  United 
Nations  Charter."  The  United  States  stands 
firmly  by  the  hopes  and  expectations  it  had  ex- 
pressed with  respect  to  (1)  the  exercise  of  the 
responsibility  of  the  United  Nations  in  Gaza,  (2) 
the  free  and  innocent  passage  of  the  Straits  of 
Tiran  by  the  ships  of  all  nations  in  accordance 
with  international  law,  and  (3)  the  settlement  of 
the  Suez  Canal  problem  in  accordance  with  the  six 
principles  adopted  by  the  Security  Council  and 
accepted  by  Egypt.* 

This  Government  will  use  its  influence  in  every 
appropriate  way  to  assist  the  Secretary-General 
and  the  parties  concerned  to  carry  out  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  Assembly  and  to  create  peace- 
ful conditions  in  the  area. 

Very  critical  times  remain  with  us.  We  have 
made  progress  along  the  road  toward  our  objec- 
tives in  the  Middle  East,  but  the  road  ahead  is 
long  and  difficult. 

Our  objectives  have  not  changed.  Through  the 
United  Nations  there  have  been  accomplished  a 
cease-fire  and  the  withdrawal  of  forces,  and  the 
clearance  of  the  Suez  Canal  has  almost  been  com- 
pleted. Immediately  before  us  is  the  necessity  for 
agreeing  on  interim  arrangements  for  use  of  the 
canal  and  moving  on  to  solution  of  the  basic 
problems  which  gave  rise  to  the  present  crisis.  It 
is  not  sufficient  to  put  out  the  fire ;  we  must  prevent 
it  from  breaking  out  again. 

Getting  at  and  removing  the  root  causes  is  a 
formidable   task.     It    is   more   than   enough   to 


'  Bulletin  of  Mar.  18,  1957,  p.  433. 
'  Ibid.,  Nov.  12, 1956,  p.  754. 


challenge  the  patience  of  a  Job  and  the  wisdom  of 
a  Solomon.  But  can  anyone  seriously  believe  that 
a  lasting  peace  will  be  possible  so  long  as  the 
boundaries  between  Israel  and  her  neighbors  re- 
main unsettled  and  a  feeling  of  insecurity  pervades 
the  entire  area?  Can  we  hope  to  avoid  serious 
difficulties  in  the  future  unless  real  progress  is 
made  toward  the  solution  of  the  refugee  problem 
and  the  development  of  the  area's  natural  re- 
sources ? 

The  solutions  to  these  problems  are  as  difficult  as 
they  are  necessary.  To  find  them,  the  United 
States  is  determined  to  continue  to  use  every  ap- 
propriate means  both  within  and  without  the 
United  Nations.  In  the  process,  we  shall  be  serv- 
ing the  cause  of  peace  with  justice  everywhere. 

Enlarged  United  Nations  Membership 

I  would  like  now  to  turn  briefly  to  a  develop- 
ment in  the  United  Nations  of  great  public  inter- 
est. That  is  the  recent  rapid  increase  in  the  size 
of  United  Nations  membership — especially  from 
Asia,  Africa,  and  the  Middle  East.  This  reflects 
one  of  the  great  phenomena  of  the  postwar  period. 
In  12  years  some  600  million  people  from  this  area 
have  gained  self-government  or  independence. 

The  United  Nations  is  open  for  membership  to 
all  peace-loving  countries  able  and  willing  to  carry 
out  the  obligations  of  the  charter.  The  United 
States  favoi-s,  within  this  definition,  a  United  Na- 
tions as  broadly  representative  as  possible. 

A  United  Nations  that  has  grown  in  less  than  2 
years  from  60  to  81  members  and  in  which  the 
Afro- Asian  states  now  constitute  more  than  a 
third  of  the  total  presents  new  problems  and,  I 
think,  new  opportunities.  I  do  not  believe  that  it 
is  necessarily  cause  for  alarm. 

Those  who  are  concerned  point  to  the  fact  that 
the  Assembly  rather  than  the  Security  Council 
has  become  the  voice  of  the  United  Nations  and 
its  most  influential  body.  The  relative  strength 
of  the  Latin  American  States  has  been  reduced. 
The  conflict  over  so-called  colonial  problems  has 
been  sharpened.  With  the  recent  increase  in 
membership  the  Afro-Asian  nations  alone,  if  they 
stood  together,  could  no  doubt  prevent  the  pas- 
sage of  any  important  resolution. 

This  situation  requires  careful  consideration. 
In  actuality,  aside  from  the  U.S.S.R.  and  its 
satellites,  these  blocs  do  not  often  vote  as  an  entity. 
We  think  of  Afro- Asia  as  a  unit.    In  fact,  it  is 


April  8,    1957 


559 


extremely  diverse  and  contains  subblocs  of  an 
ethnic,  religious,  or  political  nature. 

On  certain  fundamental  issues  the  Afro- Asian 
nations  do  stand  very  solidly  together.  I  refer 
particularly  to  colonialism  and  economic  develop- 
ment. On  these  issues  they  are  often  joined  by 
the  so-called  Latin  American  bloc. 

The  fact  is  that  the  people  of  the  world,  regard- 
less of  their  military  or  economic  strength,  want 
an  increasing  voice  in  world  affairs.  In  the 
United  Nations,  and  especially  in  the  Assembly, 
they  find  this  voice.  The  traditionally  great 
powers  of  the  West,  whose  greater  economic 
and  militaiy  strength  gives  them  a  preponderance 
of  authority  and  responsibility,  must  heed  this 
voice  if  they  desire  wide  support  for  their  policies 
and  actions.  They  do  not  have  to  heed  it,  of 
course,  and  the  Assembly  cannot  enforce  its  recom- 
mendations on  other  members. 

In  my  opinion,  what  is  required  of  United 
Nations  members  in  the  enlarged  General  As- 
sembly, where  each  state  has  one  vote,  is  a  special 
sense  of  responsibility.  The  smaller  and  under- 
developed countries  do  have  a  collective  power  far 
out  of  proportion  to  their  economic,  military,  and 
political  strength.  If  they  abuse  this  power,  the 
General  Assembly  can  become  a  center  of  conten- 
tion and  deadlock.  On  the  other  hand,  the  gi'eat 
powers,  if  their  cause  is  just,  should  not  lack  the 
support  of  the  majority  of  the  General  Assembly 
on  important  issues. 

I  believe,  if  we  examine  the  record,  that  the 
performance  of  the  11th  General  Assembly  re- 
flected in  general  this  sense  of  responsibility  of 
which  I  speak.  On  the  Algerian  question,  for 
example,  two  Asian  states,  Japan  and  Thailand, 
played  a  leading  role  in  developing  a  procedural- 
type  resolution  wliich  avoided  exacerbating  the 
situation.^  This  was  an  excellent  example  of  As- 
sembly moderation  and  restraint.    On  the  Cyprus 


question,  the  General  Assembly  avoided  preju- 
dicing any  substantive  solution  by  adopting  a 
simple  resolution  which  has  helped  maintain  an 
atmosphere  reasonably  conducive  to  future  nego- 
tiations.'" Here,  too,  an  Asian  state,  India,  was 
able  to  work  out  a  compromise  resolution  gen- 
erally acceptable  to  those  principallj'  concerned. 
In  conclusion,  I  should  like  to  quote  from  an 
editorial  in  a  recent  issue  of  your  magazine, 
Council  Wotrum: 

One  thing  Is  certain.  The  United  Nations  i.s  the  one 
solid  hope  of  humanity  for  a  peaceful  and  better  world ; 
and  the  United  States  can  and  must  be  its  strongest 
supporter. 

If  the  nations  of  the  world  had  been  compelled 
to  live  the  past  12  years  without  a  conmion  meet- 
ing place,  without  basic  rules  by  which  nations 
should  conduct  themselves,  without  machinery  for 
the  peaceful  settlement  of  their  differences,  with- 
out a  place  to  air  disputes  and  seek  agreements — 
then  it  is  my  opinion  that  the  world  might  not 
have  survived  those  12  years.  The  stresses  and 
strains  have  been  so  great,  the  ideological  conflict 
so  sharp,  and  the  destructive  power  of  the 
weapons  available  so  immense  that  without  the 
unifying  power  of  the  United  Nations  we  could 
have,  by  this  time,  destroyed  ourselves. 

If  the  United  Nations  is  indeed  the  one  best 
hope  we  have  for  peace  with  justice,  it  is  only 
common  sense  to  use  it  as  the  cornerstone  for  a 
soimd,  creative  foreign  policy-.  This  does  not 
mean  that  the  United  Nations  dictates  foreign 
policy  to  us  or  any  other  country.  But  enlight- 
ened self-interest  dictates  that  we  bend  every 
effort  to  make  the  United  Nations  serve  with  in- 
creasing effectiveness  the  common  desires  of  man- 
kind for  a  world  in  which  ''Life,  Liberty  and  the 
pursuit  of  Happiness"  are  not  only  possible  but 
attainable. 


'Ibid.,  Mar.  11,  1957,  p.  423. 


'"Ibid.,  JIar.  25,  1957,  p.  50S. 


560 


Department  of  Slate  Buflelin 


United  States  and  United  Kingdom  Excliange  Views 
at  Bermuda  Meeting 


Following  is  the  text  of  a  joint  communique 
with  annexes  issued  at  Tucker's  Town^  Bermuda, 
on  March  24-  l>y  President  Eisenhower  and  British 
Prime  Minister  Harold  Macmillan  at  the  close  of 
a  3-day  meeting,  March  21  to  2!i.  {White  House 
press  release  dated  March  2 J).). 

The  President  of  the  United  States  and  the 
Prime  Minister  of  the  United  Kingdom,  assisted 
by  the  United  States  Secretary  of  State  and  the 
British  Foreign  Secretary  and  other  advisers,  have 
exchanged  views  during  the  past  three  days  on 
many  subjects  of  mutual  concern.  They  have  con- 
ducted their  discussions  with  the  freedom  and 
frankness  permitted  to  old  friends.  In  a  world 
of  growing  interdependence  they  recognize  their 
responsibility  to  seek  to  coordinate  their  foreign 
policies  in  the  interests  of  peace  with  justice. 

Among  the  subjects  discussed  in  detail  were 
common  problems  concerning  the  Middle  East, 
Far  East,  Nato,  European  Cooperation,  the  re- 
unification of  Germany,  and  Defense. 

The  President  and  the  Prime  Minister  are  well 
satisfied  with  the  results  of  this  Conference,  at 
which  a  number  of  decisions  have  been  taken. 
They  intend  to  continue  the  exchange  of  views 
so  well  begun. 

The  agreements  and  conclusions  reached  on  the 
main  subjects  discussed  at  the  Conference  are 
annexed. 


ANNEX  I 

1.  Eecognition  of  the  value  of  collective  security 
pacts  within  the  framework  of  the  United  Na- 
tions, and  the  special  importance  of  Nato  for  both 
covmtries  as  the  cornerstone  of  their  policy  in  the 
West. 


2.  Reaffirmation  of  common  interest  in  the  de- 
velopment of  European  unity  within  the  Atlantic 
Community. 

3.  Agreement  on  the  importance  of  closer  asso- 
ciation of  the  United  Kingdom  with  Europe. 

4.  Agreement  on  the  benefits  likely  to  accrue 
for  European  and  world  trade  from  the  plans  for 
the  common  market  and  the  Free  Trade  Area,  pro- 
vided they  do  not  lead  to  a  high  tariff  bloc ;  and  on 
the  desirability  that  all  countries  should  pursue 
liberal  trade  policies. 

5.  AVillinguess  of  the  United  States,  under  au- 
thority of  the  recent  Middle  East  joint  resolution, 
to  participate  actively  in  the  work  of  the  Military 
Committee  of  the  Baghdad  Pact. 

6.  Eeaffirmation  of  intention  to  support  the 
right  of  the  German  people  to  early  reunification 
in  peace  and  freedom. 

7.  Sympathy  for  the  people  of  Hungary ;  con- 
demnation of  repressive  Soviet  policies  towards 
the  peoples  of  Eastern  Europe,  and  of  Soviet  de- 
fiance of  relevant  United  Nations  resolutions. 

8.  Agreement  on  the  need  for  the  speedy  im- 
plementation of  recent  resolutions  of  the  United 
Nations  General  Assembly  dealing  with  the  Gaza 
Strip  and  the  Gulf  of  Aqaba. 

9.  Agreement  on  the  importance  of  compliance 
both  in  letter  and  in  spirit  with  the  Security  Coun- 
cil Resolution  of  October  13  concerning  the  Suez 
Canal,  and  on  support  for  the  efforts  of  the  Secre- 
tary-General to  bring  about  a  settlement  in  ac- 
cordance with  its  provisions. 

10.  Joint  declaration  on  policy  regarding 
nuclear  tests  (See  Annex  II). 

11.  Agreement  in  principle  that,  in  the  interest 
of  mutual  defense  and  mutual  economy,  certain 
guided  missiles  will  be  made  available  by  the 
United  States  for  use  by  British  forces. 


Apr/7  8,   7957 


561 


ANNEX  II 

1.  For  a  long  time  our  two  Governments  have 
been  attempting  to  negotiate  with  the  Soviet  Union 
under  the  auspices  of  the  United  Nations  Dis- 
armament Commission  an  effective  agreement  for 
comprehensive  disarmament.  We  are  continuing 
to  seek  sucli  an  agreement  in  the  current  disarma- 
ment discussions  in  London.  In  the  absence  of 
such  an  agreement  the  security  of  tlie  free  world 
must  continue  to  depend  to  a  marked  degree  upon 
the  nuclear  deterrent.  To  maintain  this  effec- 
tively, continued  nuclear  testing  is  required,  cer- 
tainly for  the  present. 

2.  We  recognize,  however,  that  there  is  sincere 
concern  that  continued  nuclear  testing  may  in- 
crease world  radiation  to  levels  which  might  be 
harmful.  Studies  by  independent  scientific  organ- 
izations confirm  our  belief  that  this  will  not  hap- 
pen so  long  as  testing  is  continued  with  due 
restraint.  Moreover,  the  testing  program  has  dem- 
onstrated the  feasibility  of  greatly  reducing  world- 
wide fallout  from  large  nuclear  explosions. 

3.  Over  the  past  months  our  Governments  have 
considered  various  jDroposed  methods  of  limiting 
tests.  We  have  now  concluded  together  that  in 
the  absence  of  more  general  nuclear  control  agree- 
ments of  the  kind  which  we  have  been  and  are 
seeking,  a  test  limitation  agreement  could  not  to- 
day be  effectively  enforced  for  technical  reasons; 
nor  could  breaches  of  it  be  surely  detected.  We 
believe  nevertheless  that  even  before  a  general 
agreement  is  reached  self-imposed  restraint  can 
and  should  be  exercised  by  nations  which  conduct 
tests. 

4.  Therefore,  on  behalf  of  our  two  Governments, 
we  declare  our  intention  to  continue  to  conduct 
nuclear  tests  only  in  such  manner  as  will  keep 
world  radiation  from  rising  to  more  than  a  small 
fraction  of  the  levels  that  might  be  hazardous. 
We  look  to  the  Soviet  Union  to  exercise  a  similar 
restraint. 

5.  We  shall  continue  our  general  practice  of 
publicly  announcing  our  test  series  well  in  ad- 
vance of  their  occurrence  with  information  as  to 
their  location  and  general  timing.  We  would  be 
willing  to  register  with  the  United  Nations  ad- 
vance notice  of  our  intention  to  conduct  future  nu- 
clear tests  and  to  permit  limited  international  ob- 
servation of  such  tests  if  the  Soviet  Union  M'ould 
do  the  same. 


562 


Meeting  Between  Secretary  Dulles 
and  Israeli  Foreign  Minister 

Following  is  the  text  of  an  agreed  statement 
released  on  March  18  (press  release  155)  folloio- 
ing  a  meeting  ietween  Secretary  Dulles  and  Israeli 
Foreign  Minister  Golda  Meir. 

Israeli  Foreign  Minister  Meir  discussed  with 
Secretary  Dulles  today  various  aspects  of  the 
present  situation  in  the  Middle  East,  particularly 
developments  in  the  Gaza  Strip  following  Israeli 
withdrawal  in  accordance  with  the  United  Nations 
resolutions. 

SIi-s.  Meir  expressed  her  deep  concern  at  the 
return  of  Egypt  to  Gaza,  the  re-establishment  of 
its  conti'ol  therein  and  the  reduction  of  the  re- 
sponsibilities of  the  United  Nations  in  the  Gaza 
area.  The  Foreign  Minister  of  Israel  pointed  out 
the  gravity  with  which  Israel  viewed  this  situation 
and  emphasized  that  it  was  contrary  to  the  as- 
sumption and  expectations  expressed  by  her  and 
others  in  the  United  Nations  on  March  1  and 
subsequently.  She  also  expressed  her  anxiety  at 
reports  and  statements  envisaging  restrictions 
against  Israeli  shipping  in  the  Suez  Canal  and 
the  Gulf  of  Aqaba,  and  the  maintenance  of  bel- 
ligerency by  Egypt. 

Secretary  Dulles  reaffirmed  that  the  U.S.  policy 
with  respect  to  these  matters  continued  to  be  as 
publicly  expressed,  notably  in  the  speech  of  Am- 
bassador Lodge  in  the  United  Nations  General 
Assembly  on  March  1  and  in  the  President's  letter 
of  March  2  to  Prime  Minister  Ben-Giu-ion.^  The 
Secretary  said  that  the  United  States  was  con- 
cerned with  current  developments  and  was  in 
close  touch  with  U.N.  Secretary  General  Ham- 
marskjold  and  other  members  of  the  U.N.  He 
said  that  the  United  States  would  continue  to  use 
its  influence  in  seeking  the  objectives  t>i  peace 
and  tranquillity  and  the  avoidance  of  any  situa- 
tion which  would  negate  the  great  efforts  which 
had  been  made  by  the  world  conununity  to  settle 
the  current  disputes  in  accordance  with  the  princi- 
ples of  the  United  Nations  Charter.  The  United 
States,  the  Secretary  said,  stood  firmlj'  by  the 
hopes  and  expectations  it  had  expressed  with  re- 
gard to  the  situation  which  should  prevail  in  the 
area  with  i-espect  to  the  exercise  of  the  responsi- 


'  Bulletin  of  Blar.  IS,  105V,  p.  431. 

Department  of  State   Bulletin 


bility  of  the  United  Nations  in  Gaza,  the  free  and 
innocent  passage  of  the  Straits  of  Tiran  bj'  the 
ships  of  all  nations  in  accordance  with  interna- 
tional law,  and  the  settlement  of  the  Suez  Canal 
problem  in  accordance  with  the  Six  Principles 
adopted  by  the  Security  Council  and  accepted  by 
Egypt.^ 

A  common  readiness  was  expressed  for  con- 
tinued consultation  on  these  matters. 

Death  of  President  Magsaysay 
of  the  Philippines 

statement  by  President  Eisenhower 

White  House  (on  board  the  U.S.S.  Canherra)  press  release  dated 
March  17. 

In  the  tragic  death  of  President  Magsaysay,  the 
people  of  the  Philippine  Republic,  as  well  as  those 
of  the  United  States  and  the  entire  free  world, 
have  lost  a  valiant  champion  of  freedom.^  I  had 
been  looking  forward  to  meeting  with  President 
Magsaysay  in  Washington,  to  reaffirm  the  close 
and  affectionate  ties  all  Americans  have  with  his 
people. 

A  stanch  advocate  of  independence  for  his  peo- 
ple, President  Magsaysay  was  also  an  active  and 
determined  fighter  against  communism.  He  will 
be  greatly  missed. 

Mrs.  Eisenhower  and  I  extend  to  his  family  not 
only  our  personal  sympathies  but  also  the  heart- 
felt sj'mpathies  of  all  Americans,  who  have  lost  a 
good  friend. 

Statement  by  Secretary  Dulles 

Press  release  154  dated  March  18 

The  tragedy  that  claimed  the  life  of  President 
Magsaysay  came  as  a  grievous  shock.  I  am  sure 
all  Americans  join  me  in  extending  to  our  close 
friends  of  the  Philippines  our  heartfelt  condo- 
lences in  the  loss  of  their  beloved  President. 

President  Magsaysay  was  a  great  Philippine 
leader  and  an  enlightened  champion  of  the  welfare 
of  his  people.  He  also  provided  a  glorious  ex- 
ample to  the  whole  of  Asia,  and  indeed  to  the 
world,  of  wisdom,  courage,  and  success  in  over- 
coming the  Communist  menace. 


■IhUl.,  Oct.  22,  1956,  p.  616. 

'  President  Ramon  Magsaysny  was  killed  in  the  crash 
of  an  airliner  on  Cebu  Island  on  Mar.  17. 


In  the  death  of  President  Magsaysay  there  has 
been  lost  to  the  Philippine  people  a  noble  leader, 
to  the  American  people  a  true  friend,  and  to  the 
world  a  stalwai-t  champion  and  exponent  of  the 
right  of  peoples  to  govei"nments  of  their  own 
choosing  and  to  basic  human  freedoms. 

Anniversary  of  Establishment 
of  Pakistan  as  Republic 

Press  release  172  dated  March  23 

Following  is  the  text  of  a  message  sent  by  Presi- 
dent Eisenhower  to  the  President  of  Pakistan  on 
March  23  on  the  occasion  of  the  first  anniversary 
of  the  establishment  of  Pakistan  as  a  Republic. 

His  Excellency 

ISKANDER  MiRZA 

President  of  Pakistan 
Karachi 

I  take  great  pleasure  in  extending  to  you  and 
to  the  people  of  Pakistan  warmest  greetings  and 
best  wishes  from  the  people  of  the  United  States 
on  the  first  anniversary  of  the  establishment  of 
Pakistan  as  a  Republic. 

Pakistan  has  proved  to  the  world  again  that  a 
free  people,  with  resolute  faith  and  enduring 
coiu'age,  working  together  in  a  common  cause,  can 
sui-mount  the  many  difficulties  that  inevitably  face 
a  new  nation.  You  have  made  conmiendable 
progress  since  independence.  I  am  confident  that 
even  gi-eater  achievements  lie  aliead. 

The  United  States  values  its  close  and  cordial 
ties  with  Pakistan.  This  anniversary  affords  me 
a  welcome  opportunity  to  reaffirm  the  importance 
I  attach  to  the  warm  friendship  between  our  two 
coimtries.  I  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  as 
free,  independent  democracies  dedicated  to  the 
basic  principles  of  peace  and  justice  our  two  coun- 
tries can  look  forward  to  ever  closer  friendship 
in  the  years  ahead. 

DwiGiiT  D.  Eisenhower 

New  U.  S.  Member  Assumes  Duties 
on  Iraq  Development  Board 

Press  release  167  dated  March  21 

The  U.S.  member  of  the  Iraq  Development 
Board,  Clifford  Willson,  has  arrived  at  Bagh- 
dad to  take  up  his  duties  on  the  board.    He  suc- 


Aptil  8,   7957 


563 


ceeds  Wesley  K.  Nelson,  who  served  for  4  years 
as  the  U.S.  member. 

Mr.  Willson's  arrival  at  Baghdad  will  make  it 
possible  for  him  to  participate  in  the  observance 
of  Iraq  Development  Week,  which  begins  on 
March  23. 

In  providing  a  member  for  the  Development 
Board,  the  United  States  has  taken  note  of  the 
vigorous  strides  which  Iraq  is  making  toward  im- 
provement of  the  living  standards  of  all  its  people. 
Iraq's  farsighted  economic  development  program, 
supported  by  wise  and  intelligent  use  of  revenues 
from  its  own  resources,  stands  as  an  inspiration 
to  other  newly  developing  countries.  It  has  been 
a  source  of  gratification  to  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  to  be  associated  with  Iraq  in  co- 
operative efforts  to  make  the  most  effective  use  of 
available  resources  in  redeveloping  the  historic 
lands  of  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates.  The  several 
major  projects  to  be  dedicated  during  Develop- 
ment Week  testify  to  the  very  real  benefits  to  the 
people  of  Iraq  of  this  progressive  program  and  of 
the  cooperative  spirit  which  animates  it. 


I  liter- American  Highway 
Nearing  Completion 

Press  release  156  dated  March  18 

The  awarding  on  March  15  of  a  contract  for 
grading  a  17-mile  impassable  section  of  the  Inter- 
American  Highway  between  Concepcion,  Panama, 
and  the  Costa  Rican  border  initiated  the  first  step 
in  closing  the  last  remaining  roadway  gap  between 
the  United  States  and  the  Canal  Zone.  The  event 
marks  the  near  approach  to  completion  of  an  un- 
dertaking of  the  United  States  in  cooperation  with 
Guatemala,  El  Salvador,  Honduras,  Nicaragua, 
Costa  Rica,  and  Panama  begun  in  1934. 

Impetus  was  given  the  Inter- American  High- 
way program  in  1955  when  President  Eisenhower 
recommended  that  sufficient  funds  be  provided  for 
financial  and  technical  assistance  to  complete  the 
project  at  the  earliest  possible  date.^    As  a  result, 


'  For  text  of  the  President's  letters  to  the  Congress 
dated  Apr.  1, 195.5,  on  the  need  for  accelerating  completion 
of  the  highway,  together  with  a  map  of  the  Inter-Ameri- 
can Highway,  see  Bulletin  of  Apr.  11,  1955,  p.  595. 


Congress,  in  the  summer  of  1955,  appropriated 
$62,980,000.  Rapid  progress  has  been  made  since 
that  time.  The  original  agreements  with  the  re- 
spective governments  were  negotiated  by  the  De- 
partment of  State,  and  engineering  supervision 
and  fiscal  accountability  for  U.S.  funds  have  been 
provided  by  the  Bureau  of  Public  Roads  of  the 
Department  of  Commerce.  The  United  States  is 
paying  two-thirds  of  the  cost  of  projects,  and  one- 
third  is  paid  by  the  country  in  which  the  work  is 
located. 

Of  the  1,600  miles  of  the  highway  lying  between 
the  southern  border  of  Mexico  and  the  Panama 
Canal,  there  remained,  as  of  July  1955, 1,080  miles 
upon  which  improvement  of  some  type  was  re- 
quired to  bring  the  highway  to  an  acceptable 
standard  for  normal  year-round  travel.  Within 
this  unimproved  mileage,  there  was  a  total  of  173 
miles  where  no  passable  highway  existed.  This 
total  was  made  up  of  25  miles  just  south  of  the 
Mexican  border  in  Guatemala,  131  miles  in 
southern  Costa  Rica,  and  the  17-mile  section  in 
northern  Panama  now  to  be  begun.  Awarding  of 
a  contract  for  this  section  in  Panama  places  all 
impassable  sections  under  construction.  In  addi- 
tion, 490  miles  of  low-standard  road  are  being  im- 
proved. Much  work  remains  to  be  done,  includ- 
ing necessary  improvements  on  an  additional  370 
miles.  Many  bridges  are  yet  to  be  built,  and  some 
1,000  miles  of  road  will  require  final  asphalt 
pavement. 

The  present  dry  season  which  began  in  Decem- 
ber will  see  the  greatest  construction  activity  on 
the  highway  since  its  start.  The  last  of  the  im- 
passable sections  is  now  under  contract,  and  some 
time  in  1957  it  should  be  ^wssible  to  drive  over  all- 
weather  or  paved  roads  from  the  United  States  to 
San  Isidro,  Costa  Rica,  a  distance  of  2,725  miles. 
By  the  end  of  1958  it  may  be  possible  to  drive  over 
the  entire  length  of  the  highway  to  the  Panama 
Canal. 

Tourist  travel  over  the  Inter- American  High- 
way has  already  brought  great  benefits  to  the  econ- 
omy of  Mexico.  By  1959  other  Central  American 
countries  should  benefit  also.  Feeder  roads  con- 
necting now  inaccessible  areas  with  the  main 
artery  are  expected  to  develop  rapidly  with  a 
marked  increase  in  domestic  and  foreign  trade. 


564 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


U.S.  Contribution  To  Help  Fight 
Malaria  in  American  Republics 

Press  release  119  dated  March  7 

Milton  S.  Eisenliower,  President  Eisenhower's 
representative  on  the  Inter- American  Committee 
of  Presidential  Eepresentatives,  presented  a  check 
for  $1,500,000  on  March  7  to  Dr.  Fred  L.  Soper, 
Director  of  the  Pan  American  Sanitary  Bureau, 
as  a  contribution  from  the  U.S.  Government 
toward  malaria  eradication  in  the  other  American 
Republics. 

The  ceremony  took  place  in  the  Pan  American 
Union  building  in  the  office  of  Jose  A.  Mora,  Sec- 
retary General  of  the  Organization  of  American 
States.  Jolin  B.  Hollister,  Director  of  the  Inter- 
national Cooperation  Administration ;  Dr.  LeRoy 
E.  Burney,  Surgeon  General  of  the  U.S.  Public 
Health  Service,  Department  of  Health,  Educa- 
tion, and  Welfare;  and  Jolm  C.  Dreier,  Ambassa- 
dor of  the  United  States  to  the  Organization  of 
Amei'ican  States,  were  among  those  attending  the 
ceremony.  Following  are  the  texts  of  remarks 
made  by  Dr.  Eisenliower,  Dr.  Mora,  and  Dr. 
Soper. 

Remarks  by  Dr.  Eisenhower 

Mr.  Secretary  General,  Dr.  Soper,  and  Gentle- 
men :  I  am  very  happy  to  be  able  to  participate  in 
this  ceremony  this  morning.  We  have  gathered 
in  the  Pan  American  Union  in  recognition  of  the 
vital  role  that  the  Organization  of  American 
States  is  playing  in  efforts  to  advance  human  well- 
being  and.  social  progress  in  this  hemisphere. 

Historically,  malaria  has  been  a  major  foe  of 
economic  and  social  progress  for  the  American 
Republics.  It  is  still  a  scourge  in  many  areas, 
affecting  either  directly  or  indirectly  evei-y  indi- 
vidual on  the  continent.  Experience  indicates 
that  malaria  can  be  conquered  with  new  weapons 
which  are  now  available.  The  Pan  American 
Sanitary  Organization  has  played  a  leading  part 
in  their  development  and  use.  Malaria  has  been 
eradicated  from  several  countries,  including  the 
United  States.  We  all  share  an  eagerness  that 
it  be  eradicated  with  all  possible  speed  from  coim- 
tries  where  it  still  exists. 

Great  interest  has  been  expressed  by  the  Inter- 
American  Committee  of  Presidential  Representa- 
tives in  the  role  of  the  Organization  of  American 


States  in  supporting  programs  for  the  eradication 
of  disease  from  the  continent.  It  was  my  privi- 
lege to  announce  to  the  members  of  this  Committee 
at  its  first  meeting  last  September  that  the  United 
States  was  going  to  make  a  special  contribution 
to  the  malaria  eradication  fund  of  the  Pan  Ameri- 
can Sanitary  Organization.  This  offer  was  sub- 
sequently made  formally  by  the  acting  United 
States  representative  at  a  meeting  of  the  Directing 
Council  of  the  Sanitary  Organization  and  is  now 
being  implemented  by  a  grant  from  the  Interna- 
tional Cooperation  Administration.  In  present- 
ing this  check  for  $1,500,000, 1  hope  that  tliis  ex- 
pression of  United  States  interest  and  the  splendid 
efforts  which  are  being  made  by  so  many  countries 
will  hasten  the  attainment  of  this  great  humani- 
tarian goal  of  malaria  eradication. 

Remarks  by  Dr.  Mora 

I  wish  to  express  on  behalf  of  the  Organization 
of  American  States  and  of  the  people  of  the 
American  Republics  the  most  profound  apprecia- 
tion for  this  most  generous  contribution  of  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  to  the  solution 
of  what  has  been  characterized  as  the  most  urgent 
health  problem  in  the  Americas,  the  eradication 
of  malai-ia. 

Dr.  Eisenhower,  may  I  express  to  you  and 
through  you  to  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  our  deepest  appreciation  for  this  renewed 
demonstration  of  support  for  inter-American  pro- 
grams which  contribute  to  the  advancement  of 
human  welfare  of  all  the  people  of  the  Americas. 

I  now  turn  this  contribution  over  to  Dr.  Soper, 
Director  of  the  Pan  American  Sanitary  Bureau, 
our  inter- American  specialized  organization  in  the 
field  of  public  health. 

Remarks  by  Dr.  Soper 

Mr.  Secretary  General,  Dr.  Eisenhower,  and 
Gentlemen :  It  is  with  a  sense  of  profound  grati- 
tude that  I  accept  on  behalf  of  the  Pan  American 
Sanitary  Organization  this  contribution  by  the 
United  States  Government  to  the  campaign  to 
eradicate  malaria  from  this  hemisphere. 

Malaria  is  still  a  leading  cause  of  death  in  many 
parts  of  the  world,  including  some  areas  in  the 
Americas.  Its  continued  existence  anywhere  in 
this  hemisphere  threatens  reinfection  in  all  areas 
where  malaria  has  been  eradicated. 


April  8,    1957 


565 


Science  has  given  us  a  powerful  new  weapon  in 
the  residual  insecticides  such  as  DDT,  which  make 
the  eradication  of  malaria  possible  and  practicable 
throughout  the  Americas.  But  there  is  also  a 
deadline  we  must  meet,  since  mosquitoes  eventu- 
ally develop  resistance  to  these  insecticides.  If 
we  move  too  slowly,  the  job  becomes  vastly  more 
difficult  and  costly.  This  is  why  we  have  given 
first  priority  to  the  malaria  eradication  program. 
The  Pan  American  Sanitary  Organization  is  urg- 
ing governments  to  expand  and  accelerate  their 
national  eradication  programs. 

There  has  been  an  excellent  response,  and  many 
governments  are  expecting  our  Bureau  to  give 
them  greater  administrative  and  professional  col- 


laboration in  furtherance  of  their  eradication 
programs.  These  demands  have  far  exceeded  our 
means,  and  we  have  been  forced  to  seek  additional 
resources. 

And  that  is  why,  Dr.  Eisenhower,  we  appreciate 
so  much  this  timely  contribution  from  the  United 
States  Government.  It  will  enable  us  to  move 
ahead  more  rapidly  in  all  the  territories  of  the 
Americas  where  malaria  continues  to  exist. 

On  behalf  of  the  Pan  American  Sanitary  Or- 
ganization I  express  our  heartfelt  appreciation 
for  this  generous  contribution.  It  is  an  added 
demonstration  of  solidarity  in  our  campaign  to 
eliminate  malaria  from  our  shores. 


Amending  the  U.S.  Information  and  Educational  Exchange  Act  of  1948 


Statement  hy  E.  Allan  Lightner,  Jr. 

Acting  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Affairs  ^ 


It  is  a  privilege  to  appear  before  this  committee 
in  support  of  certain  amendments  to  the  United 
States  Information  and  Educational  Exchange 
Act  of  1948,  sometimes  referred  to  as  the  Smith- 
Mundt  Act. 

Role  of  Office  of  Public  Affairs 

AVhen  this  act  was  passed  in  1948,  all  of  its 
functions  were  placed  in  the  Department  of  State 
under  the  general  direction  of  the  Office  of  Public 
Alfaii-s.  With  the  establishment  of  the  United 
States  Information  Agency,  and  the  transfer  of 
information  activities  to  that  Agency,  the  Depart- 
ment retained  two  important  functions  in  con- 
nection with  this  act : 

(1)  the  supervision  of  the  noninformation 
functions  authorized  by  the  Smith-Mundt  Act; 
and 


'  Made  before  the  Subtommittee  on  State  Department 
Organization  and  Foi-ei^rn  Operations  of  the  House  Com- 
mittee on  Foreign  Affairs  on  Mar.  13  (press  release  143). 


(2)  foreign-policy  guidance  to  the  United 
States  Information  Agency. 

The  principal  noninformation  function  pro- 
vided by  this  act  is  the  educational  exchange  pro- 
gram conducted  by  the  International  Educational 
Exchange  Service  of  the  Department  under  the 
general  supervision  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  for 
Public  Affairs.  The  Secretary  of  State  is  also  re- 
sponsible for  certain  exchanges  of  personnel  car- 
ried out  by  the  International  Cooperation  Ad- 
ministration in  connection  with  its  technical 
assistance  program. 

My  comments  are  principally  concerned  witli 
the  amendments  pertaining  to  the  responsibilities 
of  the  Department  of  State  in  conducting  the  edu- 
cational exchange  program.  I  can  also  assure  you 
that  the  Department  favors  the  amendments  deal- 
ing with  the  information  program. 

When  this  act  was  originally  passed,  the  House 
Foreign  Affairs  Committee  was  literally  pioneer- 
ing in  a  new  field.    It  is  really  quite  remarkable 


566 


Department  of  Sfafe  Bulletin 


that  during  the  intervening  years  no  major 
amendments  have  been  required  in  the  act.  This 
certainly  illustrates  the  care  and  foresight  of  those 
who  sponsored  and  enacted  the  original  legisla- 
tion. 

Only  recently  has  it  become  apparent,  as  a  result 
of  the  cumulative  experience  in  administering  this 
increasingly  complicated  program  over  the  years, 
that  certain  amendments  to  this  act  of  1948  are 
needed. 

Before  explaining  these  changes,  a  brief  review 
of  the  scope  of  the  International  Educational  Ex- 
change Program  and  the  relationship  between  the 
Smith-Mundt  and  Fulbright  parts  of  it  may  be 
of  interest. 

Scope  of  Educational  Exchange  Activities 

The  authority  for  the  annual  appropriations  for 
all  of  the  activities  of  the  International  Educa- 
tional Exchange  Service  of  the  Department  is  de- 
rived from  the  Smith-Mundt  Act.  This  act  is  also 
the  authority  under  which  the  Department  re- 
quests the  appropriated  foreign  currencies  pro- 
vided for  under  the  Fulbright  Act  (Public  Law 
584,  79th  Congress) .  Included  in  the  authorized 
activities  are  the  following: 

( 1 )  the  operation  of  the  various  educational  ex- 
change programs,  including  the  exchange  of  per- 
sons, their  orientation  and  f ollowup ; 

(2)  the  program  of  assistance  to  American- 
sponsored  schools  in  Latin  America; 

(3)  the  approval  and  facilitation  of  hundreds 
of  privately  sponsored  exchange  pi-ograms  desig- 
nated as  exchange- visitor  programs  and  involving 
the  bringing  of  thousands  of  persons  to  the  United 
States ; 

(4)  assistance  to  other  private  programs  involv- 
ing the  exchange  of  persons  between  the  United 
States  and  other  countries ; 

( 5 )  the  responsibilities  of  the  Secretary  of  State 
for  participation  in  cultural  conventions  and  other 
cultural  activities  between  the  United  States  and 
other  countries  and  the  backstopping  of  such  in- 
ternational cultural  activities  as  those  conducted 
by  the  Cultural  Coimcil  of  the  Organization  of 
American  States,  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organi- 
zation, Southeast  Asia  Treaty  Organization,  etc. ; 
and 

(6)  the  coordination  of  these  exchange  and  cul- 
tural activities  into  a  combined  effort  to  insure 


their  maximum  effectiveness  in  our  foreign  rela- 
tions programs. 

Relationship  Between  the  Smith-Mundt  and  Ful- 
bright Programs 

TIio  Smith-Mundt  Act  authorizes  dollar  appro- 
priations for  reciprocal  exchanges  on  a  worldwide 
basis.  For  example,  in  1958  we  plan  to  conduct 
programs  under  this  act  with  87  countries.  Pro- 
grams under  the  Fulbright  Act,  on  the  other  hand, 
are  restricted  to  countries  with  which  we  have 
specitic  Executive  agreements  that  make  available 
nonconvertible  foreign  currencies  for  this  purpose. 
It  is  anticipated  we  will  have  such  agreements 
with  some  33  coimtries  in  1958.  Another  limita- 
tion on  Fulbright  funds  is  their  use  in  connection 
with  schools  and  institutions  of  higher  learning 
Iiere  and  abroad.  They  could  not  be  used  to  bring 
foreign  leaders  here  on  short  visits  or  for  other 
programs  that  are  not  strictly  in  the  educational 
field.  The  fact  that  the  Fulbright  funds  are  avail- 
able only  in  nonconvertible  foreign  currencies  is 
another  limitation.  They  can  be  used  only  for  ex- 
penses within  the  participating  foreign  countries 
and  for  international  travel. 

In  practice,  tliis  means  that  the  program  under 
the  Fulbright  Act  has  to  have  a  certain  amount 
of  dollar  support  to  supplement  the  foreign  cur- 
rencies provided.  This  works  out  at  the  ratio  of 
about  $1  in  U.S.  currency  for  every  $2  in  foreign 
currencies.  The  dollar  currencies  are  used  for  ex- 
penses of  foreign  participants  while  they  are  in 
the  United  States  and  for  the  dollar  costs  of  the 
stateside  and  overseas  services  requii'ed  to  carry 
out  the  program.  I  refer  liere  to  appropriated 
dollars.  In  addition  to  these  cash  outlays,  max- 
imum use  is  made  of  private  scholarships  and  as- 
sistance from  other  private  sources.  The  total 
value  of  such  private  financial  support  is  a  major 
factor  in  the  success  of  the  Fulbright  program,  as 
it  approximates  the  amount  of  foreign  currency 
expended  each  year. 

I  believe  you  will  see  from  the  foregoing  that 
a  joint  operation  of  these  two  types  of  programs 
in  countries  where  both  are  authorized  is  a  neces- 
sity. We  are  constantly  seeking  to  effect  a  closer 
integration,  and,  in  fact,  one  of  the  amendments 
we  are  now  proposing  (section  5)  is  designed  to 
"bring  about  still  further  coordination  between 
these  two  programs. 


April  8,    1957 


567 


Estimated  Cost  of  Amendments 

The  estimated  annual  cost  to  the  Department  of 
all  these  amendments  will  be  approximately 
$320,000.  However,  in  our  judgment,  the  im- 
provement in  program  effectiveness  will  more 
than  offset  this  amount.  The  Department  will  not 
request  additional  funds  for  fiscal  year  1958  for 
these  purposes  but  will  reprogram  its  regular 
funds  to  cover  any  additional  costs. 

Changes  Between  Present  Bill  and  S.3638  Considered 
Last  Year 

The  bill  you  are  now  considering  differs  in 
some  respects  from  the  one  the  committee  consid- 
ered last  year.  Some  of  the  changes  are  editorial 
in  nature;  others  represent  changes  in  substance 
or  the  adding  of  safeguarding  provisions  in  com- 
pliance with  comments  or  suggestions  of  the  com- 
mittee during  the  hearings  last  year.  These  will 
be  noted  as  the  particular  provisions  are  discussed. 

Development  of  Projects 

Section  1  is  for  the  purpose  of  authorizing  our 
assistance  to  such  projects  as  chairs  of  American 
studies  at  institutions  abroad  and  the  holding  of 
short  seminars  or  workshops  on  various  branches 
of  American  studies. 

The  chairs  in  American  studies  would  be  filled 
by  American  professors  or  American-trained  pro- 
fessors. We  have  found  that  projects  of  this  na- 
ture engender  binational  support  and  produce  a 
greater  cumulative  effect  than  can  be  gained  from 
single  isolated  exchanges. 

This  provision  would  also  permit  us  to  arrange 
for  special  seminars  and  workshops  abroad.  Such 
meetings  would  bring  together  groups  of  Ameri- 
can lecturers  and  researchers,  already  abroad 
under  this  program  or  the  Fulbright  program, 
for  the  purpose  of  presenting  an  intensive  course 
on  particular  phases  of  American  life  and 
institutions. 

These  special  seminars  or  conferences  would  be 
attended  by  foreign  nationals  who  had  been  ex- 
change visitors  under  the  program,  as  well  as  some 
foreign  nationals  who  had  not  had  such  an  ex- 
perience. For  the  former,  this  would  be  a  "re- 
fresher" or  "followup"  session  that  would  keep 
alive  and  fresh  in  their  minds  their  American  ex- 
perience and  would  update  or  expand  their  knowl- 
edge of  our  country.  Such  sessions  should  also 
make  a  real  impact  on  participants  who  have  never 


been  to  the  United  States,  giving  them  an  in- 
sight into  American  studies  and  American  educa- 
tional techniques.  For  example,  a  group  of  for- 
eign high  school  teachers  of  American  history  or 
English  could  attend  such  sessions,  even  though 
they  might  not  be  able  to  come  to  this  country 
under  this  program.  The  cost,  of  course,  would 
be  much  less  than  if  we  brought  them  to  this 
comitry. 

Orientation  for  N on-V .S .-Government  Students 

Section  2  (a)  authorizes  orientation  courses  and 
materials  for  exchangees  who  are  not  financed 
under  the  Government  program.  "VVe  now  give 
orientation  to  our  own  grantees.  This  would  en- 
able us  to  do  the  same,  on  a  very  selective  basis, 
for  exchangees  in  nongovernmental  programs  sim- 
ilar to  ours. 

We  have  in  mind  particularly  the  orientation  of 
foreign  students  participating  in  privately  spon- 
sored programs  conducted  by  the  Institute  of 
International  Education.  The  standards  used  in 
selecting  these  students  are  basically  the  same  as 
those  for  Government  grantees,  with  our  embassies 
abroad  assisting  in  the  screening  and  selection. 

Orientation  usually  consists  of  a  6-week  aca- 
demic program  at  selected  colleges  and  universi- 
ties, or  a  4-week  visit  in  the  homes  of  individual 
American  families  under  a  program  supervised  by 
the  Experiment  in  International  Living. 

The  wording  of  this  provision  as  compared 
with  that  submitted  last  year  has  been  tightened 
up  to  assure  that  the  orientation  will  be  limited  to 
the  types  of  programs  the  Government  operates 
and  to  those  instances  where  we  can  determine 
that  such  orientation  will  better  equip  the  ex- 
changee to  further  the  objectives  of  this  act. 

Third-Country  Exchanges 

Section  2  {h)  would  permit  nationals  of  a  co- 
operating country  to  attend  selected  institutions 
in  other  cooperating  countries  and  to  participate  in 
meetings  held  in  such  other  countries.  Grants 
under  this  provision  would  be  awarded  solely  for 
the  purpose  of  studying  subjects  pertaining  to  the 
United  States  and  then  only  when  it  is  determined 
that  urgent  foreign-relations  objectives  will  be 
served. 

Authority  now  exists  in  the  Fulbright  Act  for 
sending  nationals  of  countries  participating  in 
tliat  program  to  American  institutions  abroad, 
such  as  Robert  College  m  Turkey.    As  already 


568 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


mentioned,  the  Fulbright  program  is  limited  to 
about  30  countries  and  therefore  does  not  meet  all 
the  urgent  needs  in  this  field. 

We  have  in  mind,  for  example,  projects  for 
bringing  together  nationals  of  Tvebanon  and  sur- 
rounding countries  to  take  courses  under  Ameri- 
can professors  at  the  American  University  in 
Beiiiit.  Also  nationals  of  Asiatic  countries  could 
be  brought  to  the  Univei-sity  of  the  Philippines  or 
the  University  of  Taiwan  to  take  intensive  coui-ses 
in  American  literature,  American  history,  etc., 
under  American  professors  and  American-trained 
professors.  Such  arrangements  would  also 
broaden  the  audience,  especially  in  terms  of  reach- 
ing different  nationality  groups,  for  American 
professors  already  assigned  to  certain  of  these 
countries  and  thus  add  to  their  effectiveness. 

Two  slight  changes  in  the  previous  language 
have  been  made  in  the  wording  of  this  provision. 
The  first  would  permit  the  participation  in  meet- 
ings held  in  places  other  than  selected  institutions 
and  places  of  study.  It  could  include  an  audi- 
torium or  other  such  public  place.  The  other 
change  makes  it  clear  that  this  activity  will  not  be 
undertaken  in  any  country  controlled  by  interna- 
tional communism.  I  can  assure  you  also  that  in- 
stitutions will  be  selected  solely  on  the  basis  of  our 
assurance  of  their  desire  and  ability  to  promote 
ideas  and  principles  in  keeping  with  our  basic 
foreign-policy  objectives. 

Advisory  Cormnission  Membership 

The  first  item  of  Section  3  will  make  officers  of 
State  imiversities  and  land-grant  colleges  eligible 
to  serve  on  the  U.S.  Advisory  Commission  on 
Educational  Exchange.  The  present  wording  of 
the  act  makes  the  holder  of  any  compensated  Fed- 
eral or  State  office  ineligible.  It  is  our  under- 
standing that  this  was  not  intended  to  disqualify 
officers  of  educational  institutions,  but  it  has  this 
effect  in  some  States.  We  believe  that  all  such 
persons  should  be  eligible  for  consideration  for 
membei-ship  on  this  commission. 

Annual  Report  by  U.S.  Advisory  Commission  to 
Congress 

Section  k  amends  the  present  law  to  require  re- 
portmg  by  the  U.S.  Advisory  Commission  on 
Educational  Exchange  to  Congress  on  an  annual 
rather  than  a  semiannual  basis.  More  frequent 
reporting  was  desirable  in  the  earlier  days  of  the 

kptW  8,  1957 

421092 — 57 3 


pi'ogram,  but  the  commission  and  we  believe  that 
an  annual  report  will  not  only  be  sufficient  but  also 
that  it  will  be  more  meaningful  to  the  Congress. 
The  exchange  program  is  planned  and  operated  on 
an  annual  basis.  Thus,  an  annual  report  will 
cover  a  logical  program  period.  Should  any  sit- 
uation arise  which  would  make  an  interim  report 
desirable,  such  a  report  could  be  prasented  on  the 
initiative  of  the  commission,  or  at  our  request,  or 
at  the  request  of  the  Congress. 

Use  of  Binational  Convmissions 

Section  6  authorizes  the  use  of  existing  bina- 
tional commissions  and  foundations  abroad  in  the 
administration  of  the  program.  These  commis- 
sions are  created  imder  the  Fulbright  Act  for  the 
purpose  of  administering  that  program  in  each 
country.  Their  use  in  connection  with  the  Smith- 
Alundt  program  will  add  a  binational  element  that 
has  proved  most  effective  in  the  Fulbright  pro- 
gram and  will  facilitate  the  joint  administi"ation 
of  the  combined  programs. 

No  dollars  are  now  available  for  these  commis- 
sions. Under  the  proposed  arrangement  a  very 
limited  amount  of  dollars  would  be  made  avail- 
able, primarily  for  payment  of  a  portion  of  the 
salary  of  the  key  American  officer. 

This  provision  differs  from  the  proposal  of  last 
year  in  that  no  authority  is  requested  to  create 
additional  commissions.  We  plan  to  use  only 
those  established  mider  the  Fulbright  Act,  since 
one  of  the  prmcipal  purposes  is  to  coordinate  the 
two  programs. 

Advice  From  Private  Groups 

Section  6  amends  section  801(6)  of  the  act  in 
two  respects: 

First,  it  authorizes  the  calling  of  meetings  to  ob- 
tain advice  and  assistance  of  private  and  public 
educational  institutions  and  other  similar  organ- 
izations. This  would  permit  better  cooperation 
between  governmental  and  nongovernmental  ex- 
change programs  so  that  the  effectiveness  of  both 
would  be  increased.  Persons  attending  such  meet- 
ings at  the  invitation  of  the  Government  would  not 
require  full  field  investigations  of  the  kind  con- 
ducted for  persons  employed  or  assigned  to  duty. 
Such  investigations  are  not  considered  necessary 
since  the  persons  attending  would  serve  in  ad- 
visory capacities  only  and  would  not  have  access 
to  classified  material. 

569 


There  is  general  authority  now  (section  15  of 
the  act  of  August  2,  1946,  5  U.S.C.  55a)  under 
which  individuals  may  be  appohited  and  brought 
in  for  consultation  and  advice,  but  speciiic  author- 
ity as  a  part  of  this  act  would  be  extremely  helpful 
in  attracting  the  type  of  individuals  needed  for 
this  program. 

There  is  authority  now  for  creating  advisory 
committees.  The  meetings  contemplated  under 
this  additional  authority,  however,  will  be  gen- 
erally on  a  short-term  basis,  and  we  do  not  believe 
we  should  formally  create  a  committee  just  for 
these  purposes. 

An  editorial  change  has  been  made  in  this  pro- 
vision to  eliminate  unnecessary  language. 

$15.00  Per  Diem  for  Commission  Members 

Second,  Section  6  authorizes  an  increase  from 
$10.00  to  $15.00  in  the  per-diem  rates  payable  to 
members  of  advisory  commissions  and  committees. 
Such  persons  serve  without  compensation.  The 
$15.00  rate  conforms  to  the  general  rate  now  pre- 
scribed for  consultants  and  others  serving  without 
compensation.  The  authority  requested  would 
bring  these  commission  and  committee  members 
under  the  general  legislation  prescribing  rates  of 
per  diem  for  experts  and  consultants  serving  the 
Government  without  compensation. 

Emergency  Medical  Expenses 

Section  7  includes  an  item  (identified  as  subsec- 
tion 5)  which  authorizes  the  payment  of  emer- 
gency medical  expenses  for  persons  selected  to 
participate  in  the  program.  The  lack  of  authority 
to  pay  such  expenses  in  emergency  cases  has  given 
rise  to  serious  problems.  Foreign  participants 
are  really  guests  of  this  Government  while  in  this 
country,  and  the  inability  of  the  Government  to 
meet  their  emergency  hospital  and  medical  ex- 
penses, which  the  individuals  often  are  imable  to 
meet,  places  them  and  the  Government  in  an  em- 
barrassing position.  Similar  problems  arise  in 
the  case  of  American  participants  abroad.  Au- 
thority is  requested  also  to  pay  the  expense  of 
travel  incurred  by  reason  of  illness.  In  a  number 
of  instances  participants  in  the  program  have  suf- 
fered mental  or  physical  disordei-s  that  require 
their  return  home  accompanied  by  an  attendant. 
The  proposed  provision  would  permit  payment 
of  travel  costs  incurred  under  such  circumstances. 
This  authority  is  urgently  needed  to  meet  emer- 


gency situations  as  they  arise.     The  number  of 
such  emergencies,  fortunately,  has  been  very  small. 

Facilitating  Exchanges  of  International  Organr- 
izations 

Section  8  amends  section  902  of  the  act  to  per- 
mit the  acceptance  of  funds  from  international 
organizations  for  operation  of  programs  author- 
ized by  the  act.  Authority  now  exists  for  the 
acceptance  of  such  funds  from  foreign  govern- 
ments. The  additional  authority  is  needed  to  per- 
mit this  Goverimient  to  accept  funds  for  use  in  ad- 
ministering some  of  the  fellowship  programs  of 
the  United  Nations.  The  funds  would  be  ac- 
cepted and  used  for  only  those  specific  projects 
for  which  they  are  made  available  by  such  or- 
ganizations. Our  Govermnent  is  dedicated  to  a 
policy  of  cooperation  with  the  United  Nations. 
Lack  of  authority  to  accept  funds  ofi'ered  by  this 
organization  for  the  training  of  foreign  nationals 
in  the  United  States  under  its  programs  has  proved 
a  source  of  embarrassment  to  our  Government. 
This  amendment  would  permit  the  desired  co- 
operation. 

The  section  diti'ers  from  the  one  proposed  last 
year  in  a  matter  of  language  only.  There  is  no 
change  in  its  substance. 

Annual  Report  hy  Secretary  of  State 

Section  9  proposes  a  change  in  section  1008 
which  would  permit  the  Secretary  of  State  to 
report  to  the  Congress  on  the  educational  exchange 
program  amiually.  He  is  now  required  to  report 
semiannually.  Since  a  year  is  required  to  meet 
a  complete  cycle  of  the  exchange  program,  re- 
ports presented  on  that  basis  would  be  more  com- 
plete and  more  meanmgful. 

Settlement  of  Tort  Claims 

Section  10  includes  authority  to  settle  tort  claims 
arising  abroad  by  both  the  Department  and  the 
U.S.  Information  Agency.  The  expeditious 
settlement  of  equitable  claims  will  aid  immeas- 
urably in  maintaining  and  promoting  friendly 
relations  abroad. 

This  will  enable  the  Department  and  the  U.S. 
Information  Agency  to  settle  all  claims  arising 
out  of  their  overseas  operations  on  a  basis  simi- 
lar to  that  used  by  the  armed  services.  A  uni- 
form basis  for  settlement  of  such  claims  is  highly 
desirable. 


570 


Deparfmenf  of  Sfofe   BuUeHn 


Effectiveness  of  Educational  and  Cultural  Exchange 
Programs 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  appreciate  the  attention  the 
committee  has  given  to  tliis  rather  detaiknl  ex- 
phuiation.  We  are  convinced  that  these  amend- 
ments to  the  act  of  1948  will  enable  the  Depart- 


ment to  improve  the  administration  of  the  edu- 
cational exchange  program.  That  program  has 
become  such  a  valuable  instrument  in  the  pur- 
suance of  our  foreign-policy  goals  that  I  am 
sui'e  you  will  look  with  favor  on  anything  we 
can  do  to  make  it  still  more  effective. 


The  Cold  War  and  the  Universities 


iy  Frederick  Cable  Oechsner 


American  universities  are  helping  this  country 
with  ideas  and  personnel  to  fight  communism  on 
every  cold-war  battlefi'ont  in  the  world.  Even  if 
the  cold  war  as  we  know  it  today  should  last  for 
50  years  or  more,  the  miiversities  are  directly  con- 
tributing to  shaping  a  world  of  the  future  where 
we  may  enjoy  genuine  peaceful  coexistence  instead 
of  the  uncertain  substitute  for  it  with  which  we 
are  struggling  today.  Hungary  and  Egypt,  and 
before  them  Korea,  Formosa,  and  Indochina,  have 
shown  us  how  far  we  still  have  to  go. 

One  encouraging  thought  to  sustain  us,  in  the 
midst  of  disturbing  news  from  satellite  Europe 
and  the  Middle  East,  is  that,  while  man  in  his 
million-year  history  has  had  many  periods  of  irra- 
tional and  antisocial  behavior,  there  has  never 
been  a  time  when  he  made  such  an  intense, 
methodical,  and  intelligent  attempt  to  under- 
stand and  improve  his  behavior  as  at  present. 

Never  before  have  we  had  the  instruments  that 
we  have  today  for  studying  man  in  the  matrix  of 
his  particular  culture — whether  he  be  American, 
Russian,  Egyptian,  or  Israeli— and  the  way  in 
which  his  behavior  and  culture  relate  to  other  in- 
dividuals and  groups  in  the  world.  And  never  be- 
fore, incidentally,  have  we  had  the  very  real  in- 
centive of  possible  annihilation  to  spur  us  on. 

In  discussing  the  role  of  universities  in  the  cold 
war,  I  use  the  latter  term  to  describe  the  period 
since  the  end  of  World  War  II,  a  period  of  intense 
political,  economic,  and  psychological  as  well  as 


military  pressures,  a  period  in  which  we  find  lit- 
erally dozens  of  gi-eat  cultural  groups,  each  with 
its  own  cherished  pattern  of  behavior,  locked  in 
a  struggle  for  power  and  prestige. 

Almost  nothing  seems  more  important  to  me  in 
the  working  out  of  our  cold-war  problems  than 
the  actual  movement  of  persons  to  one  another's 
countries.  I  refer  not  only  to  the  coming  of  dele- 
gates to  the  United  Nations  and  other  interna- 
tional conferences  but  also  to  the  interchange  of 
experience  involved  in  the  visits  of  educators,  lec- 
turers, labor  leaders,  doctors,  lawyers,  engineers, 
students,  scientists,  and  artists  and  also  of  groups 
like  orchestras,  theater  companies,  and  athletic 
teams.  I  was  greatly  surprised,  a  year  or  two  ago, 
to  see  a  young  American  girl  broadcasting  in 
Serbo-Croat  from  the  Zagreb  radio  station  tx) 
Yugoslav  young  people.  She  had  studied  the  lan- 
guage at  Smith  College  and  had  been  sent  overseas 
under  the  Department  of  State's  international 
educational  exchange  program. 

Six  thousand  others  like  her  this  year,  both 


•  Mr.  Oechsner  is  principal  officer  of  the 
U.S.  consulate  at  Monterrey,  Mexico.  His 
article  is  hosed  on  an  address  which  he  made 
at  Tulane  University,  New  Orleans,  La.,  on 
November  10,  1956,  during  a  temporary 
assignment  in  the  United  States. 


April  8,    1957 


571 


American  and  foreign,  will  cross  the  oceans  to 
and  from  United  States  universities  under  this 
program,  at  a  cost  of  $20  million.  Another  30,000 
persons  will  be  assisted  by  private  industry,  by 
the  great  foundations  like  Ford,  Rockefeller,  and 
Carnegie,  and  by  hospitals  and  medical  schools, 
to  study,  teach,  or  do  research  at  univei-sities  here 
and  in  70  countries  abroad. 

A  basketball  clinic  for  coaches  will  be  held 
in  Japan ;  in  Belgium  the  work  of  the  first  Center 
for  lie-education  of  Cerebral  Palsied  Children 
will  go  on,  as  will  that  of  a  similar  center  in 
Norway;  a  school  of  journalism  will  operate  at 
the  University  of  Thammasat  in  Thailand, 
another  at  Nagpur  University  in  India.  All  these 
programs  have  been  made  possible  through  the 
exchange  of  skills  and  sympathetic  understanding 
between  Americans  and  people  abroad. 

Inter-University  Projects 

In  many  instances  the  U.S.  educational  ex- 
change program  has  been  the  means  of  establishing 
direct  cooperation  between  American  and  foreign 
universities.  In  the  field  of  such  inter-university 
work,  there  is  also  another  excellent  progi'am 
financed  by  the  International  Cooperation  Admin- 
istration in  Washington.  Under  this  program  53 
American  universities  have  contracts  with  Ica, 
totaling  $53.6  million,  for  partnerships  with  uni- 
versities in  38  countries  abroad.  (In  some  con- 
tracts, private  foundations  like  Ford  and  Rocke- 
feller have  taken  over  the  financing  when  Ica's 
term  was  through.)  These  contracts  are  in  the 
area  of  technical  cooperation,  and  their  yield  to 
the  United  States  in  this  cold-war  period  can 
hardly  be  exaggerated. 

Tulane  has  one  of  these  contracts  for  coopera- 
tion with  the  University  of  Colombia  in  develop- 
ing medical  education.  A  Tulane  doctor  has  gone 
to  Bogota  to  make  the  primary  survey;  repre- 
sentatives of  the  University  of  Colombia  will  then 
come  to  Tulane  for  training,  work  will  be  done 
on  such  things  as  curricula  and  bibliogi-aphy  for 
the  library,  and  a  close  joint  eiiort  will  continue 
throughout  the  life  of  the  contract.  The  Delgado 
Central  Trades  School  in  New  Orleans  has  a  con- 
tract for  cooperation  with  the  School  of  Arts  and 
Crafts  at  Beirut,  Lebanon,  and  another  with  the 
Kampala  Technical  Institute  in  the  Protectorate 
of  Uganda,  Africa. 

On  every  continent  American  universities  are 


helping  to  develop  sound,  stable  societies  through 
unremitting  effort  in  the  very  practical  fields  of 
agriculture,  education,  engineering,  public  ad- 
ministration, public  health,  housing,  vocational 
training,  industrial  development,  home  economics, 
sanitation,  and  other  areas  critical  in  the  struggle 
to  extend  democracy. 

The  University  of  Michigan,  for  example,  has 
done  an  outstanding  job  with  the  University  of  the 
Philippines  in  setting  up  an  Institute  of  Public 
Administration.  Oklahoma  A.  and  M.  has  helped 
Ethiopia  to  establish  an  agricultural  college. 
North  Carolina  is  in  Peru,  Minnesota  in  Korea, 
Columbia  in  Afghanistan;  Illinois,  Ohio  State, 
Tennessee,  Wisconsin,  Rensselaer,  and  Kansas  are 
in  India.  Oregon  is  in  Nepal.  Others  are  in  Iran, 
Iraq,  Jordan,  Pakistan,  Turkey,  Libya,  Indonesia, 
Thailand,  Viet-Nam,  and  Japan. 

In  Ethiopia,  where  a  school  was  established  with 
American  university  assistance,  437  boys  applied 
for  enrollment  but  only  79  could  be  accepted  at 
first.  One  lad  trekked  800  miles  to  Addis  Ababa 
on  foot,  selling  most  of  his  clothes  en  route.  With- 
out food  for  the  last  2  days,  he  arrived  at  the  U.S. 
Operations  Mission  so  weak  that  he  had  to  be  taken 
to  a  hospital — but  not  before  he  told  why  he  had 
come:  to  attend  that  new  school  the  Americans 
were  helping  to  get  started.  He  was  accepted,  I 
may  add. 

In  Iran  73  schools  have  been  set  up  for  children 
of  nomadic  tribes,  and  the  schools  travel  with  the 
tribes  as  they  migrate.  The  same  sort  of  thing  is 
being  done  for  the  Bedouins  in  Jordan.  Tribal 
chieftains  were  so  enthusiastic  over  this  first  edu- 
cational program  ever  attempted  for  these  nomads 
that  they  wanted  to  hold  school  8  hours  a  day,  7 
days  a  week. 

Needless  to  say,  most  of  these  places  are  front- 
line battlegrounds  in  the  cold  war  and  American 
universities  are  there  fighting  communism  tooth 
and  nail.  Let  me  tell  you  what  a  distinguished 
scholar  wrote  to  his  dean  when  sent  abroad 
recently  to  survey  the  need  of  a  contract  between 
his  university  and  a  foreign  institution : 

This  job  will  require  men  with  a  certain  missionary 
spirit,  but  such  men  can  exert  an  influence  that  might 
have  tremendous  significance  in  this  forming  nation.  The 
easy  recommendation  would  be  to  stay  out  and  avoid  all 
the  headaches,  and  even  possible  failure.  I  cannot  make 
that  recommendation.  I  say  this  because  I  do  not  care 
to  contemplate  the  alternative :  to  stay  out  and  see  this 
nation  slip  into  chaos  and  comnianism  while  we  make  no 
eflfort  to  save  it. 


572 


Department  of  Sfafe   Bulletin 


study  of  World's  Cultures 

I  remember,  as  a  young  newspaperman  in  New 
Orleans,  interviewing  the  gifted  Irish  poet,  James 
Stephens,  who  wrote  "The  Crock  of  Gold"  and 
many  other  poems.  Discussing  the  political  for- 
tunes of  Ireland  in  the  midtwenties,  I  asked 
Stephens  what  he  thought  Ireland's  best  defenses 
were.  "Well,"  he  replied,  "we  can  always  retreat 
into  the  Gaelic  language.  Nobody  will  ever  find 
us  there." 

I  submit  that  today  it  is  impossible  for  the 
Irish,  or  any  other  sizable  group  in  the  world,  to 
retreat  into  its  own  culture.  The  reason  is  that 
our  country,  principally  through  its  universities, 
is  now  engaged  in  a  remarkably  complete  study 
of  the  different  cultures  of  the  world. 

This  research  consists  largely  of  what  are  called 
"area  study  programs."  To  find  out  about  them, 
I  went  to  the  State  Department's  External  Re- 
search Staff,  a  unit  of  the  Office  of  Intelligence 
Research,  which  devotes  full  time  to  keeping 
abreast  of  university  research  dealing  with  foreign 
area  and  foreign  policy  problems.  There  I  was 
given  details  of  literally  thousands  of  inquiries 
into  the  problems  of  particular  geographical  re- 
gions, often  a  single  country  or  a  subgroup  within 
a  country.  These  research  projects  are  being 
carried  out  by  most  of  the  country's  universities 
or  individual  scholars,  with  40  institutions  carry- 
ing the  major  load  of  81  full-scale  programs. 

The  area  study  programs  were  taken  up  seri- 
ously during  and  just  after  World  War  II  to  meet 
the  needs  of  Government  policymakers  and  of 
American  business  concerns  for  information  on 
economic,  political,  and  social  conditions  abroad. 
Since  then,  and  especially  in  the  last  5  years,  the 
area  studies  have  expanded  and  intensified  enor- 
mously. Today  they  are  financed  not  only  by  the 
universities  and  by  individuals  but  also  by  the 
great  private  foundations  like  Ford,  Rockefeller, 
and  Carnegie,  and  also,  of  course,  by  the  Govern- 
ment, which  continues  to  be  one  of  the  great  users 
of  this  intelligence  developed  in  the  universities. 

Tulane  has  at  least  two  important  area-study 
projects:  the  Latin  American  Studies  Program 
and  a  special  project  on  the  penetration  of  West- 
ern ideas  into  the  political  processes  of  West  Afri- 
can societies.  The  Latin  American  program  has 
yielded  richly  in  completed  studies,  including 
those  on  Guatemala,  Cuba,  the  Dominican  Repub- 
lic, Mexico,  and  many  others  on  current  problems. 


Harvard,  under  a  contract  with  the  Air  Force, 
has  made  microscopic  studies  of  Soviet  culture  and 
behavior.  (The  External  Research  Staff  lists 
well  over  500  titles  of  research  projects  concen- 
trated on  Soviet  Russia.)  Through  its  Russian 
Research  Center,  Harvard  also  helps  in  the  spe- 
cial language-and-area  training  given  selected 
Foreign  Service  officers  who  will  work  in  Moscow 
or  satellite  areas.  Other  universities  prominent 
in  this  training  program,  coordinated  with  the 
Foreign  Service  Institute,  are  Columbia,  Cornell, 
Yale,  Princeton,  and  Stanford. 

At  Yale  a  series  of  handbooks  on  50  foreign 
countries  is  being  prepared  for  the  Army  for  the 
purpose  of  preparing  personnel  going  ovei'seas  to 
make  the  adjustment  to  their  new  environment. 

At  the  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology, 
the  Center  of  International  Studies,  concentrating 
on  international  communications,  economics,  and 
U.S.  relations  with  the  Communist  bloc,  is  produc- 
ing work  widely  used  in  the  Government.  Mem- 
bers of  the  faculty  at  the  M.I.T.  Center  are  con- 
sultants to  the  Armed  Forces  and  to  the  U.S.  In- 
formation Agency. 

Other  studies  of  utmost  importance  are  those 
in  basic  individual  and  gi-oup  behavior  dynamics ; 
in  intergroup  tensions  and  the  problems  of  co- 
operation ;  in  our  own  American  behavior  and  cul- 
ture; in  what  the  rest  of  the  world  thinks  of  us, 
and  why. 

Fields  for  Further  Expansion 

I  would  like  to  point  out  a  few  ways  in  which 
the  Department  of  State  feels  that  universities 
might  expand  their  activities  if  possible :  (1)  the 
gi'anting  of  scholarships  to  qualified  foreign  stu- 
dents; (2)  stipends  for  foreign  lecturers  or  re- 
search scholars ;  (3)  establishing  further  ties  with 
particular  foreign  universities  in  fields  of  mutual 
interest  (you  may  recall  that,  at  Baylor  Univer- 
sity not  long  ago.  President  Eisenhower  imder- 
scored  the  challenge  to  American  universities  and 
graduates  in  "this  great  two-way  avenue  of  con- 
tacts") ; '  (4)  encouraging  well-qualified  Ameri- 
can students  to  apply  for  scholarships,  government 
or  ijrivate,  for  study  overseas;  (5)  encouraging 
faculty  members  to  apply  for  lecturing  or  research 
positions  abroad;  (6)  stressing  the  critical  im- 
portance of  foreign-language  study  in  our  trade 


'  BuLLHOTN  of  June  4, 1956,  p.  915. 


April  8,    1957 


573 


and  cultural  relations  with  other  countries.  Not 
only  in  the  field  of  languages  but  in  all  others  the 
Government  looks  to  the  universities  to  develop 
manpower  for  the  Foreign  Service. 

Indeed,  I  can  think  of  no  more  important  func- 
tion of  the  universities  in  the  cold-vrar  period  than 
the  continued  education  of  young  people,  and  of 
the  entire  adult  population  of  the  country,  to  un- 
derstand themselves  and  the  problems  of  their 
age.  They  must  learn  to  understand  the  culture 
in  which  they  were  raised,  including  its  weak- 
nesses and  faults,  as  well  as  the  cultures  of  other 
people. 

I  submit  that,  up  to  now,  we  have  also  used  only 
a  fractional  part  of  our  social  potential  as  nations 
in  learning  to  get  along  together  rationally  rather 
than  emotionally.  I  do  not  know  that  we  will  see 
a  "breakthrough"  in  our  lifetime,  and  I  am  sure 
that  there  will  always  be  pathological  individuals 
like  Hitler  who  identify  the  motivations  of  large 
cultural  groups  with  their  own.  But  never,  it 
appears  to  me,  has  the  light  of  knowledge  and  of 
conscience  been  focused  on  these  problems  of  be- 
havior so  sharply  as  today.  I  have  tried  to  show 
how  the  work  of  the  American  university  fits  into 
this  great  struggle  for  the  rational  survival  of 
mankind. 


U.S.-Dominican  Agreement 
on  LORAN  Station 

Press  release  161  dated  March  19 

The  Governments  of  the  United  States  and  of 
the  Dominican  Republic  entered  into  an  agreement 
on  March  19  by  which  the  U.S.  Government  ac- 
quires the  right  to  establish  a  Long  Eange  Radio 
Aid  to  Navigation  (Loran)  Station  at  Cape 
Frances  Viejo  on  the  northern  coast  of  the  Domini- 
can Republic. 

This  station,  one  of  a  series  constituting  a  net- 


work in  various  countries  of  the  Caribbean  and 
other  areas,  will  benefit  air  and  sea  navigation  in 
this  increasingly  congested  area.  It  will  be 
manned  by  personnel  of  the  U.S.  Coast  Guard. 


United  States  and  Japan  Sign 
Income-Tax  Protocol 

Press  release  173  dated  March  23 

On  March  23,  1957,  the  American  Ambassador 
to  Japan,  Douglas  MacArthur  II,  and  the  Jap- 
anese Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  Nobusuke 
Kishi,  signed  at  Tokyo  a  protocol  supplementing 
the  income-tax  convention  of  April  16,  1954, 
between  the  United  States  and  Japan. 

The  1954  convention  with  Japan,^  like  income- 
tax  conventions  in  force  between  the  United  States 
and  18  other  countries,  contains  provisions  for  the 
avoidance  of  double  taxation  and  the  prevention 
of  fiscal  evasion  with  respect  to  taxes  on  income. 
The  protocol,  upon  entry  into  force,  will  supple- 
ment the  convention  by  providing  that  the  Export- 
Import  Bank  of  Wasliington  shall  be  exempt  from 
Japanese  tax  with  respect  to  interest  on  loans  or 
investments  received  by  such  bank  from  sources 
within  Japan.  Reciprocally,  the  Export-Import 
Bank  of  Japan  shall  be  exempt  from  United  States 
tax  with  respect  to  interest  on  loans  or  investments 
received  from  sources  within  the  United  States. 

The  protocol,  according  to  its  terms,  will  con- 
tinue in  force  concurrently  with  the  1954  conven- 
tion unless  terminated  earlier  by  a  6  months' 
written  notice  of  termination  given  by  either  Gov- 
ernment to  the  other  Government. 

The  jirotocol  will  be  transmitted  to  the  Senate 
for  advice  and  consent  to  ratification.  The  text 
of  the  protocol  will  be  available  in  printed  form 
upon  publication  of  the  Senate  Executive 
document. 


'  Treaties  and  Other  International  Acts  Series  3176. 


574 


Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


Air  Transport  Agreement  Between  United  States  and  Mexico 


Press  release  122  dated  March  7 
DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

Francis  White,  United  States  Ambassador  to 
Mexico,  and  Licenciado  Luis  Padilla  Nervo,  Sec- 
retary of  Foreign  Eelations  for  Mexico,  concluded 
on  March  7  at  Mexico  City  an  exchange  of  notes 
providing  for  an  air  transport  agreement  between 
the  two  countries. 

Tlie  exchange  of  notes,  incorporating  the  un- 
derstanding between  the  two  countries,  establishes 
the  routes  to  be  served  by  United  States  and  Mexi- 
can flag  airlines  and  contains  the  principles  under 
which  these  routes  will  be  operated. 

The  understanding  between  the  two  Govern- 
ments also  provides  that  the  agi'eement  shall  be- 
come effective  90  days  after  the  signature  of  the 
exchange  and  that  it  shall  expire  on  June  30, 1959. 
At  the  request  of  either  Government,  made  prior 
to  May  30,  1959,  conversations  may  be  initiated 
looking  to  agreement  concerning  subsequent  regu- 
lation of  air  transport  between  the  two  countries. 


TEXT  OF  AGREEMENT 


Mexico,  D.F.,  Ma/rch  7,  1957 

His  Excellency 

Sr.  Lie.  Louis  Padilla  Nervo, 
Secretary  of  Foreign  BelatioTis, 
Mexico,  D.F. 

No.  942 

Excellency  :  I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge 
the  receipt  of  Your  Excellency's  note  No.  501404 
of  today's  date,  together  with  the  attached  Memo- 
randum of  Understanding  and  Annex,  which  read 
in  translation  as  follows: 

Mb.  Ambassador  :  I  have  the  honor  to  advise  Your  Ex- 
cellency that  the  Government  of  Mexico,  in  a  desire  to 
conti-ibute  to  the  improvement  of  air  transport  between 
oui-  two  countries,  is  prepared  to  execute  a  provisional 


arrangement  regarding  civil  aviation  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  of  America  in  the  terms  of 
the  Memorandum  of  Understanding  and  its  Annex  which 
I  attach  to  the  present  note. 

If,  as  I  understand  is  the  case,  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America  is  also  willing  to  conclude 
such  an  arrangement  on  this  basis,  the  present  note  and 
the  note  in  reply  from  Your  Excellency  communicating 
your  Government's  acceptance  of  the  Memorandum  of 
Understanding  and  its  Annex  above-mentioned  shall  con- 
stitute a  provisional  arrangement  regarding  civil  avia- 
tion between  the  two  Governments. 

I  take  this  occasion  to  renew  to  Y'our  Excellency  the 
assurances  of  my  highest  consideration. 

MEMORANDUM  OF  UNDERSTANDING 

1.  The  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  Government  of 
Mexico  shall  grant  permits  to  airlines  designated  by  the 
Government  of  the  United  States  of  America  to  operate  air 
services  on  the  air  routes  specified  below,  via  intermediate 
points,  in  both  directions,  and  to  make  regular  stops 
at  the  points  listed  in  this  paragraph  : 

A.  New  York,  Washington-Mexico  City. 

B.  Chicago,  Dallas,  San  .\ntonio-Mexico  City,  via  inter- 
mediate points  in  the  United  States. 

C.  Los  Angeles-Mexico  City,  via  intermediate  points 
in  the  United  States. 

D.  New  Orleans-Mexico  City. 

E.  New  Orleans-M6rida,  and  beyond,  to  Guatemala, 
and  beyond. 

F.  Miami-M^rida,  and  beyond,  to  Guatemala,  and 
beyond. 

G.  Houston,  Brownsville-Tajnpico,  Mexico  City,  Tapa- 
cluila,  and  beyond,  to  Guatemala,  and  beyond. 

The  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  of  America  shall  grant  permits  to  airlines 
designated  by  the  Government  of  Mexico  to  operate  air 
services  on  each  one  of  the  air  routes  specified  below, 
via  intermediate  points,  in  both  directions,  and  to  make 
regular  stops  at  the  points  listed  in  this  paragraph : 

A.  Mexico  City-Washington,  New  York. 

B.  Mexico  City-Chicago,  via  intermediate  points  in 
Mexico. 

C.  Mexico  City-Los  Angeles,  via  intermediate  points  in 
Mexico. 

D.  Mexico  City-New  Orleans,  via  intermediate  points 
in  Mexico. 

E.  Mexico  City-Miami,  and  beyond,  via  intermediate 
points  in  Mexico. 


April  8,   1957 


575 


F.  Mexico  City-San  Antonio,  via  intermediate  points  In 
Mexico. 

G.  (Pending). 

2.  Both  parties  agree  not  to  designate,  for  the  present, 
more  than  one  airline  for  each  route. 

3.  An  airline  designated  by  either  country  may,  at  its 
discretion,  omit  stops  on  any  of  the  routes  specified  on  any 
or  all  flights. 

4.  The  aeronautical  operations  of  the  designated  lines 
shall  be  governed  by  the  principles  set  forth  in  the 
Annex  to  the  present  Memorandum  of  Understanding. 

5.  The  present  Provisional  Arrangement  shall  enter 
in  force  ninety  days  after  the  date  of  the  exchange  of 
notes. 

6.  The  arrangement  shall  terminate  June  30,  1959. 

7.  Upon  request  of  either  Government,  prior  to  May 
30,  1959,  talks  may  be  initiated  to  reach  an  agreement 
concerning  a  system  to  regulate  air  transport  subsequent 
to  June  30,  1959,  between  the  two  countries. 

Annex 


(A)  The  term  "aeronautical  authorities"  means  In  the 
ease  of  the  United  States  of  America,  the  Civil  Aero- 
nautics Board  or  any  person  or  agency  authorized  to 
perform  the  functions  exercised  at  the  jjresent  time  by  the 
Civil  Aeronautics  Board  and,  in  the  case  of  the  United 
Mexican  States,  the  Ministry  of  Communications  and 
Public  Works  or  any  person  or  agency  authorized  to 
perform  the  functions  exercised  at  present  by  the  said 
Ministry  of  Communications  and  Public  Works. 

(B)  The  term  "designated  airline"  means  an  airline 
that  one  party  has  notified  to  the  other  party,  in  writ- 
ing, to  be  the  airline  which  will  operate  a  specific  route 
or  routes  listed  in  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding. 

(C)  The  term  "territory"  in  relation  to  a  State  means 
the  land  areas  and  territorial  waters  adjacent  thereto 
under  the  sovereignty,  suzerainty,  protection,  mandate 
or  trusteeship  of  that  State. 

(D)  The  term  "air  service"  means  scheduled  air 
service  performed  by  aircraft  for  the  public  transport 
of  passengers,  mail  or  cargo. 

(B)  The  term  "international  air  service"  means  an  air 
service  which  flies  over  the  territory  of  more  than  one 
State. 

(P)  The  term  "stop  for  non-traflic  purposes"  means  a 
landing  for  any  purpose  other  than  taking  on  or  discharg- 
ing passengers,  cargo  or  mail. 

II 

Each  party  grants  to  the  other  party  rights  neces- 
sary for  the  conduct  of  air  services  by  the  designated 
airlines,  as  follows:  the  rights  of  transit,  of  stops  for 
non-traflic  puriioses,  and  of  commercial  entry  and  de- 
parture for  international  traflic  in  passengers,  cargo,  and 
mail  at  the  points  in  its  territory  named  on  each  of  the 
routes  specified  in  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding. 
The  fact  that  such  rights  may  not  be  exercised  im- 
mediately .shall  not  preclude  the  subsequent  inauguration 
of  air  services  by  the  airlines  of  the  party  to  whom  such 


rights  are  granted  over  the  routes  specified  in  the  Mem- 
orandum of  Understanding. 

Ill 

Air  service  on  a  specified  route  may  be  inaugurated 
immediately  or  at  a  later  date  at  the  option  of  the  party 
to  whom  the  rights  are  granted  by  an  airline  or  airlines 
of  such  party  at  any  time  after  that  party  has  desig- 
nated such  airline  or  airlines  for  the  route  and  the  other 
party  has  given  the  appropriate  operating  permission. 
Such  other  party  shall,  subject  to  Section  IV,  be  bound 
to  give  this  permission  provided  that  the  designated  air- 
line or  airlines  may  be  required  to  qualify  before  the 
competent  aeronautical  authorities  of  that  party,  under 
the  laws  and  regulations  normally  applied  by  these  au- 
thorities, before  being  permitted  to  engage  in  the  opera- 
tions contemplated  by  the  Memorandum  of  Understand- 
ing and  this  Annex. 

IV 

Each  party  reseiTes  the  right  to  withhold  or  revoke 
the  operating  permission  provided  for  in  Section  III  of 
this  Annex  from  an  airline  designated  by  the  other  party 
in  the  event  that  it  is  not  satisfied  that  substantial  own- 
ership and  effective  control  of  such  airline  are  vested 
in  nationals  of  the  other  party  or  in  case  of  failure  by 
such  airline  to  comply  with  the  laws  and  regulations 
referred  to  in  Section  V  of  the  present  Annex,  or  in  case 
of  the  failure  of  the  airline  or  the  Government  desig- 
nating it  to  fulfill  the  conditions  under  which  the  rights 
are  granted  in  accordance  with  the  Provisional  Arrange- 
ment. 

V 

(A)  The  laws  and  regulations  of  one  party  relating  to 
the  admission  to  or  departure  from  its  territory  of  air- 
craft engaged  in  international  air  navigation,  or  to  the 
operation  and  navigation  of  such  aircraft  while  within 
its  territory,  shall  be  applied  to  the  aircraft  of  the  air- 
line or  airlines  designated  by  the  other  party  and  shall 
be  complied  with  by  such  aircraft  upon  entering  or  de- 
parting from,  and  while  within  the  territory  of  the  first 
party. 

(B)  The  laws  and  regulations  of  one  party  relating 
to  the  admission  to  or  departure  from  its  territory  of 
passengers,  crew,  or  cargo  of  aircraft,  such  as  regulations 
relating  to  entry,  clearance,  immigration,  passports,  cus- 
toms, and  quarantine  shall  be  complied  with  by  or  on 
behalf  of  such  passengers,  crew  or  cargo  of  the  other 
party  upon  entrance  into  or  departure  from,  and  while 
within  the  territory  of  the  first  party. 

VI 

Certificates  of  airworthiness,  certificates  of  competency 
and  licenses  issued  or  rendered  valid  by  one  party,  and 
still  in  force,  shall  be  recognized  as  valid  by  the  other 
party  for  the  purpose  of  operating  the  routes  and  serv- 
ices provided  for  in  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding 
and  in  the  present  Annex,  provided  that  the  requirements 
under  which  such  certificates  or  licenses  were  issued  or 
rendered  valid  are  equal  to  or  above  the  minimum  stand- 
ards which  may  be  established  pursuant  to  the  Conven- 
tion on  International  Civil  Aviation.    Each  party  reserves 


576 


Departmenf  of  State   Bulletin 


the  right,  however,  to  refuse  to  recognize,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  flight  above  its  own  territory,  certiflcates  of 
competency  and  licenses  granted  to  its  own  nationals  by 
anotlier  State. 

VII 

In  order  to  prevent  discriminatory  practices  and  to 
assure  equality  of  treatment,  both  parties  agree  further 
to  observe  the  following  principles : 

(a)  Kach  of  the  parties  may  impose  or  permit  to  be 
imposed  just  and  reasonable  charges  for  the  use  of  pub- 
lic airports  and  other  facilities  under  its  control.  Each 
of  the  parties  agrees,  however,  that  these  charaes  shall 
not  be  higher  than  would  be  paid  for  the  use  of  such  air- 
ports and  facilities  by  its  national  aircraft  engaged  in 
similar  international  services. 

(b)  Fuel,  lubricating  oils,  consumable  technical  sup- 
plies, spare  parts,  regular  equipment,  and  stores  intro- 
duced into  the  territory  of  one  party  by  the  other  party 
or  its  nationals,  and  intended  solely  for  use  by  aircraft  of 
such  party  shall  he  exempt  on  a  basis  of  reciprocity  from 
customs  duties,  inspection  fees  and  other  national  duties 
or  charges. 

(c)  Fuel,  lubricating  oils,  other  consumable  technical 
supplies,  spare  parts,  regular  equipment,  and  stores  re- 
tained on  board  aircraft  of  the  airlines  of  one  party 
authorized  to  operate  the  routes  and  services  provided  for 
in  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding  and  in  this  Annex 
shall,  upon  arriving  in  or  leaving  the  territory  of  the 
other  part.v,  be  exempt  on  a  basis  of  reciprocity  from 
customs  duties,  inspection  fees  and  other  national  duties 
or  charges,  even  though  such  supplies  be  used  or  con- 
sumed by  such  aircraft  on  flights  in  that  territory. 

(d)  Fuel,  lubricating  oils,  other  consumable  technical 
supplies,  spare  parts,  regular  equipment,  and  stores  taken 
on  board  aircraft  of  the  airlines  of  one  party  in  the  terri- 
tory of  the  other  and  used  in  international  services  shall 
be  exempt  on  a  basis  of  reciprocity  from  customs  duties, 
excise  taxes,  inspection  fees  and  other  national  duties  or 
charges. 

VIII 

There  shall  be  a  fair  and  equal  opportunity  for  the 
airlines  of  each  party  to  operate  on  the  routes  listed  in 
the  Memorandum  of  Understanding. 

IX 

In  the  operation  by  the  airlines  of  either  party  of  the 
trunk  services  described  in  the  Memorandum  of  Under- 
standing the  interest  of  the  airlines  of  the  other  party 
shall  be  taken  into  consideration  so  as  not  to  affect  un- 
duly the  services  which  the  latter  provide  on  all  or  part  of 
the  same  routes. 

X 

The  services  made  available  to  the  public  by  the  air- 
lines operating  under  the  Provisional  Arrangement  shall 
bear  a  close  relationship  to  the  requirements  of  the  public 
for  such  services. 

It  is  understood  that  services  provided  by  a  designated 
airline  under  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding  and  the 
present  Annex  shall  retain  as  their  primary  objective  the 
provision  of  capacity  adequate  to  the  traffic  demands  be- 


tween the  country  of  which  such  airline  is  a  national 
and  the  countries  of  ultimate  destination  of  the  traflSc. 
The  right  to  embark  or  disembark  on  such  services  inter- 
national traffic  destined  for  and  coming  from  third  coun- 
tries at  a  point  or  points  on  the  routes  specified  in  the 
Memorandum  of  Understanding  shall  be  applied  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  general  principles  of  orderly  develop- 
ment to  which  both  parties  suliscribe  and  shall  be  subject 
to  the  general  principle  that  capacity  should  be  related: 

(a)  to  traffic  requirements  between  the  country  of 
origin  and  the  countries  of  ultimate  destination  of  the 
traffic ; 

(b)  to  the  requirements  of  through  airline  operation; 
and, 

(c)  to  the  traffic  requirements  of  the  area  through 
which  the  airline  passes  after  taking  account  of  local  and 
regional  services. 

Both  parties  agree  to  recognize  that  the  fifth  freedom 
traffic  is  complementary  to  the  traffic  requirements  on 
the  routes  between  the  territories  of  the  parties,  and  at 
the  same  time  is  subsidiary  in  relation  to  the  traffic  re- 
quirements  of  the  third  and  fourth  freedoms  between  the 
territory  of  the  other  party  and  a  country  on  the  route. 

In  this  connection  both  parties  recognize  that  the  de- 
velopment of  local  and  regional  services  is  a  legitimate 
right  of  each  of  their  countries.  Tliey  agree  therefore  to 
consult  periodically  on  the  manner  in  which  the  standards 
mentioned  in  this  section  are  being  complied  with  by  their 
respective  airlines,  in  order  to  assure  tliat  their  respec- 
tive interests  in  the  local  and  regional  services  as  well  as 
through  .services  are  not  being  prejudiced. 

Every  change  of  gauge  justifiable  for  reasons  of  econ- 
omy of  operation,  shall  he  permitted  at  any  stop  on  the 
designated  routes.  Nevertheless,  no  change  of  gauge  may 
be  made  in  the  territory  of  one  or  the  other  party  when 
it  modifies  the  characteristics  of  the  operation  of  a  through 
airline  service  or  if  it  is  incompatible  with  the  principles 
enunciated  in  the  present  Annex. 

"When  one  of  the  parties  after  a  period  of  observation  of 
not  less  than  ninety  days  considers  that  an  increase  in 
capacity  or  frequency  offered  by  an  airline  of  the  other 
party  is  unjustified  or  prejudicial  to  the  services  of  its 
respective  airline  it  shall  notify  the  other  party  of  its 
objection  to  the  end  that  consultation  be  initiated  between 
the  appropriate  aeronautical  authorities  and  decision  on 
the  objection  be  made  by  mutual  agreement  within  a 
period  which  may  not  be  more  than  ninety  days  beginning 
on  the  date  of  such  notification.  For  this  purpose  the 
operating  companies  shall  supply  all  traffic  statistics  that 
may  be  necessary  and  required  of  them. 

XI 

Rates  to  be  charged  on  the  routes  provided  for  in  the 
Memorandum  of  Understanding  shall  be  reasonable,  due 
regard  being  paid  to  all  relevant  factors,  such  as  cost  of 
operation,  reasonable  profit,  and  the  rates  charged  by  any 
other  carriers,  as  well  as  the  characteristics  of  each  serv- 
ice, and  shall  be  determined  in  accordance  with  the  follow- 
ing paragraphs : 

(A)  The  rates  to  be  charged  by  the  airlines  of  either 
party  between  points  in  the  territory  of  the  United  States 


April  8,   1957 


577 


of  America  and  points  in  the  territory  of  tlie  United 
Mexican  States  referred  to  in  the  Memorandum  of  Under- 
standing shall,  consistent  with  the  provisions  of  the  pres- 
ent Annex,  be  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  aeronautical 
authorities  of  the  parties,  who  shall  act  in  accordance 
with  their  oblisations  under  the  Provisional  Arrange- 
ment, within  the  limits  of  their  legal  powers. 

(B)  Any  rate  proposed  by  an  airline  of  either  party 
shall  be  filed  with  the  aeronautical  authorities  of  both 
parties  at  least  thirty  (30)  days  before  the  proposed  date 
of  introduction;  provided  that  this  period  of  thirty  (30) 
days  may  be  reduced  in  particular  cases  if  so  agreed  by 
the  aeronautical  authorities  of  both  parties. 

(C)  During  any  period  for  which  the  Civil  Aero- 
nautics Board  of  the  United  States  of  America  has 
approved  the  traffic  conference  procedures  of  the  Inter- 
national Air  Transport  Association  (hereinafter  called 
lATA),  any  rate  agreements  concluded  through  these  pro- 
cedures and  involving  United  States  airlines  will  be 
subject  to  approval  of  the  Board.  Likewise,  agreements 
concluded  through  this  machinery  may  also  be  required 
to  be  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  aeronautical  author- 
ities of  the  United  Mexican  States  pursuant  to  the  prin- 
ciples enunciated  in  paragraph  (A)   above. 

(D)  The  procedure  described  in  paragraphs  (E),  (F) 
and  (G)  of  this  Section  shall  apply: 

1.  If,  during  the  period  of  the  approval  by  both  parties 
of  the  lATA  traffic  conference  procedure,  either,  any 
specific  rate  agreement  is  not  approved  within  a  reason- 
able time  by  either  party,  or,  a  conference  of  lATA  is 
unable  to  agree  on  a  rate, 

or 

2.  At  any  time  no  lATA  procedure  is  applicable,  or 

3.  If  either  party  at  any  time  withdraws  or  fails  to 
renew  its  approval  of  that  part  of  the  lATA  traffic  con- 
ference procedure  relevant  to  this  Section. 

(E)  In  the  event  that  power  is  conferred  by  law  upon 
the  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  United  States  of  Amer- 
ica to  fix  fair  and  economic  rates  for  the  transport  of 
persons  and  property  by  air  on  international  services  and 
to  suspend  proposed  rates  in  a  manner  comparable  to  that 
in  which  the  Civil  Aeronautics  Board  at  present  is  em- 
powered to  act  with  respect  to  such  rates  for  the  transport 
of  persons  and  property  by  air  within  the  United  States 
of  America,  each  of  the  parties  shall  thereafter  exercise 
its  authority  in  such  manner  as  to  prevent  any  rate  or 
rates  proposed  by  one  of  its  airlines  for  services  from  the 
territory  of  one  party  to  a  point  or  points  in  the  territory 
of  the  other  party  from  becoming  effective,  if  in  the 
judgment  of  the  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  party 
whose  airline  or  airlines  is  or  are  proposing  such  rate,  that 
rate  is  unfair  or  uneconomic.  If  one  of  the  parties  on 
receipt  of  the  notification  referred  to  in  paragraph  (B) 
above  is  dissatisfied  with  the  rate  proposed  by  the  airline 
or  airlines  of  tlie  other  party,  it  shall  so  notify  the  other 
party  prior  to  the  expiry  of  the  first  fifteen  (15)  of  the 
thirty  (30)  days  referred  to,  and  the  parties  shall  endeavor 
to  reach  agreement  on  the  appropriate  rate. 

In  the  event  that  such  agreement  is  reached,  each  party 
will  exercise  its  best  efforts  to  put  such  rate  into  effect 
as  regards  its  airline  or  airlines. 


If  agreement  has  not  been  reached  at  the  end  of  the 
thirty  (30)  day  period  referred  to  in  paragraph  (B) 
above,  the  proposed  rate  may,  unless  the  aeronautical 
authorities  of  the  country  of  the  air  carrier  concerned  see 
fit  to  suspend  its  application,  go  into  effect  provisionally 
pending  the  settlement  of  any  dispute  in  accordance  with 
the  procedure  outlined  in  paragraph  (G)  below. 

(P)  Prior  to  the  time  when  such  power  may  be  con- 
ferred upon  the  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  United 
States  of  America,  if  one  of  the  parties  is  dissatisfied 
with  any  rate  proposed  by  the  airline  or  airlines  of  either 
party  for  services  from  the  territory  of  one  party  to  a 
point  or  points  in  the  territory  of  the  other  party,  it  shall 
so  notify  the  other  party  prior  to  the  expiry  of  the  first 
fifteen  (15)  of  the  thirty  (30)  day  period  referred  to  in 
paragraph  (B)  above,  and  the  parties  shall  endeavor  to 
reach  agreement  on  the  appropriate  rate. 

In  the  event  that  such  agreement  is  reached,  each  party 
will  use  its  best  efforts  to  cause  such  agreed  rate  to  be  put 
into  effect  by  its  airline  or  airlines. 

If  no  agreement  can  be  reached  prior  to  the  expiry  of 
such  thirty  (30)  days,  the  party  raising  the  objection  to 
the  rate  may  take  such  steps  as  it  may  consider  necessary 
to  prevent  the  inauguration  or  continuation  of  the  service 
in  question  at  the  rate  complained  of. 

(G)  When  in  any  case  under  paragraphs  (E)  or  (P) 
of  this  Section  the  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  two 
parties  cannot  agree  within  a  reasonable  time  upon  the 
appropriate  rate  after  consultation  initiated  by  the  com- 
plaint of  one  party  concerning  a  proposed  rate  or  an 
existing  rate  of  the  airline  or  airlines  of  the  other  party, 
upon  the  request  of  either,  the  terms  of  Section  XIII  of 
this  Annex  shall  apply. 

XII 

Consultation  between  the  competent  authorities  of  both 
parties  may  be  requested  at  any  time  by  either  party  for 
the  purpose  of  discussing  the  interpretation,  application, 
or  amendment  of  the  Provisional  Arrangement  or  Route 
Schedule  (Point  1  of  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding). 
Such  consultation  shall  begin  within  a  period  of  sixty 
(60)  days  from  the  date  of  the  receipt  of  the  request  by 
the  Department  of  State  of  the  United  States  of  America 
or  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Relations  of  the  United  Mexi- 
can States  as  the  case  may  be.  Should  agreement  be 
reached  on  amendment  of  the  Provisional  Arrangement 
or  Schedule  of  Routes,  such  amendment  will  come  into 
effect  upon  confirmation  by  a  further  exchange  of  diplo- 
matic notes. 

XIII 

Except  as  otherwise  provided,  any  dispute  between  the 
parties  relative  to  the  interpretation  or  application  of  the 
Provisional  Arrangement  which  cannot  be  settled  through 
consultation  shall  be  submitted  for  an  advisory  report 
to  a  tribunal  of  three  arbitrators,  one  to  be  named  by 
each  party,  and  the  third  to  be  agreed  upon  by  the  two 
arbitrators  so  chosen,  provided  that  such  a  third  arbi- 
trator shall  not  be  a  national  of  either  party.  Each  of  the 
parties  shall  designate  an  arbitrator  within  two  months 
of  the  date  of  delivery  by  either  party  to  tlie  other  party 
of  a  diplomatic  note  requesting  arbitration  of  a  dispute; 
and  the  third  arbitrator  shall  lie  agreed  upon  within  one 
month  after  such  period  of  two  months. 


578 


Department  of  Sfafe  Bulletin 


If  t'ither  of  the  parties  fails  to  designate  its  own  arbi- 
trator within  two  months,  or  if  the  third  arbitrator  is 
not  agreed  uixm  within  the  time  limit  indicated,  either 
party  may  request  the  President  of  the  International 
Court  of  Justice  to  make  the  necessary  appointment  or 
appointments  by  choosing  the  arbitrator  or  arbitrators. 

The  parties  will  use  their  best  efforts  under  the  powers 
available  to  them  to  put  into  effect  the  opinion  expressed 
in  any  such  advisory  report.  A  moiety  of  the  expenses 
of  the  arbitral  tribunal  shall  be  borne  by  each  party. 

XIV 

The  Provisional  Arrangement,  all  amendments  thereto, 
and  contracts  connected  therewith  shall  be  registered 
with  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization. 

XV 

If  a  general  multilateral  air  transport  Convention  ac- 
cepted by  both  parties  enters  into  force,  the  Provisional 
Arrangement  shall  be  amended  so  as  to  conform  with  the 
provisions  of  such  Convention. 

XVI 

Either  of  the  two  parties  may  at  any  time  notify  the 
other  party  of  its  intention  to  terminate  the  Provisional 
Arrangement.  Such  notice  shall  be  sent  simultaneously 
to  the  International  Civil  Aviation  Organization.  In  case 
such  notification  should  be  given  the  arrangement  would 
terminate  six  months  after  the  date  on  which  the  notice 
of  termination  may  have  been  received,  unless  the  com- 
munication under  reference  is  annulled  before  the  end 
of  this  period  by  agreement  between  both  parties.  Should 
the  other  party  not  acknowledge  receipt  it  shall  be  con- 
sidered that  the  notification  was  received  by  it  14  days 
subsequent  to  the  date  on  which  it  is  received  by  the  In- 
ternational Civil  Aviation  Organization. 

XVII 

Upon  entry  into  effect  of  the  Provisional  Arrangement 
the  aeronautical  authorities  of  the  two  parties  must  com- 
municate to  each  other  as  soon  as  possible  the  informa- 
tion relating  to  authorizations  given  to  the  airline  or  air- 
lines designated  by  them  to  operate  the  routes  mentioned 
in  the  Memorandum  of  Understanding. 

XVIII 

The  aeronautical  authorities  of  both  parties  shall  re- 
spectively advise  each  other  eight  days  before  the  actual 
placing  in  operation  of  their  respective  permits  the  fol- 
lowing data  :  schedules,  frequencies,  tariffs  and  tyi)es  of 
aircraft  normally  utilized  in  their  services.  Any  modifi- 
cation of  the  data  under  reference  shall  similarly  be 
communicated. 

In  reply,  I  have  the  honor  to  advise  Your  Ex- 
cellency that  the  Government  of  the  United  States 
of  America  is  prepared  to  conclude  a  provisional 
arrangement  on  the  basis  proposed  in  Your  Ex- 
cellency's note,  Memorandum  of  Understanding 
and  Annex  under  reference,  and  accept  your  pro- 
posal to  regard  that  note,  the  Memorandum  of 


Understanding  and  Annex  and  the  present  reply 
as  constituting  a  provisional  arrangement  regard- 
ing civil  aviation  between  our  two  Governments. 
Please  accept,  Excellency,  the  renewed  assur- 
ances of  my  highest  consideration. 

Francis  White 


U.S.  and  Netherlands  Resume 
Air  Transport  Negotiations 

Following  is  a  Department  announcernent  con- 
cerning the  reswmption  on  March  19  of  negotia- 
tions on  the  U.S. -Netherlands  air  transport  agree- 
ment, together  with  an  exchange  of  letters  betimen 
President  Eisenhoioer  and  Dr.  Willem  Drees, 
Prime  Minister  of  the  Netherlands. 

DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press  release  163  dated  March  19 

Delegations  of  the  Governments  of  the  United 
States  and  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  re- 
sumed negotiations  on  March  19  for  the  conclu- 
sion of  a  bilateral  air  transport  agreement.  The 
negotiations  were  suspended  last  May. 

The  chairman  of  the  Netherlands  delegation  is 
E.  H.  van  der  Beugel,  State  Secretary  for  Foreign 
Affairs.  The  vice  chairman  is  H.  J.  Spanjaard, 
director  of  the  Department  of  Civil  Aviation, 
Ministry  of  Transport  and  Waterways.  The  other 
members  of  the  delegation  are  Baron  S.  G.  M.  van 
Voorst  tot  Voorst,  Envoy  Extraordinary  and 
Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  the  Netherlands  Em- 
bassy in  Washington ;  J.  C.  Nieuwenhuijsen,  Min- 
istry of  Foreign  Affairs ;  E.  D.  Baiz,  representa- 
tive of  the  Government  of  the  Netherlands  An- 
tilles; F.  J.  Barend,  representative  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  Surinam;  L.  H.  Slotemaker,  managing 
director  of  KLM,  Royal  Dutch  Airlines;  and 
S.  C.  van  Nispen,  commercial  secretary  at  the 
Netlierlands  Embassy  in  Washington. 

The  U.S.  delegation  is  headed  by  Thorsten  V. 
Kalijarvi,  Assistant  Secretary  of  State  for  Eco- 
nomic Affairs ;  vice  chairman  is  G.  Joseph  Minetti, 
member.  Civil  Aeronautics  Board.  Other  mem- 
bers of  the  delegation  are  H.  Alberta  Colclaser, 
Hendrik  van  Oss,  and  John  P.  Walsh,  Department 
of  State;  Raymond  Sawyer  and  Joseph  C.  Wat- 
son, Civil  Aeronautics  Board.  Bradley  D.  Nash, 
Deputy  Under  Secretary  of  Commerce  for  Trans- 


AprW  8,   1957 


579 


portation,  will  be  an  adviser  to  the  U.S.  delega- 
tion, and  Paul  Reiber,  representing  the  Air  Trans- 
port Association  of  America,  will  attend  as  an 
observer. 

EXCHANGE  OF  LETTERS 

Press  release  16G  dated  March  21 

The  Prime  Minister's  Letter 

The  Hague,  28th  February  1957 

Dear  Mr.  President:  Your  many  responsi- 
bilities in  American  and  world  affairs  will  un- 
doubtedly make  it  impossible  for  you  to  follow 
closely  all  questions  pertaining  to  the  bilateral 
relationship  of  the  United  States  of  America  and 
the  Netherlands,  however  united  our  coimtries  are 
in  the  cause  of  the  free  world.  I  have  therefore 
hesitated  before  writing  you  this  personal  letter 
to  ask  yoiu"  special  attention  for  the  negotiations 
on  an  air  transport  agreement  between  the  Nether- 
lands and  the  United  States,  which  are  to  begin 
in  Washington  on  March  19th  next. 

These  negotiations  probably  are  of  minor  im- 
portance as  compared  to  the  many  problems  which 
the  world  at  the  present  moment  is  facing,  but 
Her  Majesty's  Government,  the  Parliament  and 
the  people  of  the  Netherlands  consider  their  out- 
come to  be  vital  to  the  economy  of  my  country. 

The  special  geographic  and  demographic  situa- 
tion of  my  country,  its  limited  natural  resources, 
require  that  the  Netherlands  maintain  its  historic 
position  as  a  world  carrier,  if  it  is  to  pull  its  weight 
as  a  sound  member  of  the  Western  Alliance. 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  I  am  taking  the  ex- 
ceptional step  of  writing  you  to  draw  your  atten- 
tion to  these  negotiations,  which  naturally  will  be 
followed  very  closely  by  the  Government  and  the 
people  of  the  Netherlands. 

The  traditional  friendship  between  your  great 
nation  and  the  Netherlands  encourages  me  to  feel 


confident  that  you  may  see  your  way  to  giving  this 
matter  some  personal  thought.  I  am  convinced 
that  tliis  would  be  extremely  helpful  in  bringing 
about  a  favorable  outcome  of  these  discussions. 

Wliile  thanking  you  in  advance  for  anything 
which  you  may  be  able  to  do  in  this  respect,  I  avail 
myself  of  this  opportunity  to  send  you  the  as- 
surances of  my  highest  esteem  and  of  my  feelings 
of  sincere  friendship. 

W.  Drees 

The  President's  Letter 

March  18,  1957 
Dear  Mr.  Prime  Minister:  I  was  very  pleased 
to  receive  from  the  Ambassador  of  The  Nether- 
lands your  letter  of  February  28  concerning  the 
significance  which  the  Government  and  people  of 
The  Netherlands  attach  to  the  forthcoming  civil 
air  negotiations  between  our  two  countries.  I  am 
glad  that  you  did  not  hesitate  to  write  me  directly 
about  a  matter  which  affects  so  vitally  the  relations 
between  the  United  States  and  The  Netherlands. 
Both  of  our  countries,  which  have  joined  with 
other  like-minded  nations  to  achieve  certain  mu- 
tual objectives  in  Nato,  have  as  a  common  purpose 
the  healthy  expansion  of  our  free  economies,  so 
necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  the  Western 
Alliance. 

I  place,  as  do  the  people  of  the  United  States, 
a  very  high  value  on  maintaining  and  strengthen- 
ing our  close  relations  with  The  Netherlands. 
Such  a  relationship  not  only  permits,  but  re- 
quires the  frank  exchange  of  views  on  problems 
of  mutual  concern.  I  have  instructed  the  United 
States  Delegation  for  the  forthcoming  civil  air 
negotiations  to  give  the  most  serious  consideration 
to  the  factors  described  in  your  letter. 
Sincerely  yours, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


580 


Departmenf  of  State  Bulletin 


Notice  of  Intention  To  Enter  Into  Limited  Trade  Agreement  Negotiations 
With  the  United  Kingdom  and  Belgium^ 


The  Interdepartmental  Committee  on  Trade 
Agreements  on  March  IS  issued  notice  of  the  in- 
tention of  the  U.S.  Government,  under  the  au- 
thority of  the  Trade  Agreements  Act  as  amended 
and  extended,  to  enter  into  limited  trade  agree- 
ment negotiations  with  certain  contracting  par- 
ties to  tlie  General  Agreement  on  Tariffs  and 
Trade. 

These  negotiations  are  being  held  in  connection 
with  requests  for  compensatory  tariff  concessions 
by  the  United  Kingdom  and  Belgium  on  the  basis 
of  the  increase  last  year  of  the  U.S.  rate  of  duty 
on  certain  linen  toweling.  The  increase  from  10 
percent  to  40  percent  ad  valorem  in  the  rate  of 
duty  on  linen  toweling  became  effective  on  July 
26,  1956.^ 

The  action  to  increase  the  duty  was  taken  under 
the  escape-clause  provision  of  the  General  Agree- 
ment on  Tariffs  and  Trade  after  a  finding  by  the 
U.S.  Tariff  Commission  that  domestic  industry  was 
being  seriously  injured  as  a  result  of  increased  im- 
ports caused  at  least  in  part  by  a  tariff  conces- 
sion which  was  initially  negotiated  with  the  United 
Kingdom  in  the  agreement. 

In  accordance  with  the  escape-clause  provision, 
the  United  States  has  consulted  with  the  countries 
having  a  substantial  interest  as  exporters  of  linen 
toweling.  The  United  Kingdom  and  Belgium, 
both  of  which  have  exported  substantial  quantities 
of  linen  toweling  to  the  United  States,  have  re- 
quested compensation  for  the  U.S.  action,  which 
thej'  consider  an  impairment  of  the  concession. 
Japan,  a  small  supplier  of  toweling,  has  indicated 
that  it  would  expect  to  benefit  from  compensation 
granted  to  the  other  supplying  countries.    Ordi- 


'  This  material  is  also  available  as  Department  of  State 
publication  6470  and  may  be  obtained  from  the  Division 
of  Public  Services,  Department  of  State,  Washington  25, 
D.C.     See  also  22  Fed.  Reg.  1878. 

'  Bulletin  of  July  16, 1956,  p.  115. 


narily  the  country  using  some  procedure  imder  the 
general  agreement  to  increase  a  duty  which  is  the 
subject  of  a  concession  grants  compensatory  con- 
cessions to  the  countries  adversely  affected. 
Sliould  agreement  on  such  compensatory  conces- 
sions not  be  reached  provision  is  usually  made  for 
the  affected  country  to  suspend  equivalent 
concessions. 

Tariff  concessions  by  the  United  States  will  be 
considered  within  the  limitation  of  authority 
available  to  the  President  imder  the  Trade  Agree- 
ments Act  as  amended.  The  Trade  Agreements 
Extension  Act  of  1955  provides  that  rates  may  be 
reduced  15  percent  below  the  January  1,  1955, 
rates  by  stages  of  5  percent  a  5'ear  over  a  3-year 
period  but  that  no  stage  or  reduction  may  be  made 
effective  after  June  30,  1958.  Consequently  there 
remains  authority  to  reduce  rates  to  as  much  as  10 
percent  below  the  January  1, 1955,  rate,  in  two  an- 
nual stages  of  5  percent  each. 

In  accordance  with  past  practice  and  the  re- 
quirements of  trade  agreements  legislation,  the 
committee's  notice  sets  in  motion  preparations  for 
the  negotiations,  including  opportunity  for  pre- 
sentation by  interested  persons  of  both  written 
and  oral  views  on  jDOSsible  concessions  which  may 
be  granted  and  the  determination  of  "peril  points" 
by  the  U.S.  Tariff  Commission  on  jiroducts  on 
which  the  United  States  will  consider  granting 
concessions. 

Included  with  the  committee's  notice  is  a  list  of 
products,  some  of  which  might  be  offered  as  com- 
pensatory concessions. 

The  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information 
announces  that  its  hearings  to  receive  the  views  of 
interested  persons  concerning  the  proposed  negoti- 
ations will  open  on  April  24, 1957.  Domestic  pro- 
ducers, importers,  and  other  interested  persons 
are  invited  to  present  to  the  committee  views  and 
all  pertinent  information  about  products  on  the 


April  8,   1957 


581 


published  list  or  any  other  aspect  of  the  negotia- 
tions. All  views  and  information  will  be  care- 
fully considered  in  deciding  whether  or  not  a  con- 
cession should  be  offered  by  the  United  States. 
Consideration  will  also  be  given  to  all  relevant 
information  submitted  to  the  Committee  for 
Reciprocity  Information  in  connection  with  its 
hearings  in  October  1955  and  January  1956  in 
preparation  for  the  Geneva  tariff  negotiations. 
Accordmgly,  persons  who  presented  information 
and  views  at  those  hearings  regarding  products  on 
the  attached  list  and  who  do  not  desire  to  modify 
or  supplement  such  material,  need  not — but  may 
if  they  wish — repeat  their  written  or  oral 
submissions. 

Applications  for  oral  presentation  of  views  and 
information  should  be  presented  to  the  Committee 
for  Reciprocity  Information  not  later  than  the 
close  of  business  April  17, 1957.  Persons  desiring 
to  be  heard  should  also  submit  written  briefs  or 
statements  to  the  committee  by  April  17,  1957. 
Only  those  persons  will  be  heard  who  have  pre- 
sented written  briefs  or  statements  and  have  filed 
applications  to  be  heard  by  the  dates  indicated. 
Communications  are  to  be  addressed  to  "Com- 
mittee for  Reciprocity  Information,  Tariff  Com- 
mission Building,  Washington  25,  D.C."  Fur- 
ther details  concerning  the  submission  of  briefs 
and  applications  to  be  heard  are  contained  in  the 
committee's  notice. 

The  membership  of  the  Committee  on  Trade 
Agreements  and  of  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity 
Information  is  identical,  consisting  of  representa- 
tives of  the  Departments  of  State,  Treasury,  De- 
fense, Agriculture,  Commerce,  Labor,  and  In- 
terior, and  the  International  Cooperation  Admin- 
istration, as  well  as  a  member  of  the  U.S.  Tariff 
Commission.  The  Department  of  State  member 
is  the  chairman  of  the  Committee  on  Trade  Agree- 
ments, while  the  Tariff  Commission  member  is  the 
chairman  of  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity 
Information. 

The  U.S.  Tariff  Commission  also  announced  on 
March  18  that  it  will  hold  public  hearings  begin- 
ning April  24,  1957,  in  connection  with  its  "peril 
point"  investigation,  as  required  by  section  3(a) 
of  the  Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of  1951, 
on  the  extent  to  which  U.S.  concessions  on  listed 
products  may  be  made  in  tlie  negotiations  without 
causing  or  threatening  serious  injury  to  a  domestic 
industry  producing  like  or  directly  competitive 


products.  Copies  of  the  notice  may  be  obtained 
from  the  Commission.  Views  and  information 
received  by  the  Tariff  Commission  on  its  hearings 
referred  to  above  will  be  made  available  to  the 
Committer  for  Reciprocity  Information  for  con- 
sideration by  the  Interdepartmental  Committee  on 
Trade  Agreements.  Persons  who  appear  before 
the  Tariff"  Commission  need  not — but  may  if  they 
wish — also  appear  before  the  Committee  for  Reci- 
procity Information,  if  they  apply  in  accordance 
with  the  procedures  of  that  committee  as  outlined 
above. 


INTERDEPARTMENTAL  COMMITTEE  ON  TRADE 
AGREEMENTS 

Trade  agreement  negotiations  with  governments  which 
are  contracting  parties  to  the  General  Agreement  on 
Tariffs  and  Trade  regarding  compensation  for  escape 
clause  action. 

Pursuant  to  Section  4  of  the  Ti-ade  Agreements  Act, 
approved  June  12,  1934,  as  amended  (48  Stat.  945,  ch.  474; 
65  Stat.  7?>,  ch.  141)  and  to  paragraph  4  of  Executive 
Order  10082  of  October  5, 1949  (3  CFR,  1949  Supp.,  p.  126) , 
and  In  view  of  certain  "escape  clause"  action  with  respect 
to  toweling  of  flax,  hemp,  or  ramie  taken  by  the  President 
on  June  25,  1956  (Proclamation  3143,  3  CFR,  1956  Supp., 
p.  33)  under  the  authority  of  section  350  of  the  Tariff 
Act  of  1930,  as  amended  (48  Stat.  943,  ch.  474)  and  Section 
7(c)  of  the  Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of  1051  (65 
Stat.  74,  ch.  141),  notice  is  hereby  given  by  the  Interde- 
partmental Committee  on  Trade  Agreements  of  Intention 
to  enter  into  trade  agreement  negotiations  under  Article 
XIX  of  the  General  Agi-eement  regarding  compensation  to 
contracting  parties  to  the  Agreement  that  have  a  sub- 
stantial Interest  as  exporters  for  such  escape  clause  action. 
Since  the  purpose  of  the  negotiations  is  the  granting  of 
compensatory  concessions  by  the  United  States,  It  Is  not 
anticipated  that  they  will  result  in  any  concessions  by 
other  countries  for  the  benefit  of  United  States  exports. 
The  results  of  these  negotiations  would  be  embodied  in 
Schedule  XX  to  the  General  Agreement. 

There  is  annexed  hereto  a  list  of  articles  imported  into 
the  United  States  to  be  considered  for  possible  modification 
of  duties  and  other  Import  restrictions,  or  specific  con- 
tinuance of  existing  customs  or  excise  treatment  In  the 
negotiations  of  which  notice  is  given  above. 

The  articles  proposed  for  consideration  in  the  negotia- 
tions are  identified  in  the  annexed  list  by  specifyin.g  the 
numbers  of  the  pjiragraphs  in  tariff  sclicdules  of  Title  I 
of  the  Tariff  Act  of  1930,  as  amended,  in  which  they  are 
provided  for  together  with  the  language  used  in  such 
tariff  paragraphs  to  provide  for  such  articles,  except  that 
where  necessary  the  statutory  language  has  been  modified 
by  the  omission  of  words  or  the  addition  of  new  language 
In  order  to  narrow  the  scope  of  the  original  language. 

No  article  will  he  considered   in  the  negotiations  for 


582 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


possible  modification  of  duties  or  other  import  restrictions, 
imposition  of  additional  import  restrictions,  or  specific 
continuance  of  existing  customs  or  excise  treatment  unless 
it  is  included,  specifically  or  by  reference,  in  the  annexed 
list  or  unless  it  is  subsequently  included  in  a  supjile- 
mentary  public  list.  Only  duties  on  the  articles  listed 
Imposed  under  the  paragraphs  of  the  Tariff  Act  of  1930 
specified  with  regard  to  such  articles  will  be  considered 
for  a  possible  decrease,  but  additional  or  separate  ordinary 
duties  or  import  taxes  on  such  articles  imposed  under  any 
other  provisions  of  law  may  be  bound  against  increase  as 
an  assurance  that  the  concession  under  the  listed  para- 
graph will  not  be  nullified.  In  the  event  that  an  article 
which  as  of  March  1,  1957  was  regarded  as  classifiable 
under  a  description  included  in  the  list  is  excluded  there- 
from by  judicial  decision  or  otherwise  prior  to  the  con- 
clusion of  the  trade  agreement  negotiations,  the  list  will 
nevertheless  be  considered  as  including  such  article. 

Pursuant  to  Section  4  of  the  Trade  Agreements  Act,  as 
amended,  and  paragraph  5  of  Executive  Order  10082  of 
October  5,  1949,  information  and  views  as  to  any  aspect 
of  the  proposals  announced  in  this  notice  may  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information  in 
accordance  with  the  announcement  of  this  date  issued  by 
that  Committee.  Any  matters  appropriate  to  be  con- 
sidered in  connection  with  the  negotiations  proposed  above 
may  be  presented. 

Public  hearings  in  connection  with  "peril  point"  investi- 
gation of  the  United  States  Tariff  Commission  in  connec- 
tion with  the  articles  included  in  the  annexed  list  pursuant 
to  Section  3  of  the  Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of 
1951,  as  amended,  are  the  subject  of  an  announcement  of 
this  date  issued  by  that  Commission. 

By  direction  of  the  Interdepartmental  Committee  on 
Trade  Agreements  this  18th  day  of  March  1957. 

Carl  D.  Corse 
Chairman 

Interdepartmental  Committee 
on  Trade  Agreements 

List  of  Articles  Imported  Into  the  United  States 
Proposed  for  Consideration  in  Trade  Agreement 
Negotiations 


Par. 


Par. 


52 

93 
218(a) 


Tariff  Act  of  1930,  Title  I— Dutiable  List 


All  chemical  elements,  all  chemical  salts  and 
compounds,  and  all  combinations  and  mix- 
tures of  any  of  the  foregoing,  all  the  foregoing 
obtained  naturally  or  artificially  and  not 
specially  provided  for: 
Sodium  alginate. 

Sperm  oil,  refined  or  otherwise  processed; 
spermaceti  wax. 

Zinc  cWoride;  zinc  sulphate. 

Biological,  chemical,  metallurgical,  pharma- 
ceutical, and  surgical  articles  and  utensils 
of  all  kinds,  including  all  scientific  articles 
and  utensils,  whether  used  for  experimental 
purposes  in  hospitals,  laboratories,  schools  or 
universities,  colleges,  or  otherwise,  all  the 
foregoing,  finished  or  unfinished,  wholly  or  in 
chief  value  of  fused  quartz  or  fused  silica. 


372 


90G 


907 


921 


1009(c) 


1010 


1410 


Tariff  Act  of  1930,  Title  I— Dutiable  List 


Textile  machinery,   finished  or  unfinished,   not 
specially  provided  for: 

Machinery  for  manufacturing  or  processing 
vegetable    fibers    other   than    cotton    or 
jute  prior  to  the   making  of  fabrics  or 
crocheted,    knit,    woven,   or   felt   articles 
not  made  from  fabrics  (except  beaming, 
slashing,  warping,  or  winding  machinery 
or     combinations     thereof,     and     except 
bleaching,   printing,   dyeing,  or  finishing 
machinery). 
Cloth,  in  chief  value  of  cotton,  containing  wool. 
[Note:  Paragraph   1122,  Tariff'  Act  of  1930, 
limits  the  wool  content  of  cloth  classifiable 
under  paragraph  90G  to  less  than   17  per- 
cent in  weight.) 
Tracing  cloth;  waterproof  cloth,   wholly  or  in 
chief  value  of  cotton  or  other  vegetable  fiber, 
but  not  in  part  of  India  rubber. 
All    other    floor    coverings,    including    carpets, 
carpeting,  mats,  and  rugs,  wholly  or  in  chief 
value  of  cotton: 

Imitation  oriental  rugs. 
Woven  fabrics,  in  the  piece  or  otherwise,  wholly 
or  in  chief  value  of  vegetable  fiber,  except 
cotton,  filled,  coated,  or  otherwise  prepared 
for  use  as  artists'  canvas. 
Woven  fabrics,  not  including  articles  finished  or 
unfinished,  of  flax,  hemp,  ramie,  or  other 
vegetable  fiber,  except  cotton  or  jute,  or  of 
which  these  substances  or  any  of  them  is  the 
component  material  of  chief  value,  not 
specially  provided  for  (except  toweling,  i.  e., 
fabrics  chiefly  used  for  making  towels,  of 
flax,  hemp,  or  ramie,  or  of  which  these  sub- 
stances or  any  of  them  is  the  component 
material  of  chief  value). 
Unbound  books  of  all  kinds,  bound  books  of  all 
kinds  except  those  bound  wholly  or  in  part  in 
leather,  sheets  or  printed  pages  of  books  bound 
wholly  or  in  part  in  leather,  all  the  foregoing 
not  specially  provided  for,  if  other  than  of 
bona  fide  foreign  authorship  (not  including 
diaries,  music  in  books,  pamphlets,  prayer 
books,  sheets  or  printed  pages  of  prayer  books 
bound  wholly  or  in  part  in  leather,  or  tourist 
literature  containing  geograpliic,  historical, 
hotel,  timetable,  travel,  or  similar  informa- 
tion, chiefly  with  respect  to  places  or  travel 
facilities  outside  the  continental  United 
States) . 


COMMITTEE  FOR  RECIPROCITY  INFORMATION 

Trade  Agreement  Negotiations  with  Governments  which 
are  contracting  parties  to  the  General  Agreement  on 


April  8,   1957 


583 


Tariffs  and  Trade  regarding  compensation  for  escape 
clause  action. 

Submission  of  information  to  tlie  Committee  for  Reci- 
procity Information. 

Closing  date  for  applications  to  appear  at  hearing  April 
17,  1957. 

Closing  date  for  submission  of  briefs  April  17,  19S7. 

Public  hearings  open  April  24,  1957. 

The  Interdepartmental  Committee  on  Trade  Agreements 
has  issued  on  this  day  a  notice  of  intention  to  participate 
in  trade  agreement  negotiations  under  Article  XIX  of 
the  General  Agreement  on  Tariffs  and  Trade  regarding 
compensation  to  contracting  parties  to  the  Agreement  that 
have  a  substantial  interest  as  exporters  for  the  escape 
clause  action  with  respect  to  toweling  of  flax,  hemp,  or 
ramie  taken  by  the  President  on  June  25,  1956.  Annexed 
to  the  notice  of  the  Interdepartmental  Committee  on 
Trade  Agreements  is  a  list  of  articles  imported  into  the 
United  States  to  be  considered  for  possible  concessions  in 
the  negotiations.  Since  the  purpose  of  the  negotiations 
is  the  granting  of  compensatory  concessions  by  the  United 
States,  it  is  not  anticipated  that  they  will  result  in  any 
concessions  by  other  countries  for  the  benefit  of  United 
States  exports. 

The  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information  hereby  gives 
notice  that  all  applications  for  oral  presentation  of  views 
in  regard  to  the  proposed  renegotiations  shall  be  submitted 
to  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information  not  later 
than  April  17,  1957.  The  application  must  indicate  the 
product  or  products  on  which  the  individual  or  groups 
desire  to  be  heard  and  an  estimate  of  the  time  required 
for  oral  presentation.  Written  statements  shall  be  sub- 
mitted not  later  than  April  17,  1057.  Such  communica- 
tions shall  be  addressed  to  "Committee  for  Reciprocity 
Information,  Tariff  Commission  Building,  Washington  25, 
D.  C."  Fifteen  copies  of  written  statements,  either  typed, 
printed,  or  duplicated  shall  be  submitted,  of  which  one 
copy  shall  be  sworn  to. 

Written  statements  submitted  to  the  Committee,  except 
information  and  business  data  proffered  in  confidence, 
shall  be  open  to  inspection  by  interested  persons.  In- 
formation and  business  data  proffered  in  confidence  .shall 
be  submitted  on  separate  pages  clearly  marked  For  Of- 
ficial Use  Only  of  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information. 

Public  hearings  will  be  held  before  the  Committee  for 
Reciprocity  Information,  at  which  oral  statements  will  be 
heard,  beginning  at  2:00  p.  m.  on  April  24,  1957  in  the 
hearing  room  in  the  Tariff  Commission  Building,  Eighth 
and  E  Streets  N.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C.  Witnesses  who 
make  application  to  be  heard  will  be  advised  regarding 
the  time  and  place  of  their  individual  appearances.  Ap- 
pearances at  hearings  before  the  Committee  may  be  made 
only  by  or  on  liehalf  of  those  persons  who  have  filed  written 
statements  and  who  have  within  the  time  prescribed  made 
written  application  for  oral  presentation  of  views.  State- 
ments made  at  the  public  hearings  shall  be  under  oath. 

Persons  may  present  their  views  regarding  any  matter 
appropriate  to  l>e  considered  in  coimection  with  the  pro- 
posed negotiations,  although,  as  indicated  above,  it  is  not 


anticipated  that  they  will  result  in  any  concessions  by 
other  countries  for  the  benefit  of  United  States  exports. 
Copies  of  the  list  attached  to  the  notice  of  intention  to 
negotiate  may  be  obtained  from  the  Committee  for  Reci- 
procity Information  at  the  address  designated  above  and 
may  be  inspected  at  the  field  oflBces  of  the  Department  of 
Commerce. 

The  United  States  Tariff  Commission  has  today  an- 
nounced public  hearings  on  the  import  items  appearing 
in  the  list  annexed  to  the  notice  of  intention  to  negotiate 
to  run  concurrently  with  the  hearings  of  the  Committee 
for  Reciprocity  Information.  Oral  testimony  and  written 
information  submitted  to  the  Tariff  Commission  will  be 
made  available  to  and  will  be  considered  by  the  Inter- 
departmental Committee  on  Trade  Agreements.  Con.se- 
quently,  those  whose  interests  relate  only  to  import  prod- 
ucts included  in  the  foregoing  list,  and  who  appear  before 
the  Tariff  Commission,  need  not,  but  may  if  they  wish, 
appear  also  before  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity  In- 
formation. 

By  direction  of  the  Committee  for  Reciprocity  Informa- 
tion this  18th  day  of  March  1957. 

Edward  Yaedlet 

Secretary, 

Committee  for  Reciprocity  Information 


President  Asks  Study  of  Tariff  Quota 
on  Alsilte  Clover  Seed 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  14 

The  President  on  March  14  requested  the  Tariff 
Commission  to  determine  whether  and  to  what  ex- 
tent the  present  tariff  quota  on  alsike  clover  seed 
will  remain  necessary  after  June  30,  1957. 

In  an  escape-clause  proceeding  under  section  7 
of  the  Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act,  the  Pres- 
ident adopted  on  June  30,  1954,  a  Tariff  Commis- 
sion recommendation  for  a  tariff  quota  providing 
a  duty  of  2  cents  per  pound  up  to  1,500,000  pounds 
and  6  cents  per  pound  for  imports  in  excess  of  tliat 
amount.^  The  tariff  quota  was  established  for  1 
year.  At  the  President's  request  the  Commission 
submitted  a  supplemental  report,  and  on  June  29, 
1955,  the  President  liberalized  the  tariff  quota  and 
extended  it  for  2  j-ears.^  The  present  tariff  is  6 
cents  per  poimd  on  imjjorts  exceeding  2,500,000 
pounds  and  2  cents  per  pound  iq>  to  that  amount. 
It  expires  on  June  30,  1957. 


•  Bulletin  of  .\ug.  2,  1954,  p.  167. 
" /6«d.,  July  18,  1955.  p.  IIG. 


584 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


President  Decides  Against  Study 
of  Tariff  on  Hatters'  Fur 

White  Ilouse  press  release  dated  March  14 

The  President  on  March  14  concurred  with  the 
Tariff  Commission's  recent  finding  that  no  formal 
investigation  should  be  instituted  at  this  time  to 
determine  whether  the  tariff  should  be  reduced  on 
imports  of  hatters'  fur.  The  President  found, 
with  the  Tariff  Commission,  that  there  is  no  suf- 
ficient reason  at  this  time  to  reopen  the  escape- 
clause  action  which  resulted  in  an  increase  of  the 
duty  on  imports  of  hatters'  fur.  The  President's 
decision  means  that  the  increased  rate  of  duty, 
established  in  1952^  as  a  result  of  escape-clause 
action,  -will  continue  to  apply  without  reduction 
or  other  modification. 

The  President's  action  was  taken  after  the  views 
of  all  interested  departments  and  agencies  of  the 
executive  branch  had  been  received  and  studied. 
The  Tariff  Commission's  report  was  made  pursu- 
ant to  Executive  Order  10401,  wliich  requires 
periodic  review  of  actions  taken  under  the  escape 
clause.  It  was  transmitted  to  the  President  on 
February  4,  1957. 

The  tariff  on  hatters'  fur  was  reduced  as  the  re- 
sult of  trade  agreement  negotiations  in  1935  and 
again  in  1948.  Effective  February  9,  1952,  the 
tariff  on  imports  of  hatters'  fur  was  increased  as 
the  result  of  an  escape- clause  action  to  its  present 
rate  of  47^  cents  per  pomid,  but  not  less  than  15 
percent  nor  more  than  35  percent  ad  valorem. 

The  Tariff'  Commission's  report  constitutes  its 
fourth  periodic  review  of  the  escape-clause  action 
taken  on  this  product.^ 


President  Orders  Investigation 
of  Effects  of  Tung  Oil  imports 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  22 

The  President  has  requested  the  U.S.  Tariff 
Commission  to  make  an  inmiediate  investigation  of 
the  effects  of  imports  of  tung  oil  on  the  domestic 
price-support  program  for  tung  nuts  and  tung  oil 
and  on  the  amount  of  products  processed  in  the 
United  States  from  tmig  nuts  or  tung  oil.  The 
President's  action  was  taken  in  response  to  a  rec- 
ommendation from  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture. 


The  Commission's  investigation  will  be  made  pur- 
suant to  section  22  of  the  Agricultural  Adjustment 
Act,  as  amended. 

President's  Letter  to  Chairman  of  Tariff  Commission 

Dkak  Mk.  Chairman:  I  have  been  advised  by 
the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  that  there  is  reason 
to  believe  that  tung  oil  is  being  and  is  practically 
certain  to  continue  to  be  imported  into  the  United 
States  imder  such  conditions  and  in  such  quantities 
as  to  render  or  tend  to  render  ineffective  or  to  ma- 
terially interfere  with  the  price  support  program 
for  tung  nuts  and  tung  oil  undertaken  by  the  De- 
partment of  Agriculture,  pursuant  to  Section  201 
of  the  Agricultural  Adjustment  Act  of  1949,  as 
amended,  or  to  reduce  substantially  the  amount 
of  products  processed  in  the  United  States  from 
domestic  tung  nuts  and  tung  oil.  A  copy  of  the 
Secretai-y's  letter  is  enclosed.^ 

The  Tariff  Commission  is  requested  to  make  an 
immediate  investigation  under  Section  22  of  the 
Agricultural  Adjustment  Act,  as  amended,  to  de- 
termine if  there  is  a  need  for  restrictions  on  tung 
oil  imports.  The  Conmiission's  findings  should 
be  completed  as  promptly  as  practicable. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


INTERNATIONAL  ORGANIZATIONS 
AND  CONFERENCES 


^  Bulletin  of  Jan.  21,  1952,  p.  96. 

-  Copies  of  the  report  may  be  obtained  from  the  U.S. 
Tariff  Commission,  Washington  25,  D.C. 


U.N.  Relief  and  Worlds  Agency 
for  Palestine  Refugees 

Following  are  the  texts  of  two  statements  made 
in  the  Special  Political  Committee  hy  Mrs.  Oswald 
B.  Lord,  U.S.  Representative  to  the  General  As- 
se7nbly,  together  with  a  U.S. -sponsored  7'esolu- 
tion  adopted  in  plenary  session  on  February  28. 

STATEMENT  OF  FEBRUARY  18 

U.S.  delegation  press  release  2620 

I  am  very  much  impressed  with  the  compre- 
hensive reports  of  the  Director  of  the  United 


'  Not  printed. 


AptU  8,   1957 


585 


Nations  Relief  and  Works  Agency.^  After  hear- 
ing his  own  excellent  statement  of  last  week,  I  wish 
first  of  all  to  pay  tribute  to  Mr.  [Henry  E.]  La- 
bouisse  and  to  the  many  faithful  members  of  his 
agency.  They  have  really  done  a  most  competent 
job  under  stringent  limitations  and  unusually  dif- 
ficult circumstances  in  taking  care  of  the  welfare 
of  the  Arab  refugees. 

My  Government  has  the  widest  sympathy  and 
understanding  for  the  plight  of  these  refugees.  I 
am  personally  concerned,  for,  Mr.  Chairman,  I 
have  seen  refugees  all  over  the  world — in  Ger- 
many, Pakistan,  India,  Viet-Nam,  Formosa — but 
the  refugee  camps  I  visited  in  the  Middle  East — 
Lebanon  and  Jordan  are  the  most  depressing  be- 
cause of  the  fact  that  these  refugees  have  been 
there  so  long  and  seem  to  have  so  little  to  hope  for. 

This  in  itself  is  depressing  enough,  but  it  is 
even  more  depressing  and  unfortunate  that,  al- 
though we  have  considered  their  plight  here  year 
after  year,  the  situation  is  not  improving.  Not 
only  is  it  not  improving — it  is  not  being  solved. 
"VAHiy  ?  To  my  Government  and  to  me  there  are 
three  major  elements  that  seem  to  stand  out,  and  I 
want  to  elaborate  on  all  three — but  to  sum  them 
up: 

First,  a  decision  was  made  over  8  years  ago  that 
refugees  would  have  the  right  to  decide  whether 
they  should  be  repatriated  or  whether  they  should 
be  compensated.  Second,  let's  face  the  fact  there 
has  been  some  deterioration  of  relations  between 
the  agency  and  some  of  the  host  governments. 
Third,  and  most  important,  a  good  deal  of  lack  of 
progress  is  due  to  the  question  of  contributions. 

Let's  take  the  first  point,  that  the  refugees  con- 
tinue to  live  in  the  faith  of  the  promise  made  to 
them  8  years  ago  that  they  will  be  repatriated  to 
Israel  or  compensated.  This  has  not  been  put  into 
effect.  The  United  States  Government  believes 
that  with  the  minimvmi  of  good  faith  and  willful 
understanding  of  particular  and  emotional  prob- 
lems involved  we  should  find  a  way  to  settle  this 
problem. 

Let's  take  a  look  at  the  second  problem — the 
deterioration  of  relations  between  the  agency  and 
some  of  the  host  governments.  I  don't  have  to 
remind  the  delegates  of  some  of  the  unjustified 
instances  of  noncooperation  on  the  part  of  some 
of  the  host  governments  that  Mr.  Labouisee  has 
cited  in  his  report.     This  type  of  noncooperation 

■  IJ.N.  docs.  A/3212  and  Add.  1. 
586 


between  a  host  government  and  the  Director  and 
his  responsible  officials,  fellow  delegates,  is  incon- 
sistent with  the  obligations  as  outlined  in  articles 
104  and  105  of  the  charter. 

This  is  really  a  matter  of  concern  because,  if  any 
United  Nations  agency  finds  that  host  governments 
do  not  respect  their  charter  obligations,  the  Direc- 
tor of  that  particular  agency  would  have  the  right 
to  suspend,  curtail,  or  terminate  its  activities.  I 
am  sure  that  all  would  agree  with  the  United 
States  Government  that,  whether  it  is  with  the 
United  Nations  Eelief  and  Works  Agency  or  any 
other  agency,  the  Director,  if  unable  to  carry  out 
his  assigned  functions  under  the  protection  of  the 
resolution  which  governs  his  activities  and  under 
the  two  articles  of  the  charter,  could  well  terminate 
his  activities. 

However,  I  am  sure  you  would  all  agree  with  the 
United  States  delegation  that  host  governments 
are  entitled  to  protect  and  exercise  their  sovereign 
rights  within  their  territories,  and  very  possibly 
by  exercising  such  sovereign  rights  honest  differ- 
ences can  arise. 

We  are  most  desirous  to  minimize  the  chances  of 
such  a  conflict,  and  we  want  to  see  each  host  gov- 
ernment given  a  regard  for  its  sovereignty — which 
any  free  nation  is  entitled  to  exercise. 

Together,  however,  with  this  legitimate  desire 
of  the  host  governments  to  exercise  fully  their 
sovereign  rights,  we  must  consider  the  fact  that 
the  mandate  of  the  United  Nations  Eelief  and 
Works  Agency  has  a  little  more  than  3  years  to 
run.  My  Government  believes  that  this  body 
should  now  commence  assisting  the  agency  and 
the  governments  as  best  it  can  in  preparing  against 
the  eventual  termination  of  the  United  Nations 
Eelief  and  Works  Agency's  activities  in  orderly 
planning  and  in  fairness  to  the  host  governments 
and  the  welfare  of  the  refugees.  We  believe  that 
the  Director  of  the  agency  should,  after  consulta- 
tions with  the  host  governments,  prepare  for  sub- 
mission to  the  12th  General  Assembly  specific  pro- 
I^osals — witliout  jDrejudice,  of  course,  to  the  refu- 
gees' right  of  repatriation  or  compensation — for 
future  implementation  of  the  various  responsibili- 
ties with  which  the  agency  is  now  charged. 

The  third  and  most  important  problem  that  I 
have  referred  to  is  contributions.  I  think  most 
of  the  speakers  here  have  agreed  with  Mr. 
Labouisse  in  his  desire  to  undertake  improve- 
ments— a  desire  he  has  expressed  in  all  his  reports. 
My  delegation  is  in  complete  accord,  but  we  do 

Department  of  State  Bulletin 


not  think  that  only  a  few  governments  and  par- 
ticularly the  United  States  can  and  should  assume 
full  financial  responsibility  for  insuring  the  wel- 
fare of  the  refugees. 

We  will  always  stand  ready  to  match  generosity, 
but  we  have  all  agreed  over  and  over  again  here  at 
the  TJnited  Nations  when  we  have  discussed  other 
contributions — United  Nations  Children's  Fund, 
technical  assistance,  etc. — that  the  very  health  and 
moral  fiber  of  the  United  Nations  is  not  served  by 
contributions  from  a  limited  number  of  nations. 
One  reason  why  there  is  so  much  interest,  so  much 
support,  in  the  United  Nations  Children's  Fund 
and  technical  assistance  programs  is  because,  in 
1956,  79  countries  completed  their  contributions 
to  the  United  Nations  Children's  Fund  and,  in 
195C,  61  countries  pledged  to  the  Technical  As- 
sistance Program. 

Let's  put  all  our  efforts  in  a  wider  basis  for 
pledging  of  contributions  and,  if  possible,  larger 
contributions.  By  contributions  from  more  coun- 
tries, by  increased  contributions,  we  can  then  fore- 
see better  standards  of  relief  as  requested  by  the 
Director.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  contributions 
fall  short  of  the  budget  requirements,  then  the 
Director  will  have  no  choice — and  it  will  be  a  tragic 
and  unfortunate  choice — but  to  reduce  the  alread5 
meager  services  to  the  refugees.  If  tliis  tragedy 
should  happen  and  services  have  to  be  reduced,  we 
wish  that  food  and  clothing  be  the  very  last  to 
suffer. 

Mr.  Chairman,  now  let  us  turn  to  the  question 
of  the  rehabilitation  fund.  In  the  past  my  Gov- 
ei'nment  has  always  actively  supported  substantial 
rehabilitation  programs.  By  this  we  mean  pro- 
grams that  would  improve  the  welfare  of  the 
refugee,  provide  him  with  a  sense  of  security  and 
a  sense  of  belonging  among  his  Arab  brethren,  but 
at  the  same  time  not  prejudice  his  right  to  repatri- 
ation or  compensation.  Many  diligent  efforts 
have  been  made — such  as  those  devoted  to  the  de- 
velopment of  the  Jordan  Valley,  made  by  my 
Government.  Unfortunately,  agreements  for 
these  projects  have  not  materialized  although,  as 
the  Director  has  indicated,  they  have  proved  feas- 
ible and  technically  somid.  We  are  still  hopeful 
that  projects  will  be  agreed  upon  which  will  ac- 
complish economic  benefits  to  both  the  govern- 
ments involved  and  to  the  refugees. 

Therefore,  we  would  like  to  suggest  that  the 
Director's  discretion  with  regard  to  use  of  reha- 
bilitation funds  be  broadened  to  the  extent  that 


he  may  in  his  discretion  disburse  moneys  from 
the  rehabilitation  fund  for  general  economic  de- 
velopment projects,  subject  only  to  agreement  by 
the  recipient  government  that  within  a  fixed  pe- 
riod it  will  assume  financial  responsibility  for  an 
agreed  number  of  refugees.  We  think,  Mr.  Chair- 
man, in  making  such  a  suggestion  that  the  projects 
which  may  be  agreed  upon  can  really  benefit  the 
economies  of  the  Arab  world  and  will  also  con- 
tribute to  the  welfare  of  the  refugees.  In  line 
with  our  interest  in  maintaining  the  rehabilita- 
tion fund,  I  can  assure  this  Committee  that  my 
Government  is  presently  making  plans  for  a  fur- 
ther contribution  to  the  rehabilitation  fund. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  want  to  again  express  our 
admiration  for  the  work  which  the  Director  of 
the  United  Nations  Eelief  and  Works  Agency  has 
done.  If  one  smgle  example  is  needed  to  demon- 
strate the  efficiency  and  capacity  of  the  Director 
and  the  agency,  it  can  be  found  in  the  special 
report  of  the  Director  concemiing  the  agency's  ac- 
tivities in  the  Gaza  Strip  between  November  1st 
and  mid-December  of  last  year.-  Despite  military 
operations  and  the  deplorable  damage  and  loss  of 
life,  my  Government  feels  that  it  can  truly  say 
"well  done"  to  the  brilliant  performance  of  the 
agency. 

May  I  again  appeal  to  all  countries  to  remember 
that  in  this  problem  we  are  not  dealing  with  a 
political  situation  as  such.  We  are  dealing  with 
human  beings  who  deserve  more  of  our  sympathy 
and  consideration  than  they  have  received  in  the 
past. 


STATEMENT  OF  FEBRUARY  22 

U.S.  delegation  press  release  2628 

This  Committee  now  has  before  it  a  draft  resolu- 
tion which  has  the  cosponsorship  and  support  of 
the  United  States.  Much  of  its  language  is  fa- 
miliar to  us  since  the  problem  has  been  long  before 
us  and,  regrettably,  will  be  before  us  probably  for 
some  years  to  come.  I  say  regrettably  because 
human  beings  and  their  sufferings  are  involved. 
It  is  in  a  continued  and  renewed  effort  to  assist  in 
the  alleviation  of  this  mass  misery  that  the  United 
States  hopes  that  this  resolution  will  receive  the 
large  majority  support  it  warrants. 

Mr.  Chairman,  as  we  see  it,  this  resolution  faces 


'  U.N.  doc.  A/3212  Add.  1. 


April  8,   7957 


587 


facts,  many  of  which  are  regi'ettable,  particularly 
in  the  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth  preambular  para- 
graphs, whicli  relate  to  the  inadequacy  of  contri- 
butions, to  the  fact  that  the  hope  of  repatriation 
or  compensation  has  not  been  fulfilled,  and  that, 
as  the  Director  had  to  point  out  most  unliappily 
in  his  report,  cooperation  between  certain  host 
governments  and  the  agency  has  been  inadequate. 
We  believe  it  necessary  that  there  be  improvement 
on  all  of  these  points  in  the  coming  year  or  else 
the  agency  cannot  hoi^e  to  carry  out  its  mandate. 

The  first  operative  paragraph  also  faces  facts  in 
that  it  should  be  an  earnest  effort  on  the  part  of 
the  Director  and  the  governments  concerned  to 
plan  ahead  in  such  a  manner  that  the  relationships 
between  the  agency  and  the  host  governments  are 
so  adjusted  that  the  responsibilities  with  which 
the  agency  is  now  charged  may  carry  on  into  the 
future  in  a  manner  best  designed  to  insure  the 
future  welfare  of  the  refugees  and  face  the  fact 
that  the  mandate  of  the  agency  by  Resolution  818 
(IX)  is  ended  on  June  30,  1960.  In  urging  this 
step  we  want  to  stress  that  what  we  are  asking  the 
Director  to  do  is  in  no  way  prejudicing  the  rights 
of  the  refugees  or  prejudging  the  solution  of  this 
problem.  We  fully  appreciate  the  difficulties 
which  the  host  governments  may  be  forced  to  face, 
and  this  body  should  in  the  future  be  prepared  to 
consider  what  those  difficulties  may  be  and  what  it 
can  do  about  them.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  we 
believe  the  Director  should  report  to  the  next  Gen- 
eral Assembly  along  the  lines  indicated  in  the  first 
operative  paragraph.  For  our  part,  the  United 
States  stands  ready  to  be  of  such  assistance  as  may 
be  indicated.  The  second  operative  paragraph  is 
a  reminder  to  all  of  us  that  the  agency  has  certain 
rights  and  privileges  which  we  must  all  respect  if 
it  is  to  function  as  expected  of  it.  Accordingly,  we 
believe  it  appropriate  to  request  of  the  host  gov- 
ernments the  necessary  cooperation  with  the 
agency  and  with  its  personnel  and  to  extend  to 
them  every  appropriate  assistance  in  carrying  out 
their  functions. 

The  third  operative  paragraph  is  traditional 
in  resolutions  on  this  problem  in  that  it  directs 
the  agency  to  pursue  its  programs,  bearing  in  mind 
the  limitations  imposed  u,pon  it  by  the  contri- 
butions. 

The  fourth  operative  paragraph  indicates  our 
continued  interest  and  concern  that  rehabilitation 
projects  capable  of  supporting  a  substantial  num- 
ber of  refugees  be  sought  and  carried  out.    The 


United  States  has  given  much  thought  to  this  mat- 
ter and  still  believes  that  it  is  in  the  interests  of 
the  Arab  peoples  themselves  that  projects  be  found 
which  will  not  only  benefit  the  refugees  but  can 
have  a  profoundly  beneficial  effect  on  the  Arab 
governments.  For  this  reason,  we  are  proposing 
in  operative  paragraph  5  that  the  Director's  au- 
thority be  broadened  from  what  it  has  been  to  per- 
mit him  to  use  rehabilitation  funds,  as  they  may  be 
available,  to  arrange  with  individual  host  govern- 
ments for  general  economic  development  projects. 
We  believe  that  such  arrangements  should  involve 
agreement  on  the  part  of  any  host  government 
that  within  a  fixed  period  of  time  it  will  assume 
financial  responsibility  for  an  agreed  number  of 
refugees.  Certainly  it  is  in  the  interests  of  all  con- 
cerned that  every  effort  be  made  to  reduce  the  refu- 
gee .problem  as  rapidly  as  possible.  We  are  hope- 
ful that  this  broader  discretion  will  be  of  gx-eat 
assistance. 

The  remaining  operative  paragraphs  are  famil- 
iar in  that  they  request  the  agency  to  continue  its 
consultations  with  the  Palestine  Conciliation  Com- 
mission. It  reiterates  its  appeal  to  private  organi- 
zations and  governments  to  assist  in  meeting  the 
serious  needs  of  other  claimants  for  relief  in  the 
area.  It  requests  the  Negotiating  Committee  for 
Extrabudgetary  Funds  to  continue  to  seek  the  fi- 
nancial assistance  needed  and,  most  important  of 
all,  urges  all  governments  to  increase  their  contri- 
butions to  the  extent  necessary  to  carry  through 
the  agency's  programs. 

The  tenth  operative  paragraph  takes  cogni- 
zance of  the  fearless  and  courageous  work  of  faith- 
ful international  servants  who  continue  to  carry 
out  tlie  program  for  the  refugees  in  the  Gaza  Strip 
following  the  recent  hostilities.  The  Director  and 
the  agency  ought  to  be  commended  for  this  initia- 
tive. 

Finally,  it  expresses  the  General  Assembly's 
thanks  to  the  Director  and  the  staff  of  the  agency 
for  their  continued  faithful  efforts.  Thanks  are 
also  always  due  to  the  many  private  organizations 
which  have  for  so  long  continued  their  valuable 
work  in  assisting  the  refugees. 

In  conclusion,  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  say  that  it 
is  our  hope  that  the  passage  of  this  resolution  will 
lend  new  vitality  to  the  efforts  of  all  of  us  in  help- 
ing to  assist  and  solve  the  Arab  refugee  problem. 
It  is  the  conviction  of  my  Government  that  failui-o 
to  act  in  the  affirmative  way  which  we  propose 
can  have  most  unfortunate  results  for  the  refugees. 


588 


Deparlmenf  of  State  Bulletin 


and  they  should  come  first  in  the  minds  of  all  of 
us  here. 


TEXT  OF  RESOLUTION  ^ 

The  General  Assembly, 

Recalling  its  resolutions  194  (III)  of  11  December  1948, 
302  (IV)  of  8  December  1949,  393  (V)  of  2  December 
1950,  513  (VI)  of  26  January  1952,  614  (VII)  of  6  No- 
vember 1952,  720  (VIII)  of  27  November  1953,  818  (IX) 
of  4  December  1954  and  916  (X)   of  3  December  1955, 

Noting  the  annual  report  and  the  special  report  of  the 
Director  of  the  United  Nations  Relief  and  Works  Agency 
for  Palestine  Refugees  in  the  Near  East  and  the  report 
of  the  Advisory  Commission  of  the  Agency,* 

Having  reviewed  the  budget  for  relief  and  rehabilita- 
tion prepared  by  the  Director  of  the  Agency, 

Noting  with  concern  that  contributions  thereto  are  not 
yet  sufficient. 

Noting  that  repatriation  or  compensation  of  the  refu- 
gees, as  provided  for  in  paragraph  11  of  resolution  194 
(III),  has  not  been  effected,  that  no  substantial  progress 
has  been  made  in  the  programme  endorsed  in  paragraph 
2  of  resolution  513  ( VI )  for  the  reintegration  of  refugees 
and  that  therefore  the  situation  of  the  refugees  continues 
to  be  a  matter  of  serious  concern. 

Noting  that  the  host  Governments  have  expressed  the 
wish  that  the  Agency  continue  to  carry  out  its  mandate 
in  their  respective  countries  or  territories  and  have  ex- 
pressed their  wish  to  co-operate  fully  with  the  Agency 
and  to  extend  to  it  every  appropriate  assistance  in  carry- 
ing out  its  functions,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of 
Articles  104  and  105  of  the  Charter  of  the  United  Nations, 
the  terms  of  the  Convention  of  Privileges  and  Immuni- 
ties, the  contents  of  paragraph  17  of  its  resolution  302 
(IV)  of  8  December  1949  and  the  terms  of  the  agreements 
with  the  host  Governments, 

1.  Direets  the  United  Nations  Relief  and  Works  Agency 
for  Palestine  Refugees  in  the  Near  East  to  pursue  its 
programmes  for  the  relief  and  rehabilitation  of  refugees, 
bearing  in  mind  the  limitation  imposed  upon  it  by  the 
extent  of  the  contributions  for  the  fiscal  year; 

2.  Requests  the  host  Governments  to  co-operate  fully 
with  the  Agency  and  with  its  personnel  and  to  extend  to 
it  every  appropriate  assistance  in  carrying  out  its 
functions ; 

3.  Requests  the  Governments  of  the  area,  without  prej- 
udice to  paragraph  11  of  resolution  194  (III),  in  co- 
operation with  the  Director  of  the  Agency,  to  plan  and 
carry  out  projects  capable  of  supporting  substantial  num- 
bers of  refugees ; 

4.  Requests  the  Agency  to  continue  its  consultation  with 
the  United  Nations  Conciliation  Commission  for  Pales- 


'  U.N.  doe.  A/Res/524 ;  adopted  by  the  Special  Political 
Committee  on  Feb.  23  (A/SPC/L.13/Rev.  2)  by  a  vote 
of  66  to  0  with  1  abstention  (Iraq)  and  by  the  General 
Assembly  on  Feb.  28  by  a  vote  of  68  to  0  with  1  abstention 
(Iraq). 

'  U.N.  doc.  A/349S. 


tine  in  the  best  interest  of  their  respective  tasks,  with 
particular  reference  to  paragraph  11  of  resolution  194 
(III); 

5.  Decides  to  retain  the  rehabilitation  fund  and  au- 
thorizes the  Director  in  his  discretion  to  disburse  such 
monies,  as  may  be  available,  to  the  individual  host  Gov- 
ernments for  general  economic  development  projects, 
subject  to  agreement  by  any  such  Government  that  within 
a  fixed  period  of  time  it  will  assume  financial  resiMJusibil- 
ity  for  an  agreed  number  of  refugees,  such  number  to 
be  commensurate  with  the  cost  of  the  project  without 
prejudice  to  paragraph  11  of  resolution  104  (III)  ; 

0.  Reiterates  its  appeal  to  private  organizations  and 
Governments  to  assist  in  meeting  the  serious  needs  of 
other  claimants  for  relief  as  referred  to  in  paragraph  5 
of  resolution  916  (X)  ; 

7.  Requests  the  Negotiating  Committee  for  Extra  Budg- 
etary Funds,  after  receipt  of  the  requests  for  contribu- 
tions from  the  Director  of  the  Agency,  to  seek  the  financial 
assistance  needed  from  the  United  Nations  Members; 

8.  Urges  all  Governments  to  contribute  or  to  increase 
their  contributions  to  the  extent  necessary  to  carry 
through  to  fulfilment  the  Agency's  relief  and  rehabilita- 
tion programmes ; 

9.  Notes  with  approval  the  action  of  the  Agency  in 
continuing  to  carry  out  its  programme  for  the  refugees 
in  the  Gaza  Strip; 

10.  Expresses  its  thanks  to  the  Director  and  the  staff 
of  the  Agency  for  continued  faithful  efforts  to  carry  out 
its  mandate,  and  to  the  specialized  agencies  and  the  many 
private  organizations  for  their  valuable  and  continuing 
work  in  assisting  the  refugees ; 

11.  Notes  that  the  Agency  is  changing  its  financial  period 
from  a  fiscal  to  a  calendar  year  basis  and  that  conse- 
quently the  current  budgets  cover  an  IS-month  period 
from  1  July  1956  to  31  December  1957,  and  that  special  ar- 
rangements for  the  audit  of  funds  in  this  period  are  being 
made  with  the  United  Nations  Board  of  Auditors ; 

12.  Requests  the  Director  of  the  Agency  to  continue 
to  submit  the  reports  referred  to  in  paragraph  21  of  reso- 
lution 302  (IV)  as  modified  by  paragraph  11  above. 


TREATY  INFORMATION 


Current  Actions 

MULTILATERAL 
Customs  Tariffs 

Protocol  modifying  the  convention  signed  at  Brussels  July 
5,  1890  (26  Stat.  1518),  creating  an  international  union 
for  the  publication  of  customs  tariffs.  Done  at  Brassels 
December  16,  1949.  Entered  into  force  May  5,  1950.' 
Adherence  deposited:  Rumania,  February  13,  1957. 


'  Not  in  force  for  the  United  States. 


April  8,    7957 


589 


Trade  and  Commerce 

Agreement  on  Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation.     Done 

at  Geneva  March  10,  1955.^ 

Notification  deposited   {recognising  signature  as  bind- 
ing) :  Austria,  February  11,  1957. 
Protocol  of  rectification  to  French  text  of  the  General 

Agreement  on  Tariffs  and  Trade.     Done  at  Geneva  June 

15,  1955.     Entered  into  force  October  24,  1956,  for  those 

provisions  vphich   relate  to  parts   II   and   III   of  the 

General  Agreement.     TIAS  3677. 

Notification  deposited  (recognizing  signature  as  bind- 
ing): Austria,  February  11,  1957. 
Sixth  protocol  of  supplementary  concessions  to  the  General 

Agreement   on   Tariffs   and   Trade.     Done   at   Geneva 

Mav  li3,  1956.     Entered  into  force  June  30,  1956.     TIAS 

3591. 

Schedules  of  concessions  enter  into  force:  Dominican 
Republic,  April  10,  1957. 

Wheat 

International  wheat  agreement,  1956.     Open  for  signature 
at  Washington   through  May  18,   1956.     Entered   into 
force  July  16,  1956,  for  parts  1,  3,  4,  and  5,  and  August 
1,  1956,  for  part  2.     TIAS  3709. 
Acceptance  deposited:  Lebanon,  March  20,  1957. 

BILATERAL 

Dominican  Republic 

Agreement  for  establishment  of  a  long  range  radio  aid  to 
navigation  station  at  Cape  Frances  Viejo.  Signed  at 
Washington  March  19,  1957.  Entered  into  force  March 
19,  1957. 

France 

Agreement  to  facilitate  interchange  of  patent  rights  and 
technical  information  for  defense  purposes.  Signed  at 
Paris  March  12,  1957.  Entered  into  force  March  12, 
1957. 

Greece 

Agreement  further  amending  the  agricultural  commodities 
agreement  of  August  8,  1956,  as  amended  January  21, 
1957  (TIAS  3633,  3741),  by  providing  for  the  purchase 
of  additional  wheat.  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes  at 
Athens  March  1  and  4,  1957.  Entered  into  force  March 
4,  1957. 

Agreement  amending  the  agricultural  commodities  agree- 
ment of  August  8,  1956  (TIAS  3633),  by  providing  for 
the  purchase  of  wheat  with  funds  allotted  for  the  pur- 
chase of  lard.  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes  at  Atliens 
February  13  and  23,  1957.  Entered  into  force  February 
23,  1957. 

Jordan 

Agreement  amending  the  agreement  of  May  1  and  June  29, 
1954  (TIAS  3145),  relating  to  duty-free  entry  and  de- 
frayment of  inland  transportation  charges  for  relief 
supplies  and  packages.  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes 
at  Amman  July  6,  September  28,  and  October  15,  1955. 
Entered  into  force  September  28,  19.55.  (Substitution 
for  exchange  of  notes  of  March  15  and  24,  1955,  listed 
in  Bulletin  of  May  9,  1955. ) 

Switzerland 

Exchange  of  notes  at  Washington  March  1  and  4,  1957, 
approving  the  agreed  minute  of  February  G,  1957,  re- 
lating to  interpretation  of  the  air  transport  agreement 
of  August  3,  1945,  as  amended  (TIAS  1576,  1929). 
Entered  into  force  March  4,  1957. 


DEPARTMENT  AND  FOREIGN  SERVICE 


Designations 

Norman  B.  Hannah  as  Special  Assistant  to  the  Deputy 
Under  Secretary  for  Administration,  effective  March  11. 

Charles  Whitehouse  as  Special  Assistant  to  the  Deputy 
Under  Secretary  for  Economic  Affairs,  effective  March  11. 

Max  V.  Krebs  as  Special  Assistant  to  the  Under  Secre- 
tary, effective  March  24. 


'  Not  in  force. 


Check  List  of  Department  of  State 
Press  Releases:  Marcli  18-24 

Releases  may  be  obtained  from  the  News  Division, 
Department  of  State,  Washington  25,  D.  0. 

Press  releases  issued  prior  to  March  18  which  ai> 
pear  in  this  issue  of  the  Bulletin  are  Nos.  119  and 
122  of  March  7  and  143  of  March  13. 

Subject 

Educational  exchange. 

Dulles :  death  of  President  Magsaysay. 

Meeting  of  Secretary  Dulles  and  Mrs. 
Meir. 

Progress  on  Inter-American  Highway. 

Phillips :  statement  on  plant  protection 
convention. 

Drew  nominated  Ambassador  to  Haiti 
(biographic  details). 

Bonsai  nominated  Ambassador  to  Bo- 
livia (biographic  details). 

Wilcox :  "The  United  Nations  and  Pub- 
lic Understanding." 

Agreement  with  Dominican  Republic 
for  LORAN  station. 

Young  nominated  Ambassador  to  Neth- 
erlands (biographic  details). 

U.S.-Netherlands  air  transport  nego- 
tiations. 

Educational  exchange. 

Polish  coal  mining  officials  visit  U.S. 

Exchange  of  letters  with  the  Nether- 
lands on  civil  air  negotiations. 

New  U.S.  member  of  Iraq  Development 
Board. 

Educational  exchange. 

Bohlen  nominated  Ambassador  to  Phil- 
ippines (biographic  details). 

Fifth  anniversary  of  Escapee  Program. 

Russell  nominated  Ambassador  to  New 
Zealand  (biographic  details). 

Eisenhower :  anniverssary  of  IPakistan 
Republic. 

Signing  of  income-tax  protocol  with 
Japan. 

*Not  printed. 

tHeld  for  a  later  issue  of  the  Bulletin. 


No. 

Date 

*153 
154 
1.55 

3/18 
.3/18 
3/lS 

156 
tl57 

3/18 
3/19 

*1.58 

3/18 

*159 

3/18 

160 

3/19 

161 

3/19 

*l(i2 

3/19 

163 

3/19 

*164 

tlC5 

166 

3/20 
3/21 
3/21 

167 

3/21 

*16S 
*169 

3/21 
3/22 

tl70 
*171 

3/22 
3/22 

172 

3/23 

173 

3/23 

590 


Depar/menf  of  Sfafe  Bulletin 


April  8,  1957 


Index 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  928 


American  Republics 

Intcr-Americau  Highway  Nearin;;  Conipletiun     .     .       564 
U.S.    Contribution    To    Help    Fight    Malaria    in 
American  Republics  (Milton  Eisenhower,  Mora, 
Soper) 565 

Atomic  Energy.  United  States  and  United  King- 
dom Exchange  Views  at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text 
of  joint  communique) 561 

Aviation 

Air  Transport  Agreement  Between  United  States 

and  Mexico  (text) 575 

U.S.  and  Netherlands  Resume  Air  Transport  Nego- 
tiations  (Eisenhower,  Drees) 579 

Belgium.  Notice  of  Intention  To  Enter  Into 
Limited  Trade  Agreement  Negotiations  With  the 
United  Kingdom  and  Belgium 581 

Communism.     The  Cold  War  and  the  Universities 

(Oechsner) 571 

Congress,  Tlie.     Amending   the   U.S.    Information 

and  Educational  Exchange  Act  of  1948  ( Lightner ) .      566 

Department    and    Foreign    Service.    Designations 

(Hannah,  Whitehouse,  Krebs) 590 

Dominican   Republic.     U.S.-Dominican  Agreement 

on  LORAN  Station 574 

Economic  Affairs 

Inter-American  Highway  Nearing  Completion    .     .      564 

New  U.S.  Member  Assumes  Duties  on  Iraq  Develop- 
ment Board 563 

Notice  of  Intention  To  Enter  Into  Limited  Trade 
Agreement  Negotiations  With  the  United  King- 
dom   and    Belgium 581 

President  Asks   Study  of  Tariff  Quota  on  Alsike 

Clover  Seed 584 

President    Decides    Against    Study    of    Tariff    on 

Hatters'  Fur 585 

President  Orders  Investigation  of  EITects  of  Tung 
Oil  Imports 585 

United  States  and  Japan  Sign  Income-Tax  Protocol .      574 

Educational  Exchange.  Amending  the  U.S.  Infor- 
mation and  Educational  Exchange  Act  of  1948 
(Lightner) 566 

Europe.  United  States  and  United  Kingdom  Ex- 
change Views  at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text  of  joint 
communique) 561 

Health,  Education,  and  Welfare 

The  Cold  War  and  the  Universities  (Oechsner)  .     .      571 
U.S.  Contribution  To  Help  Fight  Malaria  in  Ameri- 
can Republics  (Milton  Ei-senhower,  Mora,  Soper).       565 

Hungary.  The  United  Nations  and  Public  Under- 
standing  (Wilcox) 555 

Iraq.  New  U.S.  Member  Assumes  Duties  on  Iraq 
Development  Board 563 

Israel.    Meeting   Between    Secretary    Dulles    and 

Israeli  Foreign  Minister  (text  of  statement)  .     .      562 

Japan.     United  States  and  Japan  Sign  Income-Tax 

Protocol 574 

Mexico.     Air  Transport  Agreement  Between  United 

States  and  Mexico  (text) 575 

Middle  East 

Meeting  Between  Secretary  DuUes  and  Israeli  For- 
eign Minister  (text  of  statement) 562 


The    United    Nations    and    Public    Understanding 

(Wilcox) 555 

U.N.  Relief  and  Works  Agency  for  Palestine  Refu- 
gees  (Lord) 585 

United  States  and  United  Kingdom  Exchange  Views 

at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text  of  joint  communique).      561 

Mutual  Security.  United  States  and  United  King- 
dom Exchange  Views  at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text 
of  joint  communique) 561 

Netherlands.     U.S.   and  Netherlands  Resume  Air 

Transport  Negotiations  (Elsenhower,  Drees)  .     .      579 

Pakistan.  Anniversary  of  Establishment  of  Paki- 
stan as  Republic  (Eisenhower) 563 

Philippines.     Death  of  President  Magsaysay  of  the 

Philippines  (Eisenhower,  Dulles) 563 

Presidential  Documents 

Anniversary    of    Establishment    of    Pakistan    as 

Republic 563 

Death  of  President  Magsaysay  of  the  Philippines  .      563 

President  Orders  Investigation  of  ElfCects  of  Tung 

Oil   Imports 585 

U.S.  and  Netherlands  Resume  Air  Transport  Nego- 
tiations (Eisenhower,  Drees) 579 

Refugees.    U.N.    Relief    and    Works    Agency    for 

Palestine  Refugees   (Lord) 585 

Treaty  Information 

Air  Transport  Agreement  Between  United  States 

and  Mexico 575 

Current  Actions 589 

United  States  and  Japan  Sign  Income-Tax  Protocol .      574 
U.S.  and  Netherlands  Resume  Air  Transport  Nego- 
tiations  (Eisenhower,  Drees) 579 

U.S.-Dominican  Agreement  on  LORAN  Station  .     .      574 

United  Kingdom 

Notice  of  Intention  To  Enter  Into  Limited  Trade 
Agreement  Negotiations  With  the  United  King- 
dom and  Belgium 581 

United  States  and  United  Kingdom  Exchange  Views 
at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text  of  joint  communique).      561 

United  Nations 

The    United    Nations    and    Public    Understanding 

(Wilcox) 555 

U.N.  Relief  and  Works  Agency  for  Palestine  Refu- 
gees  (Lord) 585 

United  States  and  United  Kingdom  Exchange  Views 
at  Bermuda  Meeting  (text  of  joint  communique) .      561 

Name  Index 

Drees,  Willem 580 

Dulles,  Secretary 562,563 

Eisenhower,  Milton  S 565 

Eisenhower,  President 561,  563,  580,  585 

Hannah,  Norman  B 590 

Krebs,  Max  V 590 

Lightner,  E.  Allan,  Jr 566 

Lord,  Mrs.  Oswald  B 585 

Macmillan,    Harold 561 

Magsaysay,   Ramon 563 

Meir,  Golda 562 

Mora,  Jos6  A 565 

Dechsner,  Frederick  Cable 571 

Soper,  Fred  L 565 

Whitehouse,  Charles 590 

Wilcox,  Francis  O 5.55 

Willscm,  Clifford 563 


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OFFICIAL    BUSINESS 


Foreign  Relations  of  the  United  States 

The  basic  source  of  information  on 
U.  S.  diplomatic  history 

1939,  Volume  II 

General,  The  British  Commonwealth,  and  Europe 


The  first  212  pages  of  this  volume  contain  papers  on  various  general 
subjects:  Antarctic  claims  and  exploration,  assistance  to  refugees,  fisheries 
oil'  the  coast  of  Alaska,  and  a  number  of  technical  economic  problems. 

Documentation  on  relations  with  the  British  Commonwealth  (pp.  213- 
364)  includes  sections  on  the  United  Kingdom,  Australia,  Canada,  and 
India.  Problems  of  relations  between  the  United  States  as  a  neutral  and 
the  British  as  belligerents  are  covered,  as  well  as  other  usual  matters  of 
diplomacy.  Among  the  war  subjects  treated  is  the  sinking  of  the  S.S. 
Athenia  with  loss  of  American  lives.  It  was  only  after  the  war  that  it  was 
fully  established  that  this  was  an  act  of  a  German  submarine. 

The  remaining  534  pages  of  documentation  cover  relations  with 
individual  continental  European  countries.  The  Soviet  Union  is  omitted, 
since  the  record  for  that  country  has  already  been  published  in  Foreign 
Relations  of  the  United  States,  The  Soviet  Union,  1933-1939.  As  would 
be  expected  for  a  year  in  which  the  general  European  war  began,  subjects 
of  diplomacy  included  normal  peacetime  diplomatic  relations  as  well  as 
subjects  connected  with  the  crises  leading  to  war  and  into  the  war  itself. 
While  the  coming  of  the  war  is  primarily  treated  in  volume  I,  this  volume 
contains  the  record  on  the  absorption  of  Albania  by  Italy,  problems  arising 
from  the  annexation  of  Austria  by  Germany,  and  the  Spanish  Civil  War. 
In  the  section  on  Italy  are  recorded  suggestions  by  President  Roosevelt 
regarding  the  opportunity  for  Mussolini  to  contribute  to  the  maintenance 
of  peace.  The  appointment  of  Myron  C.  Taylor  as  the  President's  per- 
sonal representative  to  Pope  Pius  XII  is  documented  in  a  section  on  the 
Vatican. 

Copies  of  this  publication  may  be  purchased  from  the  Superintendent  of 
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THE    DEPARTMENT  OF   STATE 


"736^3.  /  1^20 


IE 

FFICIAL 

EEKLY  RECORD 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  929  AprU  15,  1957 

SECRETARY  DULLES'  NEWS  CONFERENCE  OF 

MARCH  26 595 

STATUTE    OF    INTERNATIONAL    ATO!MIC    ENERGY 
AGENCY  TRANSMITTED  TO  SENATE 

President's  Message  of  Transmittal 615 

Report  by  Secretary  Dulles 616 

Summary  of  Statute 618 

THE    SOVIET-OCCUPIED     ZONE    OF     qERMANY: 
A  CASE  STUDY  IN  COMMUNIST  CONTROL  •  by 

Eleanor  DulU's 605 

INTERNATIONAL  COOPERATION  IN  CLIMATOLOGY 

•    Article  by  Helmut  E.  Landsberg 612 


MITED  STATES 
)REIGN  POLICY 


For  index  see  inside  back  cover 


THE    DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE  a 


Boston  Public  Library 
Super'n*""''  ■"*  of  Documents 

MAY  6  - 1957 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  929  •  Publication  6476 
April  15,  1957 


For  sP'le  by  tho  Superintendent  of  Documents 

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The  Department  of  State  BULLETIN, 
a  weekly  publication  issued  by  the 
Public  Services  Division,  provides  the 
public  and  interested  agencies  of 
the  Government  with  information  on 
developments  in  the  field  of  foreign 
relations  and  on  the  work  of  the 
Department  of  Slate  and  the  Foreign 
Service.  The  BULLETIN  includes  se- 
lected press  releases  on  foreign  policy, 
issued  by  the  White  House  and  the 
Department,  and  staletnents  and  ad- 
dresses made  by  the  President  and  by 
the  Secretary  of  State  and  other 
officers  of  the  Department,  as  well  as 
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international  affairs  and  the  func- 
tions of  the  Department.  Informa- 
tion is  included  concerning  treaties 
and  international  agreements  to 
which  the  United  States  is  or  may 
become  a  parly  and  treaties  of  gen- 
eral international  interest. 

Publications  of  the  Department, 
United  Nations  documents,  and  legis- 
lative material  in  the  field  of  inter- 
national relations  are  listed  currently. 


Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26 


Press  release  175  dated  March  26 

Secretary  Dulles:  Since  I  last  met  with  you,  I 
have  been  to  two  important  international  confer- 
ences. The  first  was  the  conference  of  the  South- 
east Asia  Treaty  Council,  which  was  held  in  Can- 
berra, Australia,  and  then  more  recently,  the 
Bermuda  conference  with  the  Prime  Minister  and 
the  Foreign  Secretary  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
Both  of  those  conferences  have  been  important, 
useful,  and  I  think  one  can  use  the  word  "success- 
ful" conferences.  I  would  be  glad  to  answer  ques- 
tions about  those  conferences  or  any  other  matters 
that  you  want  to  question  me  about. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  as  a  result  of  the  talks  with 
the  Prime  Minister  at  Bermuda,  do  you  expect  a 
closer  joint  effort  in  the  intelligence  and  planning 
fields  ietween  the  United  States  and  Britain? 

A.  We  do  not  plan  to  have  any  substantive 
change  in  that  respect.  We  have,  of  course,  for  a 
long  time  had  an  association  with  the  United 
Kingdom  and  Canada  and  with  the  Nato  organi- 
zation, particularly  in  relation  to  such  matters  as 
an  alert  if  there  should  seem  to  be  a  danger  of  a 
Soviet  attack.  The  Nato  alert  arrangement  re- 
lates primarily  to  an  attack,  you  might  say,  from 
the  East,  and  the  Canadian  and  U.K.  arrangement 
to  a  possible  attack  from  the  polar  area,  from  the 
north.  There  was  some  discussion  about  review- 
ing and  perfecting  some  of  these  alert  arrange- 
ments, but  that  is  the  only  understanding  on  the 
matter  that  took  place. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  is  it  correct  that  your  under- 
standings or  conclusions  or  agreements,  ivhatever 
the  proper  word  may  ie,  were  set  down  on  paper 
and  initialed  at  Bermuda? 

A.  There  was  no  understanding  put  down  on 
paper  at  Bermuda  except  a  procedural  one  for  re- 
furbishing, you  might  say,  or  reviewing  the  intelli- 
gence arrangements  which  we  have  concerning 
alerts. 


Q.  That  is,  there  were  no  understandings,  for 
example,  on  what  policies  the  two  Governments 
might  pursue  in  the  Middle  East  under  various 
contingencies  depending  on  the  Hammarshjold 
inission  in  Cairo? 

A.  No,  although  in  the  course  of  the  long,  exten- 
sive talks  which  we  had  and  particularly  some  in- 
formal talks  that  took  place,  particularly  in  the 
dinner  and  evening  sessions,  we  talked  about  a 
great  variety  of  subjects,  and  I  believe  those  things 
were  touched  upon,  but  they  did  not  lead  to  any 
agreement. 

Q.  That  is,  to  written  agreements?  Nothing 
that  teas  committed? 

A.  No.     I  would  stick  by  my  original  language. 

Q.  In  other  words,  each  Government  has  its  own 
position  and  not  the  same  position  on  what  it  will 
do  under  these  various  possible  contingencies? 

A.  I  would  say  that  the  exchanges  of  views  that 
took  place  were  useful,  I  think,  in  making  it 
likely  that  there  would  be  a  common  policy.  But 
the  contingencies  tliat  we  had  to  deal  with  were  so 
varied  and  so  unpredictable  that  it  seemed  to  be 
rather  unprofitable  to  try  to  reach  a  formal  agree- 
ment as  to  what  we  would  do  in  any  one  of  a  score, 
perhai)s,  of  possible  variations  of  future  develop- 
ment. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  has  this  Government  been  re- 
ceiving any  interim  repoi'ts  from  Mr.  Hammar- 
skjold,  and,  if  so,  could  you  characterize  them? 

A.  We  have  received  no  interim  reports  from 
Mr.  Ilanunarskjold.  We  liave  through  Ambas- 
sador Hare  had  some  contacts  with  him  and  with 
the  Egyptian  Government,  through  which  we  have 
gotten  some  inkling,  I  woultl  say,  as  to  the  nature 
of  the  talks,  but  we  are  still  quite  in  the  dark  this 
morning,  for  example,  as  to  what  has  taken  place 
during  the  recent  discussions.  Tliose  discussions 
are  not  yet  concluded.     There  was  one  last  night, 


April   75,    1957 


595 


which  I  think  probably  was  an  important  one. 
We  have  no  report  as  yet.  I  understand  Mr. 
Hammarskjold  will  shortly  be  returning,  at  which 
time  he  will  probably  make  a  report,  which  will  be 
available  to  us  and  to  others. 

Q.  Yau  could  not  say  now  as  to  lohether  you  are 
hopeful  or  not  of  the  progress  of  his  talks? 

A.  Well,  I  used  in  the  background  conference 
which  I  had  at  Bermuda  the  phrase  "cautious 
optimism,"  and  I  think  that  that  is  a  phrase  which 
can  be  safely  taken  out  of  the  wraps  of  the  back- 
ground conference  and  even  permitted  publicly. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  what  is  your  understanding 
as  to  Mr.  Hammarskjold'' s  impending  report?  To 
whom  toould  it  he  made?  To  the  Advisory  Com- 
mittee, or  what? 

A.  He  would  make  it  presumably  to  the  Advis- 
ory Committee,  at  least.  It  might  be  made  public. 
I  don't  know  what  his  intentions  are. 

Q.  Yes.  But  I  was  wondering  as  to  whom  if 
would  he  addressed  in  the  first  place. 

A.  Yes. 

Q.  I  notice  annex  II  of  the  Bermuda  comtnu- 
nique  ^  dealt  with  a  joint  policy  of  the  two  coun- 
tries toward  testing  of  nuclear  weapons.  Did  that 
come  ahont  as  a  result  of  the  protests  on  the  part 
of  Japan? 

A.  No.  It  did  not  come  about  as  a  result  of 
those  protests,  except  as  you  can  say  that  those  pre- 
occupations held  by  Japan  were  a  part  of  the  sum 
total  of  the  concern  which  prompted  us  to  make 
some  statement  on  the  subject.  But  it  was  not 
specifically  ascribable  to  any  one  cause. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  at  yesterday's  White  House 
hriefing  of  the  congressional  leaders  on  the  Ber- 
mmda  conference,  to  what  extent  was  the  possihilify 
or  the  prospect  of  the  United  States^  providing 
guided  missiles  for  France  discussed? 

A.  Well,  it  was  discussed  only  in  a  very  casual 
way.  A  question  was  asked  as  to  whether  there 
was  a  possibility  that  guided  missiles  might  be 
supplied  to  countries  other  than  the  United  King- 
dom, and  the  reply  made  was  that  we  were  not 
actually  giving  any  consideration  to  that  because 
the  whole  project  was  still  in  an  experimental 
stage.    These  missiles  are  not  actually  (lying  yet, 

'  For  text,  see  Bulletin  of  Ai»r.  8,  l'J57,  p.  501. 


and  we  can't  predict  with  absolute  certainty  as  to 
when  they  can  be  made  available  even  for  the 
United  Kingdom.  It  seemed  that  the  United 
Kingdom  was  the  first  place  to  start  in  this  busi- 
ness of  deploying  these  missiles  to  areas  from 


Deployment  of  Ballistic  Missiles 
in  United  Kingdom 

statement  by  James  C.  llugertu 
Press  Secretary  to  the  President 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  25 

The  project  for  the  deployment  of  inteiiuedlate- 
range  ballistic  missiles  in  the  United  Kingdom  is 
an  initial  project  which  itself  is  yet  to  be  fully  de- 
veloped, both  from  the  standpoint  of  the  weapons 
themselves  and  the  precise  conditions  for  deploy- 
ment. This  is  the  logical  place  of  beginning.  Sub- 
sequent deployments  will,  of  course,  remain  to  be 
considered  but  are  not  under  active  consideration. 


which  they  could,  if  need  be,  serve  most  effectively 
as  a  deterrent,  and  this  seemed  to  be  the  best  way 
to  start.  Now,  in  principle,  there  is  no  reason 
to  limit  it  to  the  United  Kingdom,  except  that  as 
a  practical  matter  it  would  be  premature  to  start 
considering  it  on  a  broader  basis  when  we  still 
have  quite  a  ways  to  go  before  this  particular 
United  Kingdom  project  can  be  realized. 

Egypt  and  the  UNEF 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  does  the  United  States  he- 
lieve  that  Egypt  should  make  a  pledge  of  nonhel- 

ligereney  to  Israel? 

A.  We  believe  that  under  the  Armistice  Agree- 
ments there  is  not  a  right  to  exercise  belligerent 
rights.  We  believe  that  is  evidenced  by  the  fact 
that  that  was  the  basis  for  the  Security  Council 
decision  of  1951  with  reference  to  the  right  of 
passage  of  cargo  for  Israel  throngli  the  Suez 
Canal.  And  the  basis  for  that  decision  was  that 
under  the  Armistice  Agreement  Egypt  did  not 
possess  belligerent  rights.  We  voted  for  that  reso- 
lution at  the  time,  and  we  adhere  to  the  view 
which  was  then  held. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  do  xre  helieve  that  the  United 
Nations  Emergency  Force  should  he  stationed  on 
hofh  sides  of  the  armistice  line? 

A.  We  believe  that  it  would  conduce  to  the  tran- 


596 


Department   of  State   Bulletin 


quillity  of  the  area  if  the  United  Nations  Emer- 
gency Force  was  able  to  station  itself  astride,  you 
might  say,  of  the  armistice  line.  That  would  in- 
volve some  slight  positioning  of  troops  on  the 
Israeli  side  as  well  as  upon  the  non-Israeli  side 
of  the  armistice  lines,  and  that  seems  to  have  been 
called  for  by  the  United  Nations  resolution  of 
February  2, 1  think  it  wag,  calling  for  the  station- 
ing of  Unef  forces  "on"'  the  armistice  line.-  Since 
the  armistice  line  is  a  line  of  no  measurable  width, 
but  you  might  say  an  invisible  line,  it  is  not  pos- 
sible for  human  beings  to  stand  "on"  it  without 
being  a  little  bit  on  one  side  and  on  the  other. 

Q.  Mr.  Sec7'etary,  did  you  discuns  this  with  Mrs. 
Meir  ichen  she  ivas  here  and  ask  that  she  accept 
this/ 

A.  Yes,  we  did  discuss  it, 

Q.  Would  yov,  teU  us  her  answer? 

A.  No,  I  don't  think  I  would  be  wise  in  doing 
that. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  on  that  point,  is  the  Ameri- 
can position  that  UNEF  has  in  e-ffect  completed 
its  task  in  the  post-Suez-invasion  period  and  you 
are  noio  trying  to  turn  it,  or  would  like  to  see  it 
turned,  into  an  organization  which  would  back 
up  the  armistice  which  was  settled,  agreed  upon, 
prior  to  this — in  other  words,  into  a  long-term,  af- 
fair, having  nothing  to  do  with  the  events  siiice 
la.st  fall? 

A.  "Well,  that  is  one  way  of  putting  it;  perhaps 
it  puts  it  a  little  bit  more  jjositively  than  I  would 
put  it.  I  think  it  must  be  recognized  that  there  is 
a  chance  of  hostilities  breaking  out  again  in  the 
event  that  restraints  are  not  exercised  by  both 
sides.  But  I  would  not  say  that  the  initial  role 
of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force  was 
exhausted  until  there  is  more  assurance  than  there 
is  today  that  belligerent  rights  may  not  be  exer- 
cised if  it  should  wholly  withdraw.  And,  while 
it  is  true  that  the  initial  hostilities  have  come  to 
a  close  and  the  initial  forces  of  invasion  have  been 
totally  withdrawn,  I  do  not  think  that  there  is 
assurance  of  tranquillity  which  would  indicate 
that  the  initial  mission  was  wholly  accomplished. 
That  depends,  of  course,  upon  how  one  interprets 
the  original  terms  of  reference.    But  I  think  that 


-Ibid.,  Feb.  25,  1957,  p.  327. 
April   15,   1957 


the  original  terms  of  i-eference  are  broad  enough 
to  cover  the  prospective  activities  of  the  Unef. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  it  seems  to  be  the  position  of 
some  powers  that  UNEF  is  there  at  the  sufferance 
of  Egypt  and  must  leave  when  Egypt  decides  that 
it  viust  go.  Can  you  tell  us  what  the  United  States 
position  on  that  is? 

A.  The  generally  accepted  view  in  the  United 
Nations  is  that  the  General  Assembly  has  no  right 
to  imj^ose  upon  any  nation  the  presence  of  any 
observers  or  i-epresentatives  or  forces  of  the  United 
Nations  and  that,  in  order  for  them  to  enter  upon 
the  territory  of  another  state,  they  have  to  have 
the  consent  of  that  state.  Now  once  the  consent 
has  been  given,  then  I  think  a  good  argument  can 
be  made  that  the  consent  cannot  be  arbitrarily 
withdrawn,  frustrating  the  original  project, 
because  other  people  change  their  positions  in 
reliance  of  the  original  consent,  forces  are  set  in 
motion,  a  chain  of  events  has  occurred.  And  we 
would  question,  certainly,  whether  Egypt  has  the 
right  arbitrarily  to  alter  and  change  a  consent  once 
given  until  the  purpose  of  that  consent  has  been 
accomplished. 

Alternate  Routes  for  Oil 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  would  you  give  us  yov/r  views, 
sir,  about  the  advisahility  of  having  altei-nate 
routes  to  bnng  in  the  oil  to  the  West,  such  ai  pipe- 
lines and  super  tankers,  in  case  Mr.  Nasser  gets 
balky  over  his  canal  again? 

A.  There  are  already  in  process  of  formation 
plans  for  alternatives  or  supplements  to  the  Suez 
Canal,  particularly  in  relation  to  the  transporta- 
tion of  oil.  Those  consist  primarily  of  projects  for 
new  pipelines  and  also  for  the  construction  of 
larger  tankers.  Now  those  plans  are,  as  I  put  it, 
in  process  of  formation,  primarily  by  private  con- 
cerns who  are  doing  so  uniler  the  impulse  of  ordi- 
nary commercial  considerations.  There  is  going 
to  be,  presumably,  an  increased  demand  for  oil. 
The  facilities  of  the  Suez  Canal,  even  if  they 
remain  fully  available,  are  not  going  to  be  ade- 
quate. Consequently,  private  concerns  which  are 
interested  in  the  transportation  of  oil  are  them- 
selves considering  the  possibilities  of  additional 
pipelines  and  of  additional  large  tankers.  Now 
those  projects  are  under  way,  and  they  are  under 
way  entirely  under  wliat  I  refer  to  as  a  commercial 
impetus  to  meet  demands.    They  are  being  met 

597 


primarily  by  companies  whose  business  it  is  to 
anticipate  and  meet  public  demands  for  commer- 
cial reasons.  These  big  tankers  are  being  built. 
Today  there  are,  I  understand,  being  built  by  an 
American  concern  100,000-ton  tankers  in  Japan. 
And  companies  interested  in  the  oil  are  meeting, 
I  think  in  London— have  been  meeting— to  con- 
sider a  new  pipeline  project. 

Now  these  are  going  to  go  ahead,  I  think,  in 
any  event  because  of  the  inadequacy  of  the  canal 
to  meet  the  anticipated  future  need.  They  will 
go  ahead  at  what  you  might  call  a  normal  com- 
mercial rate  if  we  think  that  the  canal  is  going  to 
be  a  dependable  reliance  of  the  West.  If  it  is  felt 
that  the  canal  will  not  be  a  reliable  dependence 
of  the  West,  then  probably  there  will  be  added 
to  the  commercial  factor  a  political  factor  which 
would  accelerate  these  developments.  That  is 
about  the  situation. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary.,  the  Senate  Foreign  Relations 
Committee  yesterday  put  out  a  report  saying  that 
tecause  of  its  concentration  on  the  world  crises 
the  United  States  is  in  danger  of  overlooking  the 
interests  of  Central  America  and  the  Caribhean. 
The  report  also  says  that  '■''in  this  area,  rightly  or 
virongly,  the  United,  States  is  vietoed  as  neglect- 
ful of  its  friends  in  the  Western  Hemisphere.''''  I 
wonder  if  you  care  to  comment  on  that? 

A.  I  would  question  very  much  the  accuracy  of 
that  estimate  of  the  situation.  I  believe  that 
never  before  in  history  has  the  United  States  paid 
as  much  attention  to  its  relations  with  the  other 
Republics  of  the  Organization  of  American 
States  as  has  been  the  case  during  recent  years, 
and  I  think  that  there  is  an  appreciation  of  that 
fact  by  these  governments.  Just  to  illustrate: 
For  the  first  time  now  we  meet  regularly  with  the 
representatives  of  the  Organization  of  American 
States  to  discuss  with  them  world  problems  in 
which  they  are  interested — and  I  have  met  with 
them  before  the  summit  conference,  after  the 
summit  conference,  the  subsequent  Meeting  of 
Foreign  Ministers,  the  Suez  Canal  crisis — things 
which  they  are  vitally  interested  in,  because  they 
know  that,  if  a  war  occurs,  a  general  war  occurs, 
they  are  going  to  be  in  it.  Then,  of  course,  there 
was  the  Panama  meeting  and  the  outgrowths  of 
that  meeting.  I  believe  that  we  are  giving  very 
great  attention,  in  fact  an  unusual  amount  of  at- 
tention, to  our  relations  with  all  the  Latin  Ameri- 
can States. 


Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  I  would  like  to  check  hack  on 
an  answer  you  gave  a  moment  ago.  Do  I  under- 
stand it  is  the  position  of  the  United  States  that 
the  Egyptian  Government  does  not  have  the 
foioer,  legally  speaking,  under  present  circwm- 
stances  to  compel  United  Nations  forces  to  ivith- 
draw  from  its  territory? 

A.  The  problem  I  don't  think  permits  of  a 
categorical  answer.  Now  there  was  one  question 
put  to  me  here  that  suggested  that  the  United 
Nations  had  accomplished  its  original  mission,  to 
which  the  consent  of  Egypt  had  been  given,  and 
that  therefore  its  continuance  there  in  effect  was 
for  a  new  purpose.  If  that's  the  case,  and  to  the 
extent  that's  the  case,  then  the  original  consent 
given  by  Egypt  may  have  exhausted  its  purpose. 
If  that  has  not  been  the  case,  then  I  think  the 
consent  given  by  Egypt  cannot  be  arbitrarily 
withdrawn.  I  don't  say  it  can't  ever  be  with- 
drawn, but  I  say  it  can't  be  "arbitrarily"  with- 
drawn without  giving  countries  who  have  relied 
upon  it  an  opportunity  to  turn  around  and  re- 
appraise their  position  in  the  light  of  the  new 
situation. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  is  it  ymir  view  then  that  the 
mission  of  UNEF  has  not  been  completed  as  yet? 

A.  Well,  I  indicated,  I  think,  my  views :  I  felt 
that  under  a  liberal  construction  of  the  original 
mandate  to  the  Unef,  in  the  light  of  the  present 
situation  and  the  fact  that  there  is  no  clear  as- 
surance that  hostilities — that  belligerency — may 
not  reoccur,  it  is  not  correct  to  conclude  that  the 
original  mandate  has  been  exhausted. 

Q.  Does  the  right  of  Egypt — or  the  question  of 
Egypfs  right  to  withdraw  its  consent — is  that  af- 
fected in  any  tvay  hy  the  fact  that  Israel  has  so  far 
refused  to  alloio  the  UNEF  to  station  its  troops 
on  its  side  of  the  border? 

A.  Well,  that  is  one  of  a  number  of  factors  that 
enter  into  one's  conclusions  about  this  thing.  That 
is  not  an  isolated  and  a  single  factor. 

Seeking  Advisory  Opinion  of  World  Court 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  does  it  remain  this  Govern- 
menfs  intention  to  attempt,  together  with  other 
poivers,  to  establish  the  principle  of  free  or  inno- 
cent passage  thi^ough  the  Gulf  of  Aqaba;  and,  if 
so,  can  you  give  us  an  idea  at  whut  time  that  will 
he  made? 


598 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


A.  It  is  our  intention  to  do  that.  Tlint  intention 
was  made  clear  I  think  by  the  aide  memoire  which 
we  gave  to  the  Government  of  Israel  and  published 
last  February.^  Now  the  question  of  how  it  takes 
place  is  not  yet  determined.  I  think  that  it  is  the 
fact  that  a  certain  amoiuit  of  shipping  is  or  shortly 
will  be  in  fact  passing  through  the  straits,  al- 
though I  also  thinlv  that  it  is  important  to  get  a 
decision  by  the  International  Court  of  Justice  as 
to  what  the  legal  rights  of  the  parties  are.  Wc 
indicated,  indeed,  in  that  aide  memoire  that  that 
would  be  a  factor ;  that  we  felt  that  the  preponder- 
ance of  legal  authority  was  so  strong  in  favor  of 
the  right  of  passage  that  we  felt  that  we  were  en- 
titled to  insist  upon  a  right  of  passage  unless  and 
until  there  was  a  contrary  decision  by  the  World 
Court.  And  you  may  recall  that  the  report  of  the 
Secretary-General  ^  said  that  he  did  not  think  that 
belligerent  rights  should  be  exercised  in  relation  to 
the  Sharm  el-Sheikh  area  and  the  Straits  of  Tiran, 
because  he  also  shared  the  view  that  the  preponder- 
ance of  legal  authority  was  that  there  was  no  right 
to  exercise  belligerent  rights  and  to  stop  innocent 
passage  through  there.  But  it  would  be  very  help- 
ful, I  think,  and  it  would  be  helpful  also  from  the 
Egyptian  standpoint,  to  get  a  decision  on  that 
matter.  And  consideration  is  now  being  given  to 
ways  and  means  of  seeking  an  advisory  opinion  on 
that  matter  from  the  International  Court  of 
Justice. 

Q.  Must  each  of  the  countries  involved  agree  to 
the  competence  of  the  Court  'before  it  can  judge 
the  matter? 

A.  Well,  the  United  Nations,  acting  either 
through  the  Security  Council  or  through  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly,  can  request  an  advisory  opinion 
from  the  Court,  and  that  is  the  procedure  which  is 
presently  being  envisaged.  Now,  if  you  go  to  the 
Court  in  what  you  might  call  an  adversary  pro- 
ceeding, where  one  of  the  parties  brings  a  case 
against  another,  then  that  would  require  the  ac- 
ceptance by  both  parties  of  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Court.  That  is  not  so  surely  obtainable,  and  there 
would  not  be  a  case  there  unless  and  until  there 
was  an  effort  to  obstruct,  and  we  don't  want  that  to 
happen.  So  we  think  the  preferable  procedure 
is  to  try  to  get  an  advisory  opinion.  That,  of 
course,  would  take  a  qualified  vote  by  the  Security 


'/Ji/rf.,  Mar.  11,  1957,  p.  392. 

-  Ibid..  Feb.  18, 1957,  p.  271  and  p.  275. 

April    15,    1957 


Council  or  a  two-thirds  vote  by  the  General  As- 
sembly, but  we  hope  that  that  would  be  obtainable. 

Q.  Well,  Mr.  Secretary,  what  is  the  effect  of 
an  advisory  opinion?  Does  that  become  then  res 
.ndjudicata  and,  subsequently,  an  adversary  would 
merely  apply  to  the  Court  for  enforcement  of  an 
injunction  or  the  equivalent  of  an  advisory 
opinion? 

A.  Well,  I  think  that's  getting  me  a  bit  out  of 
my  depth.  That  is  a  pretty  complicated  legal 
problem  which  I  wouldn't  want  to  answer  off- 
hand. I  used  to  take  a  good  many  days,  and  get 
a  good  many  dollars,  for  answering  questions  like 
that.     (Laughter) 

Aid  to  Poland 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  5  Tnonths  ago  yesterday,  if  my 
dates  are  correct,  you  offered  ecorwndc  aid  to 
Poland  out  of  our  abundance.  The  negotiations 
are  still  going  on  unfrwitfully.  Can  you  tell  us 
whether  this  delay  is  explained  by  a  change  of  pol- 
icy here,  or,  if  not,  wlrnt  is  the  cau^e  of  the  delay? 

A.  I  must  confess  that  I  am  not  as  fully  versed 
about  that  topic  as  I  should  be.  It  is  being  han- 
dled primarily  by  Mr.  Dillon,  and  the  recent  de- 
velo[)ments  have  oocuntid  wliilo  I  havo  b^jen  in 
Canberra  or  Bermuda,  or  getting  ready  for  Ber- 
muda. I  don't  have  a  full,  up-to-date  report  about 
that.  My  understanding  is  that  at  least  up  to  the 
time  when  I  went  away  to  Canberra,  and  I  think 
I  reported  it  at  my  last  press  conference,  there 
had  been  going  on  merely  a  study  of  information 
about  the  economic  situation  in  Poland  and  the 
ascertainment  of  what  the  needs  might  be.  It  had 
not  yet  gotten  down  to  a  concrete  negotiation.  I 
think  probably  I  had  better  confine  myself  to 
saying  that  I  am  not  really  up  to  date  on  the  recent 
developments,  which  are  being  handled  by  Mr. 
Dillon. 

Q.  Can  you  say  whether  there  has  or  has  not 
been  any  change  in  the  attitude  of  this  Govern- 
ment toward  extending  aid? 

» 

A.  There  has  been  no  change.  At  the  time  when 
the  negotiations  were  begun,  the  view  was  taken 
that  it  was  appropriate  to  consider  that  the  pres- 
ent Government  of  Poland  was  not  so  completely 
dominated  by  the  Government  of  the  Soviet 
Union,  or  by  what  is  called  in  the  legislation  "in- 

599 


ternational  communism,"  as  wholly  to  preclude 
the  possibility  of  that  aid.  That  was  obviously  a 
pretty  close  decision  that  we  came  to,  and  at  the 
time  we  came  to  it  it  was  decided  we  would  keep 
the  situation  under  review  because  actions  taken, 
or  omissions  of  action,  might  lead  us  to  change  our 
judgment  in  that  respect.  I  do  not  understand 
that  there  is  any  recommendation  to  me  to  change 
the  opinion  which  I  gave  before  I  went  away 
in  that  respect. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  on  the  Middle  East  pipeline 
question,  would  you  explain  to  us  the  thesis  which 
was  apparently  developed  at  Bernmda  of  giving 
these  pipelines,  either  existing  or  proposed,  some 
new  international  status? 

A.  The  idea  is  the  same  idea  which  is  applied 
in  this  country  to  pipelines  of  an  interstate  charac- 
ter, which  to  a  very  considerable  extent  are  under 
the  jurisdiction  and  control  of  the  Federal  Gov- 
ernment in  order  to  give  stability  to  the  opera- 
tion. Now  in  essence  a  pipeline  is  no  different 
from  an  international  canal.  They  are  both  ways 
of  getting  through  land.  You  have  the  Treaty  of 
Constantinople  of  1888,  which  gives  international 
status  to  the  Suez  Canal,  and  it  seemed  to  be  ap- 
propriate to  consider  at  least  giving  an  interna- 
tional status  to  a  pipeline  so  that  it  could  not  be 
arbitrarily  interfered  with  by  states  through 
whose  territory  the  pipeline  passed. 

We  have  the  experience  of  the  pipeline,  the  so- 
called  I.  P.  C.  [Iraq  Petroleum  Company]  pipe- 
line, which  goes  from  Iraq  through  Syria,  which 
is  subject  to  a  pretty  arbitrary  action  by  the 
Syrian  Government  and  no  country  has  any  treaty 
status  to  complain  about.  It  is  purely,  or  very 
largely,  a  matter  between  the  companies  concerned 
and  the  foreign  government,  and,  while  every  gov- 
ernment has  a  right  to  try  to  promote  and  pro- 
tect the  private  interests  of  its  citizens  abroad,  that 
is  quite  different  from  the  situation  of  a  pipeline 
governed  by  an  international  treaty.  Thei'efoi'e, 
consideration  is  being  given  to  having  a  treaty 
arrangement  with  the  countries  through  which  the 
new  pipeline  would  go.  That,  of  course,  presup- 
poses that  such  a  treaty  arrangement  is  acceptable 
to  the  countries  concerned.  You  can't  impose  it 
upon  them. 

This  j^ipeline,  if  it  goes  through  the  north — 
through  Turkey,  for  example — is  a  pretty  big  oper- 


ation and  would  cost  a  good  deal  more  than  the 
Suez  Canal  originally  cost.  The  cost  may  be 
measured  in  terms  of  hundreds  of  millions  of 
dollars,  and  there  is  a  reluctance,  and  a  natural 
and  understandable  reluctance,  on  the  part  of 
investors  to  put  that  much  money  into  it  unless  it 
can  get  some  kind  of  treaty  protection. 

Q.  It  does  not  apply  to  existing  pipelines? 

A.  No. 


Communist  China 

Q.  At  the  Canberra  meeting  the  final  commumi- 
que  that  was  issued  ^  spoke  about  a  lessening  of  the 
possibility  of  war  in  Asia.  Would  yo%i.  attnbute 
that  to  the  growing  strength  of  the  free  nations 
through  SEATO  or  beamse  of  a  weakening  of 
the  strength  internally  of  Communist  China? 

A.  I  would  ascribe  it  more  to  the  development 
of  strength  and  unity  of  the  countries  around 
Communist  China,  notably  through  the  Seato 
treaty  and  the  other  treaties  which  the  United 
States  has,  treaties  with  Korea,  Japan,  the  Re- 
public of  China,  the  Philippines,  and  so  forth, 
which  I  think  make  it  inexpedient  for  the  Chinese 
Communists  to  use  methods  of  violence.  They 
started  out  by  using  primarily  methods  of  violence. 
They  used  those  methods  in  North  Korea,  they  used 
them  in  Tibet,  they  used  them  in  northern  Viet- 
Nam,  and  they  started  using  them  in  relation  to 
Taiwan,  the  Straits  of  Formosa.  Now  I  think  the 
growing  strength  and  unity  and  demonstrated  will 
of  the  affected  free  nations  to  resist,  and  to  resist 
with  a  measure  of  unity,  has  made  it  seem  inexpe- 
dient to  the  Chinese  Communists  to  use  those 
methods.  But  I  attribute  it  more  to  that  than  to 
an  internal  weakness  within  China  because,  while 
undoubtedly  there  are  many  internal  weaknesses, 
those  weaknesses  do  not  primarily  relate  to  a 
weakening  of  their  military  power,  which  has 
actually  been  developing,  and  their  system  of  stra- 
tegic air  fields,  railroads,  and  air  power  generally 
has  been  increasing. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  have  you  had  opportunity 
since  your  return  to  give  any  further  attention  to 
the  admitting  of  American  correspmxdents  to  Red 
China?    What  is  the  status? 


'  Ibiil.,  Apr.  1,  l!),-)!,  p.  527. 


600 


Department   of  State  Bulletin 


A.  I  have  given  a  little  thought  to  it  as  I  have 
had  time  to  think  and  scribble  down  some  ideas  on 
my  plane  trips  recently.  But  I  have  not  had  an 
opportunity  to  exchange  my  own  thoughts  with  the 
other  officers  of  the  Department  who  are  primarily 
concerned.  I  expect  to  be  doing  that  within  the 
next  few  days,  and  it  may  or  may  not  lead  to  some 
positive  conclusions. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary.,  the  President  said  a  couple 
of  weeks  ago  that  he  was  going  to  discuss  the  sub- 
ject with  \jou.  Have  you  talked  about  this  par- 
ticular thing  of  the  admission  of  Am^iican  cor- 
respondents into  Red  China? 

A.  I  chat  with  the  President  frequently  about 
this  thing.  Whether  I  have  talked  about  it  with 
him  since  that  press  conference  I  am  not  sure,  but 
I  am  in  close  touch  with  the  President  about  that 
subject. 

Resuming  Traffic  in  Suez  Canal 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  could  you  give  your  evalua- 
tion of  the  prospects  of  resuming  traffic  in  the 
Suez  Canal? 

A.  I  know  no  more  than  what  is  public  knowl- 
edge. It  loolvs  as  though  the  canal  would  be  open 
for  most  vessels  \Titliin  perhaps  a  couple  of  weeks. 
It  is  increasingly  open  to  vessels  of  light  draft. 
It  is  not  possible  to  say  at  any  one  moment  whether 
it  is  "open"  or  not  because  it  all  depends  upon 
"open  to  what  ?'".  Small  vessels  are  going  through 
now,  a  little  bit  bigger  vessels  will  be  going 
through  tomorrow,  bigger  vessels  the  day  after 
that.  It  all  depends  upon  what  the  draft  is  of 
the  vessels  you  are  talking  about.  It  will  not  be 
open  for  the  largest  vessels  probably  for  a  some- 
what longer  period  of  time  because  I  think  there 
is  silt  that  has  to  be  dug  out  and  so  forth.  It  will 
probably  be  open  increasingly  from  now  on,  and 
most  of  the  vessels,  perhaps  up  to  10,000  tons,  at 
least,  will  be  going  through  within  a  week  or  10 
days. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  in  this  period  ichat  are  these 
vessels  doing  about  paying  tolls  for  the  use  of  the 
canal? 

A.  I  believe  that,  insofar  as  any  that  have  gone 
through,  they  have  paid  tolls  to  the  Suez  Canal 
Authority,  but  the  number  of  vessels  that  have 
gone  through  is  not  significant  enough  to  estab- 
lish any  pattern. 


Q.  Do  the  vessels  of  the  United  States  have  any 
instructions  on  this  point? 

A.  No. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  in  the  Bermuda  com-munique, 
when  you  discussed  the  nuclear  testing,  you  set 
forth  the  two  stipulations,  one  that  Russia  give 
prior  announ-cetnent  and  the  other  that  it  admit 
international  observers  to  its  tests.  If  the  Rus- 
sians were  to  surprise  the  world  and  accept  these 
two  stipulatio-ns,  hoio  would  that  neiv  situation 
meet  the  objections  of  Japan  and  India  and.  other 
powers?  In  other  words,  the  testings  would  still 
go  on,  would  they  not? 

A.  Yes,  the  testings  would  still  go  on.  But 
there  would  be  a  sounder  basis  than  now  exists  for 
bringing  them  under  international  control,  and 
some  approach  at  least  would  have  been  made  to 
an  international  dealing  with  the  matter.  I  don't 
say  that  the  acceptance  of  these  two  requirements 
by  the  Soviet  Union  would  solve  the  problem,  but, 
once  you  start  down  a  certain  path,  it  is  easier 
to  go  on  down  that  path  and  that  would  be  a  be- 
ginning and  not  an  effective  end. 

Before  we  break  u[3 — and  I  see  it  is  beginning 
to  get  late — I  want  to  say  that  the  last  time  we 
met  we  ended  up  on  a  somewhat  wondering  note 
about  the  status  of  romance.  Mrs.  Dulles  and  I 
are  sending  a  telegram  today  to  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Harold  Connolly  at  Prague  extending  to  them  our 
congratulations. 


Secretary  Dulles  Writes  Foreword 
for  New  Editions  of  "War  or  Peace" 


IPress  rplp;ise  17!)  dated  llarcli  20 
DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

Secretary  Dulles  made  public  on  March  29  a 
foreword  he  has  written  for  new  editions  of  his 
book  War  or  Peace,  originally  published  in  the 
first  part  of  1950. 

The  new  editions  are  in  foreign  languages — 
Japanese,  25,000  volumes;  Turkish,  20,000  vol- 
umes; and  Arabic,  5,000  volumes — and  a  paper- 
backed reprint  in  English  by  the  Macmillan  Com- 
pany in  50,000  volumes  for  overseas  sale  at  15 
cents  per  copy,  or  less.  Royalties  have  been  waived 
on  all  these  editions. 


April   15,   J  957 


601 


Secretary  Dulles  wrote  the  foreword  because  in 
the  7  years  since  the  book  was  first  published  cer- 
tain intervening  events  have  occurred  which  call 
for  comment. 


TEXT  OF  FOREWORD 

It  is  a  matter  of  gratification  to  me  that  War 
or  Peace  continues  to  be  published  in  various 
languages.  Tliis  book  was  written  in  the  early 
weeks  of  1950.  It  sought  to  portray  the  danger 
of  war  and  to  describe  the  political  policies  and 
spiritual  attitudes  which  would  be  needed  to  win 
the  peace.  As  I  write  this  new  preface,  seven 
years  later,  I  find  little  then  said  tliat  now  requires 
to  be  unsaid.  But  certain  intervening  events  have 
occurred  which  call  for  comment. 

Chapter  Two,  entitled  "Know  Your  Enemy," 
is  largely  documented  from  the  writings  of  Stalin, 
notably  his  Problems  of  Leninism.  Stalin  has 
fallen  into  some  disfavor  with  the  Soviet  bloc  at 
the  time  of  this  writing.  However,  Soviet  Com- 
munism continues  to  adhere  to  the  Stalin  doctrine 
which  is  cited. 

ChajDter  Six  discusses  the  action  of  the  United 
Nations  to  create  the  Republic  of  Korea.  It  is 
pointed  out  that,  up  to  the  time  of  writing,  i.  e. 
early  1950,  the  influence  of  world  opinion,  focused 
through  the  United  Nations  Assembly,  had  effec- 
tively inhibited  Communist  invasion  from  the 
North.  But,  I  said,  "It  would,  of  course,  be  rash 
to  predict  that  this  situation  will  continue  indefi- 
nitely."' It  did  not  in  fact  continue  indetinitely. 
In  June  1950  the  Communists,  in  defiance  of  the 
United  Nations,  struck  with  armed  force  against 
the  Republic  of  Korea. 

The  reaction  of  the  United  Nations  is  now  a 
matter  of  well  known  history.  It  marks  a  major 
chapter  in  the  evolution  of  world  organization. 
For  whatever  may  have  been  the  reasons  which 
encouraged  the  Communists  to  feel  that  they  could 
attack  with  impunity  and  without  opposition,  the 
fact  is  that  there  was  opposition,  that  it  was 
effective  opposition  and  that  the  aggressors  were 
thrown  back  to  and  behind  their  point  of  begin- 
ning. This  is  the  first  time  in  history  that  aggres- 
sion has  been  met  and  punished  by  tlie  power  of  a 
previously  organized  world  society. 

However,  this  episode  thi-ows  additional  light 
on  tile  problem  of  world  organization,  dealt  with 


in  Chapter  Sixteen.  The  quick  response  of  the 
United  Nations  to  the  Korean  aggression  was 
jjossible  only  because  at  that  particular  moment 
the  Soviet  Union  was  "boycotting"  the  United 
Nations  Security  Council,  and  thus  failed  to  ex- 
ercise its  veto  power. 

The  lesson  drawn  from  this  event  has  led  to  a 
marked  development  of  the  system  of  regional 
associations,  described  in  Chapters  Eight  and  Six- 
teen. At  the  beginning  of  1950,  the  only  collective 
defense  arrangements  were  those  created  by  the 
Rio  Treaty  of  1947  and  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
of  1949.  Since  then  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
itself  has  been  enlarged  by  the  added  member- 
ship of  Greece,  Turkey,  and  the  Federal  Repub- 
lic of  Germany.  There  have  also  come  into  being 
several  security  treaties  in  relation  to  Asia.  There 
are  the  United  States-Philippine  Treaty  of  Au- 
gust 30,  1951;  the  United  States-Australia-New 
Zealand  Treaty  of  September  1,  1951  (Anzus)  ; 
the  United  States-Japan  Security  Treaty  of  Sep- 
tember 8,  1951;  the  United  States-Republic  of 
Korea  Treaty  of  October  1,  1953;  the  Southeast 
Asia  Security  Treaty  made  on  September  8,  1954, 
by  Australia,  France,  New  Zealand,  Pakistan, 
the  Philippines,  Thailand,  the  United  Kingdom 
and  the  United  States  (Seato)  which  also  covers, 
by  protocol,  the  territory  of  Cambodia,  Laos,  aiid 
the  Republic  of  A^ietnam ;  and  the  United  States- 
Republic  of  China  Security  Treaty  of  December 
2,  1954. 

The  United  States  is  now  joined  with  42  other 
nations  in  collective  security  pacts  pursuant  to 
Article  51  of  the  United  Nations  Charter. 

The  imexpectedly  rapid  development  of  such 
pacts,  so  that  they  now  protect  most  of  the  world, 
is  a  direct  consequence  of  the  Connnunist  armed 
aggression  against  the  Republic  of  Korea,  and 
the  fear  that  should  another  such  aggression  oc- 
cur there  could  not  be  an  effective  United  Nations 
response  because  of  the  Soviet  veto  power. 

Such  pacts  are  not,  however,  the  only  alterna- 
tive to  veto  in  the  Seciu'ity  Council.  The  United 
(Nations  General  Assembly  acted  in  the  fall  of 
1950  to  adopt  resolutions  and  rules  so  that  it 
could  quickly  react  in  the  event  of  an  armed  at- 
tack with  which  the  Security  Council  cannot  deal 
by  reason  of  veto  by  permanent  members.  This 
General  Assembly  action  was  taken  under  the 
title  "Uniting  for  Peace,"  and  was  invoked  in 
the  case  of  armed  action  in  the  Middle  East  in 


602 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


October-November  1956.  Thereby  the  United 
Nations  General  Assembly  assumed  a  new  stature. 

Chajiter  Twelve,  denlino;  with  the  "Five- Year 
Score,"  ends  on  a  somewhat  pessimistic  note. 
There  is  quoted  the  Izvestia  editorial  of  January 
1,  1950,  listing  tlie  countries  which  had  been 
brought  under  the  rule  of  Soviet  Communism, 
and  it  is  noted  that  the  editorial  concludes,  "Com- 
munism will  triumph !  A  Happy  New  Year,  Com- 
rades, a  very  Happy  New  Year!"' 

It  is,  however,  to  be  obsei-ved  that  since  that 
boastful  editorial  was  written,  there  have  been 
only  negligible  additions  to  what  Izvestia  called 
"the  camp  of  democracy  and  socialism."  Tibet 
was  taken  over  by  the  Chinese  Communists;  and 
Vietnam  was  infiltrated  from  North  to  South  by 
Communism.  But  the  Communist  elements  have 
been  eradicated  from  the  South  of  Vietnam  where 
the  Eepublic  of  Vietnam  seems  firmly  established, 
even  though  the  North  is  dominated  by  the  so- 
called  "People's  Republic.''  Broadly  speaking, 
the  collective  measures  taken  by  the  free  nations 
have  served  to  check  the  onrush  of  Communism 
which  was  foreseen  by  Izvestia  on  January  1, 1950. 
And  in  Guatemala,  Iran  and  Austria,  Soviet  Com- 
munist power  lias  been  largely  eradicated. 

Part  IV  deals  with  "What  Needs  To  Be  Done." 
Some  of  this  has  been  done,  and  the  fact  that  it 
has  been  done  has  preserved  freedom  in  much  of 
the  world  and  gained  it  in  parts  of  the  world. 
World  organization  has  to  some  extent  been  de- 
veloped as  advocated  in  Chapter  Sixteen.  The 
United  Nations  has  greatly  gained  in  universality, 
the  membersliip  being  now  81. 

In  the  first  edition  of  War  or  Peace,  I  suggested 
the  desirability  of  developing  some  system  of 
weighted  voting.  The  subsequent  growth  in 
membership  only  serves  to  accentuate  the  inade- 
quacy of  the  voting  methods,  both  in  the  Assembly 
and  the  Security  Council.  In  the  circumstances, 
reconsideration  of  voting  rights  has  become  even 
more  needed. 

The  General  Assembly  has  agreed  in  principle 
to  the  idea  of  convening  a  Charter  Eeview  Con- 
ference, as  urged  in  Chapter  Sixteen,  but  the  ac- 
tual holding  of  that  conference  remains  in  doubt. 

It  remains  my  conviction  that  a  Charter  Review 
Conference  will  serve  a  useful  purpose.  The 
world  climate,  at  the  time  the  conference  is  con- 
vened, may  permit  formal  amendments  to  bring 
the  Charter  more  in  line  with  the  needs  of  the 


atomic  age.  In  any  event  it  will  be  helpful  to 
examine  the  progress  the  United  Nations  has  made 
and  determine  how  it  might  be  developed  into  a 
more  ell'ective  instrumentality  for  world  peace. 

In  Chapter  Sixteen  reference  is  made  to  the  pos- 
sibility  of  tlie  Communist  Government  of  Cliina 
being  admitted  to  the  United  Nations  in  order  to 
achieve  greater  "universality."  It  is  pointed  out, 
however,  that  "A  regime  that  claims  to  have  be- 
come the  government  of  a  country  through  civil 
war  should  not  be  recognized  until  it  has  been 
tested  over  a  reasonable  period  of  time." 

This  testing  has  indicated  the  ability,  so  far, 
of  the  Communist  regime  to  maintain  itself  in 
power,  althougli  by  ruthless,  police-state  methods. 
However,  it  is  equally  demonstrated  that  that 
regime  does  not  possess  the  qualities  which  en- 
title it  to  speak  for  China  in  the  United  Nations, 
either  in  the  Assembly  or,  much  less,  in  the 
Security  Council,  which  is  empowered  by  all  the 
members  to  have  "the  primary  responsibility  for 
the  maintenance  of  international  peace  and 
security." 

Since  War  or  Peace  was  written,  there  have 
occurred  a  number  of  significant  actions  by  the 
Chine-se  Communist  regime.  It  participated  in 
the  armed  aggression  against  Korea.  The  United 
Nations  has  specifically  condemned  the  Chinese 
Commmiist  regime  on  tliis  account,  and  has  called 
for  economic  sanctions  against  that  regime.  This 
Assembly  action  has  not,  at  this  writing,  been 
revoked.  The  Cliinese  Communist  regime  remains 
in  military  possession  of  the  northern  part  of 
Korea  in  defiance  of  United  Nations  action.  It  has 
forcibly  subjugated  Tibet.  It  actively  promoted 
the  Indochina  War.  It  threatened  to  take  Taiwan 
by  force  and  has  declined  to  renounce  the  use  of 
force  in  this  area  in  accordance  with  the  Charter 
Principle  calling  upon  all  members  to  refrain  from 
the  use  of  force  other  than  in  accordance  with  the 
Principles  of  the  Charter.  It  encroached,  with 
its  armed  forces,  upon  Burma.  It  violated  the 
Korean  Armistice  by  holding  in  captivity  military 
personnel  of  the  United  Nations;  and  in  violation 
of  its  own  formal  assurances,  it  has  held  in  prison 
United  States  civilians. 

So  long  as  the  United  Nations  Charter  applies 
a  qualitative  test  to  participation  in  the  United 
Nations  (See  Articles  4,  5,  and  6),  and  so  long 
as  the  Chinese  Communist  regime  shows  the  char- 
acteristics which  have  been  described,  it  ought  not 


Apri]   15,   1957 


603 


to  be  given  representation  in  the  United  Nations. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  reemphasize  the  basic 
thesis  of  War  or  Peace  that  peace  will  only  be  won 
if  there  is  constant  effort  to  win  it.  Any  relaxation 
in  this  effort  brings  with  it  peril. 

Quincy  Wright,  in  his  Sttuli/  of  War,  lists  278 
wars  fought  between  1480  and  1941.  This  is  an 
average  of  3  wars  every  5  years.  Several  of  these 
wars,  including  World  War  II,  were  fought  after 
the  League  of  Nations  was  formed  and  after  the 
Pact  of  Paris  had  pledged  all  the  nations  to  abolish 
war.  Also  several  wars  have  been  fought  since 
the  United  Nations  was  formed  in  1945.  These 
include  the  Korean  War,  the  Indochina  War,  and 
the  Israeli-Arab  wars.  There  have  also  been  the 
military  acts  of  Britain  and  France  in  Egypt. 
Wars  are  today  a  threatening  possibility  in  several 
parts  of  the  world. 

The  fact  is  that  war  will  be  an  ever  present 
danger  until  there  are  better  developed  institu- 
tions for  peace,  such  as  an  adequate  body  of  inter- 
national law,  an  international  police  force,  and  a 
reduction  of  national  armaments.  Today  we  live, 
and  I  fear  for  long  shall  live,  under  the  shadow 
of  war.  Only  if  we  are  vividly  conscious  of  this 
fact  will  we  make  the  exertions  needed  to  prevent 
war. 

Let  us  recognize  that  war  is  not  prevented 
merely  by  hating  war  and  loving  peace.  Since 
the  beginning,  the  peoples  of  the  world  have 
hated  war  and  longed  for  peace.  But  that  has  not 
gained  them  peace.  Even  a  sincere  effort  like  the 
Pact  of  Paris  showed  the  futility  of  attempting 
to  abolish  war  without  creating  adequate  and 
effective  compensating  institutions  to  replace  it. 

The  fact  is  that  love  of  peace,  by  itself,  has  never 
been  sufficient  to  deter  war. 

One  of  the  great  advances  of  our  time  is  recog- 
nition that  one  of  the  ways  to  prevent  war  is  to 
deter  it  by  having  the  will  and  the  capacity  to 
use  force  to  punish  an  aggressor.  This  involves 
an  effort,  within  the  society  of  nations,  to  apply 
the  principle  used  to  deter  violence  within  a  com- 
munity. There,  laws  are  adopted  which  define 
crimes  and  their  punishment.    A  police  force  is 


established,  and  a  judicial  system.  Thus  there 
is  created  a  powerful  deterrent  to  crimes  of  vio 
lence.  This  principle  of  deterrence  does  not  op 
erate  100  percent  even  in  the  best  ordered  com- 
munities. But  the  principle  is  conceded  to  be 
effective,  and  it  can  usefully  be  extended  into  the 
society  of  nations.  That,  as  we  have  seen,  has 
actually  occurred  in  an  impressive  measure. 

Another  aspect  of  the  problem  is  that  there  can 
never,  in  the  long  run,  be  real  peace  unless  there 
is  justice  and  law.  Even  as  I  write  there  are 
grave  injustices  such  as  the  servitude  of  the  Soviet 
satellites  and  the  division  of  Germany,  Korea  and 
Vietnam.  But  even  if  these  injustices  could  be 
eradicated,  the  resultant  condition  would  not  be 
one  to  be  perpetuated  forever.  Change  is  the 
law  of  life.  New  conditions  are  constantly  aris- 
ing which  call  for  change  lest  there  be  injustice. 
Such  injustices  tend  ultimately  to  lead  to  resort 
to  force  unless  other  means  of  change  exist. 

Those  who  love  and  want  peace  must  recognize 
that  unless  they  exert  themselves  as  vigorously 
for  peace  as  they  do  for  victory,  and  as  vigorously 
for  justice  as  they  do  for  peace,  they  are  not  apt 
to  have  either  peace  or  justice.  Peace  is  a  coin 
which  has  two  sides.  One  side  is  the  renunciation 
of  force,  the  other  side  is  the  according  of  justice. 
Peace  and  justice  are  inseparable.  This  is  recog- 
nized by  Article  1  of  the  United  Nations  Charter. 

The  task  of  winning  peace  and  its  necessary 
component,  justice,  is  one  which  demands  our  fin- 
est effort.  There  must  be  a  contribution  from 
every  nation,  as  we  strive  to  institutionalize  peace. 
Peace  also  depends  on  the  effort  of  individuals  as 
they  help  to  mold  their  nation's  j^olicies  and  as 
they  may  themselves  directly  contribute  to  one 
or  more  of  the  many  aspects  of  international 
endeavor. 

There  has  been,  heretofore,  the  lack  of  sus- 
tained and  sacrificial  individual  and  national  ef- 
forts needed  to  save  the  world  from  war.  Surely 
that  is  a  lack  which  ought  now  to  be  made  good, 
as  war  becomes  a  catastrophe  too  awful  to  be 
contemplated. 

John  Fostkr  Dctxes 


604 


Department   of  State   Bulletin 


The  Soviet-Occupied  Zone  of  Germany:  A  Case  Study  in  Communist  Control 


hy  Eleanor  Dulles 

Special  AssisUx/nt  to  the  Director,  Office  of  German  Afftdi'fi 


Education  with  whicli  you  as  a  group  are  con- 
cerned is  in  considerable  measure  the  formulat- 
ing of  significant  questions  and  then  the  attempt 
to  find  answere.  It  is  concerned  with  the  manner 
in  which  past  experience  can  aflect  the  nature  of 
man  and  his  actions.  There  are  presmned  to  be 
goals  toward  which  the  human  race  is  pressing. 

One  of  our  main  goals  is  seen  in  our  present 
struggle  to  assure  the  largest  possible  degree  of 
freedom  for  the  development  of  man's  highest 
potential.  In  all  our  efforts  directed  to  this  end 
we  are  inevitably  concerned  with  those  who  are 
in  bondage,  partial  or  complete.  We  must  from 
time  to  time  appraise  our  situation  and  recognize 
those  important  questions  which  relate  to  our 
programs  and  to  Soviet  methods  of  controlling 
subject  peoples. 

Moscow,  with  the  announced  intention  of  ex- 
tending the  borders  of  international  communism, 
has  ajiparently  developed  its  capabilities  to  a 
high  degree  but  has  reached  discernible  limits 
which  will  set  the  boundaries  of  its  future  effort. 
It  is  useful  to  ascertain  not  only  how  and  where 
they  have  extended  their  power  but  also  where 
their  progress  is  checked.  One  such  line  of  fail- 
ure and  area  of  defeat  has  been  found  already 
in  Germany.  Here  success  has  been  stopped  far 
short  of  the  Kremlin's  goal,  and  failure  at  a  num- 
ber of  points  is  e\ndent.  The  major  aspect  of  its 
gams  and  losses  in  tliis  important  countiy  merit 
consideration  at  this  time  when  Gemian  issues 
are  recognized  as  of  primary  importance. 


^Address  made  before  the  Buffalo  Federation  of 
■Women's  Clubs  at  Buffalo,  N.Y.,  on  Mar.  27  (press  release 
174  dated  Mar.  26). 


Three  questions  relating  to  Soviet  control,  which 
will  affect  not  only  the  fate  of  Germany  but  of 
the  entire  world,  are  very  much  on  our  minds 
these  days.  They  are  complementary  aspects  of 
Moscow's  capacity  to  manage  the  peoples  and 
territories  which  they  wish  to  hold  in  their  Com- 
mimist  empire.  One  is  their  ability  to  develop 
a  unity  and  cohesion  between  different  nations 
and  different  races.  A  second  is  their  capacity 
to  industrialize  and  exploit  the  economic  poten- 
tial of  the  territories  they  dominate  at  a  pace  com- 
parable to  expansion  in  the  free  world.  The  third 
is  their  ability  to  develop  tlu'ough  training,  edu- 
cation, and  indoctrination  the  human  resources 
of  the  millions  under  their  rule. 

It  is  especially  interesting  to  watch  their  per- 
formance in  Germany,  where  the  line  of  their  con- 
trol cuts  the  country  into  two  widely  different 
areas.  In  the  West  their  failure  to  gain  influence 
or  to  develop  exchanges  of  goods  and  ideas  has 
been  conspicuous.  In  the  East  Zone  of  occupa- 
tion the  matter  is  more  complex  and  warrants 
careful  examination. 

At  the  present  time  no  final  answer  can  be 
given  as  to  Soviet  accomplishments  and  defeats 
in  East  Germany.  It  is  evident,  however,  that 
the  consequences  of  Soviet  action  there  have  had 
a  profound  influence  not  only  on  the  Germans 
but  also  on  others  throughout  the  world.  The 
unwillingness  of  the  people  to  be  absorbed  into 
the  Connnunist  system  is  impressive.  This  is  of 
special  significance  after  the  recent  events  in  Po- 
land and  Hungary.  The  limits  to  Soviet  effec- 
tiveness in  Germany  are  noteworthy.  In  respect 
to  the  questions  we  are  considering,  the  balance 
between  the  political,  economic,  and  psychological 


April   15,   1957 


605 


gains  and  losses  suggests  the  possibility  of  Soviet 
failure  to  hold  their  present  alarming  farflung 
power  here  or  elsewhere.  A  firm  belief  now  that 
the  Soviet-occupied  zone  will  sometime  be  free 
can  strengthen  understanding  and  action. 

The  judgment  of  the  degree  of  Soviet  strength 
and  weakness  and  the  probable  duration  of  their 
rule,  which  we  are  considering  here,  would  clearly 
differ  from  counti7  to  country.  Generalizations 
to  apply  to  all  of  them  are  not  justified  in  the 
light  of  the  wide  variation  to  be  found  in  differ- 
ent cases.  The  example  of  East  Germany  derives 
its  special  interest  not  only  because  of  its  peculiar 
importance  in  Western  strategy  but  also  because 
of  the  large  volume  of  information  which  is  avail- 
able to  us  and  that  throws  light  on  Soviet  be- 
havior eveiywhere.  It  has  a  direct  bearing  not 
only  on  the  solution  of  German  problems  but  on 
world  security  problems. 

Crucial  Role  of  Berlin 

In  strengthening  of  resistance  and  in  its  sources 
of  information  the  city  of  Berlin  continues  to 
play  a  crucial  role.  The  zone,  a  large  and  impor- 
tant territory  with  17  million  Germans  now  more 
than  a  decade  under  Soviet  domination,  is  to  some 
extent  open  to  study  and  inspection.  More  facts 
are  available  from  the  East  in  and  through  Ber- 
lin and  are  subject  to  check  for  their  validity  than 
from  other  Communist-ruled  areas.  The  varied 
means  of  communication,  the  travel  back  and 
forth,  and  the  interchange  of  letters  and  personal 
contacts  of  all  types  are  gi-eater  in  volume  and 
significance  than  for  any  other  European  satellite. 

Here,  in  the  center  of  the  zone,  the  direct  con- 
tacts between  people  in  the  West  and  in  the  East 
affect  practically  every  resident  of  the  Soviet- 
occupied  area  of  Germany.  More  than  3  million 
persons  and  perhaps  more  than  5  million  come  to 
West  Berlin  and  to  West  Germany  every  year. 
In  some  months  the  estimates  of  visitors  have 
been  in  excess  of  700,000.  Some  of  the  visits  are 
short — people  coming  to  West  Berlin  for  a  look  at 
the  industrial  fair,  for  the  annual  agricultural 
show  held  during  the  Green  Week,  for  the  cul- 
tural or  film  festivals.  Others  are  longer  visits 
to  relatives  and  friends  and  visits  by  students 
and  businessmen.  Some  come  as  strangers  seek- 
ing new  friends  and  new  ways  to  learn  of  the 
West. 

The  results  of  these  visits  to  Berlin  and  the 


Federal  Republic,  and  also  of  thousands  of  trips 
from  the  West  to  the  East,  are  a  considerable  mass 
of  information,  many  impressions  and  reports  of 
events  and  policies.  For  example,  when  statistics 
of  agricultural  production  are  published,  they 
can  be  tested  against  common  knowledge  as  to 
the  potato  harvest,  grain  yield,  crop  conditions, 
and  food  rationing.  In  this  area,  perhaps  better 
than  anywhere  else,  the  Iron  Curtain  is  only  an 
open  grill — the  view  of  what  is  going  on  is  thei'e 
for  all  to  see. 

Because  we  can  learn  much  from  this,  we  are 
impelled  to  examine  the  facts  and  appraise  ihe 
nature  of  Soviet  management  and  control.  The 
results  of  this  study  can  contribute  in  a  significant 
manner  to  the  understanding  of  where  the  Soviets 
stand  in  relation  to  the  satellites  and  what  direc- 
tions they  may  decide  to  take  in  the  future.  The 
conclusions  reached  may  not  be  encouraging,  but 
at  least  they  can  help  to  outline  the  course  of 
future  action  for  the  West.  In  any  case,  to  the 
extent  that  they  approximate  a  true  appraisal, 
such  a  review  is  bound  to  be  useful. 

Although  for  political  and  administrative  pur- 
poses East  Berlin  is  incorporated  into  the  zone,  it 
has  special  problems  and  characteristics.  Since 
it  is  still  part  of  the  city,  half  slave  and  half  free, 
it  places  in  sharp  contrast  Soviet  management 
and  control.  This  situation  must  be  considered 
separately  from  the  zone. 

The  city.  East  and  West,  technically  speaking 
is  still  a  four-power  occupied  area.  West  Berlin 
is  not  a  part  of  the  Federal  Republic  in  a  legal 
sense  although  psychologically  and  economically 
it  is  almost  like  an  eleventh  Land  or  pi-ovince  of 
the  western  sovereign  state  of  Germany. 

In  the  Pankow  district  of  East  Berlin,  closely 
integrated  with  East  Germany,  is  the  seat  of  the 
puppet  government,  a  government  called  by  the 
Soviets  free  of  their  control.  Actually,  it  is 
rigidly  held  under  Russian  armed  force  through 
Communist  German  agents.  It  is  separated  from 
West  Berlin  by  only  a  thin  line  of  occasional  bor- 
der watchei-s  and  a  few  large  signs  and  notices 
indicating  changes  in  jurisdiction. 

In  spite  of  the  many  close  relations  between  the 
different  parts  of  the  city,  the  political  differences 
as  one  crosses  the  narrow  line  of  demarcation  are 
as  great  as  those  between  Hungary  and  Austria. 
Over  this  37-mile  sector  border  across  the  town 
l)ass  as  many  as  100,000  persons  each  day.    Few 


606 


Department  of  Stale  Bulletin 


ai'e  stopped  or  questioned.  Approximately  45,000 
are  regular  workers,  border  crossers  who  live  in 
one  political  area  and  work  in  another,  going 
freely  to  and  fro.  Only  occasionally  are  they 
questioned — usually  the  reason  is  that  they  carry 
a  package  or  brief  case.  In  rare  instances  they 
are  searched  by  the  Eastern  police  for  Western 
deutschemarks,  the  money  which  they  are  not  sup- 
posed to  have  on  their  persons.  More  often  the 
large  numbers  of  students,  casual  visitors,  mer- 
chants, relatives  of  West  or  East  Berliners,  visi- 
tors to  concerts  and  museums,  moviegoers  or 
persons  seeking  to  buy  a  pound  of  butter  or  a  pair 
of  shoes  in  the  West  move  unhindered.  In  the 
case  of  those  going  to  the  East  there  are  also  no 
barriers.  There  are  visitors  to  relatives  or  friends 
or  even  occasionally  persons  in  search  of  antiques 
or  special  objects  like  cameras  offered  for  sale  in 
the  East. 

There  is  a  sense  of  almost  physical  pressure  of 
one  system  on  the  other.  Soviet  prestige  suffers 
from  this  traffic,  but  it  would  suH'er  also  if  it  were 
stopped  by  force. 

Contrast  Between  East  and  West 

As  a  result  of  this  movement  back  and  forth, 
the  contrast  between  East  and  West  and  the  great 
difference  in  the  standard  of  living  is  always  evi- 
dent to  everyone.  Moreover,  the  presence  of  the 
Allied  occupation  forces  and  their  support  of  the 
city  is  visible  and  daily  apparent.  This  makes 
it  virtually  impossible  for  the  Soviets  to  take  the 
risk  of  severing  the  city.  Berlin  cannot  be  ab- 
sorbed into  the  bloc. 

In  spite  of  the  ring  of  Communist  might  around 
the  East  sector  of  Berlin  there  is  no  sense  of 
cohesion  with  the  Kremlin.  The  rejection  of  its 
occupiers  in  the  minds  of  the  people  is  almost  com- 
plete. The  attempts  of  Moscow  to  shift  respon- 
sibility and  prestige  to  the  Pankow  government 
installed  in  East  Berlin,  surrounded  and  protected 
as  it  is  by  the  22  military  divisions  stationed  in 
the  iimnediately  adjacent  areas,  has  not  been  con- 
vincing to  the  Germans  anywhere,  either  in  the 
East  or  in  the  W^est.  One  can  conclude  that  their 
administration  of  the  East  sector  of  the  city  and 
its  economic  and  political  potential  has  been  only 
superficially  successful. 

It  is  reliably  reported  by  the  foremost  German 
experts  on  the  subject  that  the  puppets  of  the 


Soviets  holding  their  brief  authority  by  bribes, 
threats,  and  blood  money  are  more  hated  bj'  the 
Germans  than  are  the  Russians,  who  are  acting  on 
the  basis  of  a  more  recognizable  set  of  power  ob- 
jectives. Thus  under  present  conditions  normal 
relations  are  not  possible  between  the  East  Ger- 
man instruments  of  the  Soviet  r>der  and  their 
oppressed  subjects.  Similarly,  the  East  German 
authorities  in  Berlin  have  little  official  contact 
with  the  Western  World. 

The  principal  financial  advantages  to  the  Rus- 
sians of  holding  East  Berlin  are  negligible.  In 
the  light  of  conditions  in  East  Berlin  one  can 
question  whether  economic  resources  of  the  city 
have  been  used  efficiently  or  benefit  significantly 
the  economic  interest  of  the  East  Zone.  The  ste- 
rility of  the  Soviet  occupation  is  evident,  ^^(lually 
apparent  is  the  significance  for  Communist  aims 
of  denjnng  the  city  to  the  West.  Even  though  it 
can  be  assumed  that  the  cost  of  holding  the  Soviet 
sector  by  force  since  the  time  of  the  blockade  and 
the  split  of  the  city  outweighs  any  direct  benefit 
derived  from  its  production  or  trade,  the  purely 
strategic  and  prestige  reasons  remain  predomi- 
nant, but  the  performance  of  the  Soviets  has  not 
been  impressive. 

The  residents  of  the  eastern  part  of  the  city  are 
in  a  peculiar  position.  They  have  the  advantages 
of  constant  refreslmient  in  the  western  sector  of 
the  city  and  opportunities  to  buy  the  many  essen- 
tial conmiodities,  including  food  and  clothing. 
While  living  under  the  Communist  regime  they 
gain  the  stimulus  of  the  free  air  and  the  dynamic 
activity  of  the  western  part  of  the  city,  busily 
restoring  its  physical  plant  and  its  cultural  life. 
Thus  they  are  not  totally  subject  to  the  rule  or 
the  living  standards  of  the  satellites  or  of  Russia. 
They  can  stay  on  from  day  to  day  knowing  escape 
is  always  jjossible. 

Berlin  is  thus  a  major  reason  for  and  an  out- 
standing example  of  the  failure  to  integrate  East 
Germany  into  the  Soviet  bloc.  The  city  makes  this 
part  of  Soviet  conquest  and  control  different  from 
other  areas  but  in  some  ways  even  more  signifi- 
cant. The  management  of  the  zone  demonstrates, 
for  example,  the  oppressive  nature  of  the  effort 
10  bring  conditions  into  line  with  Moscow.  It 
shows  how  much  force  is  needed  to  keep  the  reins 
tight  in  a  sitiuition  where  there  ai-e  steady  and 
dependable  channels  of  communication  when  peo- 
ple under  one  system  remain  in  close  contact  with 
people  under  vastly  different  political  and  philo- 


April   15,   J  957 


607 


sophic  systems.  It  is  somewhat  paradoxical  that 
the  veiy  conditions  that  increase  the  resistance 
potential  also  lessen  the  danger  of  violent  ex- 
plosion. This  danger  is  generally  conceded  to  be 
less  than  in  several  of  the  more  enclosed  areas. 
This  is  the  current  forecast  even  though  the  Ger- 
man spirit  of  resistance  in  the  East  is  constantly 
nourished  and  clearly  manifest  in  many  vrays. 

Exploitation  of  Potential  Assets 

Perhaps  more  rewarding,  however,  is  the  at- 
tempt to  examine  the  wider  extent  and  the  naore 
comprehensive  efforts  of  the  Communists  in  the 
considerable  territory  of  41,000  square  miles  with 
the  17  million  people  who  live  in  the  East  Zone. 
Here  there  are  substantial  assets  to  exploit.  Here 
are  the  large  uranium  deposits.  These  are  now 
being  used  exclusively  for  the  benefit  of  the  So- 
viet atomic  program.  Here  are  the  substantial 
soft -coal  mines,  henry  and  light  industries,  uni- 
versities, and  highly  urbanized  areas  of  Leipzig, 
Dresden,  Weimar,  Magdeburg,  and  other  centers. 
Here  is  a  tradition  of  effective  management  and 
productive  labor.  The  question  is,  how  have  the 
Soviets  used  these  potential  assets  and  to  what 
extent  have  East  Zone  resources  helped  them  in 
their  objectives? 

From  the  point  of  view  of  political  interna- 
tional relationships  little  has  been  accomplished. 
They  have  built  up  an  uneasy  and  limited  set  of 
contacts  with  the  bloc  and  a  few  nonsatellite  na- 
tions. The  few  links  between  the  Commimist- 
created  East  German  government  and  nations 
outside  the  Soviet  bloc  are  uncertain,  insecure, 
and  relatively  unproductive.  There  is  little  like- 
lihood that  the  concerted  drive  to  increase  the 
number  and  scope  of  trade  and  other  treaties  since 
the  Soviet  declaration  of  East  German  "inde- 
pendence" on  September  20,  1955,  will  have  any 
real  success.  A  major  reason  for  the  inability  of 
the  Communist  regime  in  East  Germany  to  de- 
velop diplomatic  relations  has  been  the  vigilance 
and  strength  of  the  Federal  Republic  in  Bonn. 

For  one  thing  the  zone  has  now  too  little  to 
offer  in  the  way  of  exports.  For  another  there 
are  many  apparent  pitfalls  in  the  waj'  of  alli- 
ances between  a  puppet  government  and  free  na- 
tions. As  long  as  the  Communists  use  force  to 
maintain  their  position  in  FaisI  Germany,  those 
who  make  ties  with  their  chosen  instruments  of 
Commimist  policy  will  be  anxious  for  fear  the 


authorities  will  be  changed  or  liquidated  and  the 
agreements  collapse.  The  strong  democratic  na- 
tions of  the  non-Commimist  world  are  bound  to 
hesitate  before  making  pacts  with  those  who  are 
not  able  to  act  independently  of  Moscow. 

If  trade  treaties  on  an  ad  hoc  basis  are  con- 
cluded, as  the}'  have  been  in  nine  cases,  they  will 
be  almost  inevitably  on  the  basis  of  short-run 
economic  considerations  with  an  eye  always  to 
the  uncertain  future.  If  the  trade  is  not  produc- 
tive, there  will  be  little  reason  to  attempt  to  work 
out  mutual  adjustments.  Agreements  based  on 
the  expectation  of  long  and  dependable  inter- 
change cannot  be  reached  easily  where  there  is 
no  tradition  and  no  political  philosophy  to  indi- 
cate a  future  interchange  of  goods  on  a  basis  of 
sound  reciprocity. 

"Where  uncertainty  exists  as  to  the  nature  of 
the  leadei-ship  of  future  governments  and  the 
status  of  relations  with  Moscow,  the  links  can- 
not bind  closely  and  the  relationships  are  fragile. 
Thus  the  nine  agreements  as  of  early  1957  between 
the  German  Democratic  Republic  and  nonsatellite 
governments  constitute,  both  in  scope  and  num- 
ber, a  feeble  accomplishment  in  the  light  of  the 
effort  and  intention. 

Lag  of  East  Zone  Economy 

In  the  case  of  East  Germany  the  economic  ex- 
ploitation by  the  Soviets  falls  far  short  of  their 
plans  and  leaves  the  people  at  a  lower  standard 
of  living  than  any  other  comparably  industrial- 
ized area.  Even  by  their  own  reports  the  5-yeat 
goals  have  not  been  reached.  The  Soviets  have 
not  demonstrated  there  any  significant  capacity 
to  exploit  the  resources  by  force  or  to  take  advan- 
tage of  the  opportunities  by  a  doctrine  and  a 
method  acceptable  to  the  workei-s  and  managers 
in  the  zone.  There  is  no  sign  that  the  Conmiu- 
nist  appi'oach  has  led  to  productivity  or  inven- 
tiveness. 

The  Soviet  rulers  have  had  12  years  in  which 
to  develop  momentum.  Capital-goods  production 
is  behind  scliedule.  Consumer  goods  are  in  short 
supply.  There  one  finds  clearly  another  indica- 
tion of  the  difficulties  which  face  the  Kremlin  in 
managing  alien  lands. 

The  reconstruction  of  the  East  German  econ- 
omy after  the  war  would  not  have  been  easy  in 
any  case.  It  was  made  more  difficult  because  at 
the  outset  there  were  the  crippling  removals  of 


608 


Department  of  Slate   Bulletin 


equipment  and  raw  materials  by  Russia.  Fac- 
tories were  stripped  of  machinery.  Rolling  stock, 
trucks,  and  capital  assets  of  a  wide  variety  of 
types  were  taken  from  the  country.  The  trains 
moving  eastward  were  loaded  witli  machine  tools 
and  heavy  equipment.  Electrical  machinery  and 
other  valuable  as.sets  were  taken  away  which  were 
to  be  sorely  missed  when  the  time  for  rebuilding 
the  economy  came.  Estimates  of  the  amount  of 
material  wealth  removed  indicate  that  it  was  in 
excess  of  15  billion  dollars'  worth  at  the  time  it 
was  taken  away.  Little  is  known  of  the  manner 
in  which  equipment  was  reinstalled  or  of  the  use 
made  of  those  capital  instruments  by  the  Rus- 
sians. Much  can  be  said  about  the  damage  these 
removals  caused  to  the  East  German  economy. 

The  more  significant,  if  perhaps  not  so  clearly 
apparent,  reason  for  the  lag  of  the  East  Zone  econ- 
omy behind  comparable  areas  in  general  and  be- 
hind West  Germany  in  particular  is  the  lack  of 
contractual  arrangements.  Under  this  system 
there  is  no  effective  business  responsibility  or  mo- 
tive to  produce.  Here  we  see  an  economy  which 
has  reached  an  advanced  state  of  professional  pro- 
ficiency, with  a  highly  skilled  labor  force  and  rea- 
sonably good  natural  resources,  forced  ruthlessly 
into  the  Communist  mold. 

Approximately  70  percent  of  the  industry  is 
said  to  have  been  conununized  already.  A  much 
smaller  segment  of  the  agricultural  land  is  in  the 
so-called  cooperatives.  New  private  ventures  are 
virtually  ruled  out.  All  the  industry  which  re- 
mains outside  state  control  is  starved  for  the  lack 
of  capital  and  is  in  a  disadvantageous  position  as 
regards  maintenance  and  access  to  adequate  labor 
supply. 

The  question  arises  naturally  in  the  minds  of 
workers  and  supervisors  of  labor — for  whom  are 
they  working?  The  answer  is  bound  to  be  "for 
the  Soviets."  Cooperative  effort  to  build  up  state 
enterprises  could  only  be  exi^ected  to  stimulate 
vigorous  effort  on  the  part  of  labor  and  capital  if 
the  authorities  themselves  have  goals  which  are 
acceptable.  In  the  lack  of  such  incentives  and 
loyalties,  productive  effort  is  balanced  constantly 
against  the  immediate  cost  and  man  is  apt  to  limit 
his  effort  to  work  "for  bread  alone." 

This  sense  of  futility  has  in  fact  prevailed 
throughout  the  zone.  As  far  as  one  can  discern, 
Soviet  armed  force  and  dire  need  of  the  people 
are  the  bases  for  economic  effort.  Few  of  the 
usual  motives  appear  to  be  operative.    The  short- 


run  considerations  which  determine  the  kind  of 
work  and  the  amount  of  energy  that  goes  into 
the  assigned  tasks  are  those  which  relate  to  sur- 
vival and  not  those  which  develop  from  the  hope 
of  a  large-scale  and  impressive  building  of  a  sound 
and  dependable  economic  system. 

Refugees  "Vote  With  Their  Feet" 

The  most  striking  evidence  of  the  failure  of  the 
regime  to  give  the  people  the  elemental  satisfac- 
tions which  the  Communists  have  continuously 
promised  to  the  masses  has  been  the  tmending 
stream  of  refugees  from  the  Soviet-occupied  ter- 
ritory to  the  AVest.  The  steady  flow  of  workers 
and  professional  men.  of  farmers  and  laborers, 
from  the  workshops,  the  farms,  and  the  mines  of 
East  Germany  is  the  kind  of  public-opinion  poll 
that  no  one  can  ignore.  It  has  been  said  that 
close  to  2  million  refugees  have  voted  "with  their 
feet."  This  large  number  of  voluntary  exiles 
have  staked  their  hopes  and  their  lives  on  the 
belief  that  they  can  live  and  work  according  to 
their  standards  and  principles  only  in  the  West. 
They  have  rejected  the  methods  and  the  aims  of 
the  Communist  regime  which  they  have  come  to 
know  so  well. 

It  is  not  easy  to  be  a  refugee.  Almost  every 
man  of  feeling  is  attached  to  the  place  which  he 
calls  home.  The  very  shape  of  the  hills,  the  smell 
of  the  meadows  and  the  woods,  the  curve  of  the 
rivers,  which  he  has  known  from  his  earliest  cliild- 
hood,  are  part  of  his  well-loved  birthright.  To 
leave  all  this  for  unknown  cities  and  an  mifamiliar 
countryside,  to  be  separated  from  liis  neighbors 
and  his  friends,  and  to  seek  new  dwellings  and 
new  employment  is  not  easy.  One  caimot  take 
lightly  the  meaning  of  this  large-scale  and  con- 
tinuing migration. 

Wliile  the  Kremlin  may  not  understand  the 
meaning  of  this  migiation,  for  those  who  hear  the 
story  at  the  various  Berlin  and  Federal  Republic 
reception  centers  there  is  an  unforgettable  im- 
pression of  the  profound  disappointment  in  the 
cultural  life  and  conditions  of  work  which  they 
have  fomid  in  the  last  12  years.  It  is  not  so  much 
the  lack  of  food  and  clothing,  though  conditions 
in  this  respect  still  leave  much  to  be  desired,  but 
more  the  climate  of  hmnan  relations  and  pressures 
applied  in  all  their  work,  the  lack  of  choice,  the 
inability  to  seek  one's  own  place  in  the  system 
and  shape  one's  life  in  a  spirit  of  hope  and  free- 
dom which  lead  to  despair.    These  motives  and 


April   IS,    1957 

4218-i9— 57 3 


609 


the  protests  against  the  Communist  regime  indi- 
cate the  core  of  the  Communist  dilemma. 

Time  factors  plague  the  Communists  in  their 
administration  of  the  Soviet-occupied  zone  of 
Germany.  The  improvement  so  far  achieved  in 
economic  affairs  has  been  much  slower  than  else- 
where in  Europe.  The  political  developments  in 
the  zone  have  failed  to  establish  the  authorities 
there  on  a  firm  basis.  The  cringing  dependence 
on  the  Soviet  authorities  of  all  the  high  officials 
and  their  inability  to  speak  except  as  instructed 
have  been  evident  not  only  to  all  Germans  but 
also  to  the  world  at  large.  INIeanwhile,  the  re- 
jection of  Russian  comnuniism  has  been  so  com- 
plete that  there  is  danger  of  serious  depopulation. 
Already  almost  1.5  percent  of  the  population  has 
left  as  voluntary  expatriates  from  their  homes. 
The  labor  shortage  is  severe  and  hampers  eco- 
nomic progress. 

Thus  the  three  questions  which  are  significant 
indications  of  the  Soviets'  capacity  to  rule  the 
area  can  be  given  tentative  answers.  The  slow 
gains  at  some  points  are  more  than  offset  by 
losses  at  others  which  hamper  improvements  in 
the  standard  of  living  and  prevent  East  German 
acceptance  of  tiie  i-egime.  The  individual  de- 
prived of  his  legal  and  political  rights  is  fearful, 
uncooperative,  and  hostile  to  the  occupying 
powers.  If  the  400,000  soldiers  were  withdrawn, 
the  Communist  facade  would  collapse  overnight. 
The  area  is  stanchly  German  and  relatively  un- 
affected by  alien  doctrines  to  which  it  has  been 
exposed.  Russia  has  developed  no  alliance  here, 
but  it  has  added  to  the  number  of  potential 
enemies  at  a  cost  which  is  likely  to  increase  in 
goods  and  effort  if  they  are  to  keep  the  potential 
resistance  under  control. 

There  are  time  factors  which  disturb  the  West- 
ern allies  as  they  consider  conditions  in  the  East 
Zone.  There  is  inevitably  some  erosion  of  the 
spirit  as  pressure  on  the  individual  continues  from 
month  to  month.  There  is  bound  to  be  disillu- 
sionment over  the  inability  of  the  Federal  Repub- 
lic and  the  "Western  World  to  win  their  freedom. 
Institutions,  even  though  unpopular  and  oppres- 
sive, have  a  tendency  to  become  a  part  of  the 
day-to-day  fabi-ic. 

Thus,  in  some  measure  even  the  failures  of  the 
Russians  in  this  area  complicate  the  problems  for 
tiie  Western  World.  The  Communist  dilemma 
of  more  oppression  or  costly  aid  is  to  some  extent 


paralleled  by  the  urgent  problems  of  the  free 
world.  Our  efforts  to  manifest  our  underetand- 
ing,  aid  to  visitors  from  the  East,  assistance  to 
refugees,  are  of  the  greatest  importance. 

Above  all,  the  development  of  the  North  At- 
lantic Treaty  alliance  and  closer  European  eco- 
nomic cooperation  through  the  common  market 
and  EuBATOM  can  create  the  conditions  of  strength 
from  which  eventual  German  reunification  will 
come.  The  moment  of  opportunity  lies  ahead. 
It  will  come  the  sooner  because  the  Russians  know 
that  those  who  live  in  the  East  Zone  have  not  ac- 
cepted their  system.  It  is  the  more  certain  be- 
cause of  the  millions  who,  despite  almost  over- 
whelming inducement,  have  kept  the  faith  and 
stood  firm.  "Wlio  can  say  what  would  be  the  cir- 
cumstances in  East  Germany  in  ^0  years  if  the 
Russians  were  to  remain^  It  would  be  a  bold 
and  not  a  wise  man  who  would  venture  to  predict 
the  results  of  long-continued  occupation.  As  of 
the  present,  however,  there  is  no  I'ecord  of  suc- 
cess. No  achievement  in  the  economic  field,  no 
winning  over  of  the  people,  no  brilliant  diplo- 
matic accomplishments  can  encourage  the  Krem- 
lin in  its  shaping  of  future  policy  toward 
Germany. 


U.S.  Asks  Dominican  Government 
To  Reopen  Gerald  Murphy  Case 


DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  March 
16  (press  release  150)  that  it  had  instructed  the 
Embassy  at  Ciudad  Trujiilo  to  deliver  a  note  to 
the  Dominican  Government  in  reply  to  a  communi- 
cation from  that  Government  submitting  various 
documents  and  other  evidence  concerning  the  dis- 
appearance in  December  1956,  in  the  Dominic4\n 
Republic,  of  Gerald  I^ester  Murphy,  a  U.S.  civil- 
ian aviator.' 

The  documents  submitted  with  the  Dominican 
note  included  an  official  report  by  the  Attorney 
(General  of  the  Dominican  Republic  that  Mr.  Mur- 
phy had  been  killed  by  Octavio  de  la  Maza,  a 


'  For  background,  see  Bulletin  of  Feb.  11,  1957,  p.  221, 
and  Mar.  4,  1957,  p.  349. 


610 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


Dominican  airline  pilot.  A  suicide  note,  attrib- 
uted to  Mr.  de  la  Maza  and  containing  a  state- 
ment that  he  had  killed  himself  in  remorse  over 
the  death  of  Mr.  Murphy,  was  included  in  the 
Dominican  documentation. 


TEXT  OF  U.S.  NOTE 

No.  382 

The  Embassy  of  the  United  States  of  America 
presents  its  compliments  to  the  Department  of 
State  for  Foreign  Affairs  and  Worsliip  and  has 
the  honor  to  acknowledge  its  Note  No.  3.'i51  of 
February  9, 1957  transmitting  the  following  docu- 
ments in  connection  with  the  disajipearance  of 
Gerald  Lester  Murphy : 

1.  Report  by  the  Attorney  General  of  the 
Dominican  Republic. 

2.  Photostats  of  the  suicide  note  attributed  to 
Octavio  de  la  Maza  accompanied  by  photo- 
stats of  known  specimens  of  his  handwi-iting. 

3.  Analysis  of  de  la  Maza  suicide  note  by  Pro- 
fessor Manuel  Ferrandis  Torres  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Madrid  concluding  that  the  de  la 
Maza  suicide  note  is  authentic. 

4.  Final  disposition  of  the  Murphy  case  by  the 
examining  magistrate  concluding  that  he  was 
murdered  by  de  la  Maza  and  must  be  pre- 
sumed dead. 

5.  Final  disposition  of  the  de  la  Maza  case  by 
the  examining  magistrate  concluding  that  he 
committed  suicide  after  liaving  murdered 
Murphy. 

6.  Interrogations  by  the  examining  magistrate 
in  connection  with  the  Murphy  and  de  la 
Maza  cases. 

7.  Miscellaneous  reports  related  to  the  Murphy 
and  de  la  Maza  cases  inchiding  medico-legal 
and  autopsy  repoi'ts  on  de  la  Maza. 

From  examination  of  these  documents  and 
other  evidence,  this  Government  has  concluded 
that  if  the  specimens  of  handwriting  submitted 
by  the  Dominican  authorities  as  being  of  de  la 
Maza  are  actually  his,  then  the  suicide  note  was 
not  written  by  de  la  Maza. 

Furthermore,  this  examination  reveals  a  con- 
tradiction between  the  report  of  the  Dominican 
Attorney  General  which  states  that  Murphy's 
"political  influence"  in  the  Dominican  Republic 


was  tlie  "object  of  investigation  without  anything 
serious  being  produced  to  justify  it"  and  other 
available  information.  Our  investigations  indi- 
cate that  Murphy  was  well  acquainted  with  high 
Dominican  officials,  among  them  the  late  Colonel 
Salvador  Cobiiin  and  Brig.  General  Arturo  K 
Espaillat. 

It  would  also  appear  that  Murphy's  income 
while  in  the  Dominican  Republic  must  not  have 
been  limited  to  the  $350  per  month  salary  which 
the  Dominican  Attorney  General  states  he  earned 
as  a  co-jjilot  for  the  Dominican  Aviation  Com- 
pany (Cda).  Our  investigations  have  confirmed 
statements  made  by  several  American  Cd.\  pilots 
to  the  Dominican  authorities  that  Murphy,  in  the 
words  of  one  of  them,  "had  more  money  than  the 
rest  of  us"  and  that  he  owned  two  cars,  one  in 
Miami  and  one  in  Ciudad  Trujillo.  As  far  as  is 
known.  Murphy  had  no  income  of  record  in  the 
United  States  during  the  period  of  his  employ- 
ment in  the  Dominican  Republic.  The  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  is  gravely  concerned 
about  the  disappearance  of  one  of  its  citizens  in 
the  Dominican  Republic.  It  assumes  that  this 
concern  is  shared  by  the  Dominican  Govermnent. 

In  view  of  the  foi'egoing  observations  and  other 
evidence  which  it  has  developed  within  its  do- 
mestic jurisdiction,  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  considers  the  case  of  Gerald  Lester  Mui'phy 
as  unsolved.  The  Dominican  Government  is  ur- 
gently requested  to  reopen  and  vigorously  pursue 
its  investigation  of  the  disappearance  of  this  citi- 
zen of  tlie  United  States. 

The  Embassy  of  the  United  States  of  America 
avails  itself  of  this  opportunity  to  renew  to  the 
Department  of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs  and 
Worship  the  assurances  of  its  highest  considera- 
tion. 

Ciudad  Trujillo,  D.R., 
March  16,  1957. 


Polish  Coal  Mining  Officials 
Visit  United  States 

Press  release  165  dated  March  21 

On  March  22  a  delegation  of  eight  Polish  coal 
mining  officials  will  arrive  in  the  United  States 
for  a  3-week  tour  of  principal  mining  facilities 
in  the  coal-producing  States  east  of  the  Missis- 


Apn\   15,   1957 


611 


sippi.     The  tour  has  been  arranged  and  will  be 
conducted  by  the  National  Coal  Association. 

The  Polish  visit  is  in  accordance  with  an  agree- 
ment between  the  Department  of  State  and  the 


Polish  Embassy  for  the  exchange  of  delegations 
of  coal  mining  experts.  It  is  anticipated  that  a 
reciprocal  U.S.  delegation  will  visit  Poland  later 
this  year. 


International  Cooperation  in  Climatology 


SECOND   SESSION    OF    COMMISSION    FOR    CLIMATOLOGY 
OF  WORLD  METEOROLOGICAL  ORGANIZATION 


l)y  Helmvt  E.  Landsherg 


From  January  14  to  25,  1957,  the  Government 
of  the  United  States  acted  as  host  to  the  Commis- 
sion for  Climatology  (CCl)  of  the  World 
Meteorological  Organization  (Wmo)  at  Washing- 
ton, D.C.  The  Wmo  is  one  of  the  specialized 
agencies  of  the  United  Nations.  Much  of  its  work 
is  accomplished  by  technical  conmaissions,  of  which 
CCl  is  one. 

The  history  of  formal  international  cooperation 
in  climatology  goes  back  to  1872,  when  the  Inter- 
national Meteorological  Coirmiittee,  an  early 
predecessor  of  Wmo,  met  at  Leipzig  and  placed  on 
its  agenda  several  items  dealing  with  standard- 
ization of  climatic  practices.  In  1929  the 
International  Meteorological  Organization,  the 
immediate  antecedent  of  Wmo,  created  the  Com- 
mission for  Climatology,  which  has  met  at  regular 
intervals  except  for  the  World  War  II  interrup- 
tion. This  was  its  second  session  since  the  Wmo 
took  over  the  functions  of  these  earlier  groups. 

For  the  past  7  years  the  Commission  has  had,  as 
president,  C.  W.  Thornthwaite  of  the  United 
States,  a  world-renowned  research  worker  in  the 


•  Dr.  Landsherg.,  author  of  the  above  article, 
is  Director  of  the  Office  of  Climatology  of 
the  U.S.  Weather  Bureau.  He  served  as 
principal  U.S.  delegate  at  the  second  session 
of  the  WMO  Commission  for  Climatology. 


field  of  climatology  and  director  of  the  Laboratory 
of  Climatology  of  the  Drexel  Institute  of  Tech- 
nology, Centerton,  N.J.  Under  his  chairmanship 
the  first  plenary  session  of  the  current  meeting 
was  addressed  by  Francis  O.  Wilcox,  Assistant 
Secretary  of  State  for  International  Organization 
Affairs.  Mr.  Wilcox  welcomed  the  delegates  to 
Washmgton  and  stressed  the  importance  of  the 
work  the  specialized  United  Nations  agencies  are 
doing  for  the  promotion  of  constructive  inter- 
national cooperation  and  for  the  creation  of  better 
standards  of  living  everywhere.'  Further  wel- 
come was  extended  by  F.  W.  Eeichelderfer,  Chief 
of  the  U.S.  Weather  Bureau  and  fonner  president 
of  the  Wmo.  Dr.  Eeichelderfer,  who  is  the  per- 
manent U.S.  representative  to  the  Wmo  and  a 
member  of  its  Executive  Committee,  called  at- 
tention to  some  of  the  important  tasks  before 
the  Commission,  among  which  are  the  problems  of 
water  supplies,  drought,  and  long-range  climatic 
trends. 

Delegates  and  Activities  at  Second  Session 

The  following  24  member  nations  of  Wmo  sent 
delegates  to  the  second  session  : 


Australia 

Belgium 

Brazil 


Byelorussian  S.S.R. 

Canada 

Cuba 


'  For  text  of  Mr.  Wilcox's  remarks,  see  Bulletin  of 
Feb.  4,  1957,  p.  197. 


612 


Department  of  State   BuUetin 


Dominican  Republic  Poland 

France  Sweden 
Germany,  Federal  Republic       Thailand 

of  Ukrainian  S.S.R. 

Ireland  Union   of   Soviet   Socialist 
Israel  Republics 

Korea  United  Kingdom 

Mexico  United  States 

Netherlands  Uruguay 


Norway 


Venezuela 


Two  nonmember  nations,  Albania  and  Liberia, 
sent  observers. 

There  were  also  observers  from  the  Interna- 
tional Civil  Aviation  Organization  (Icao),  the 
Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  (Fag),  the 
World  Health  Organization  (Who),  the  United 
Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  Or- 
ganization (Unesco)  and  from  six  other  inter- 
national technical  organizations.  A  group  of  11 
invited  experts,  associated  with  universities  and 
research  institutions,  joined  the  deliberations  on 
technical  problems. 

The  official  U.S.  delegation  was  composed  of 
H.  E.  Landsberg  and  H.  C.  S.  Thom  of  the  U.S. 
Weather  Bureau  and  Woodrow  C.  Jacobs  of  the 
Air  Weather  Service,  U.S.  Air  Force.  They  were 
aided  by  nine  advisers  from  the  Office  of  Clima- 
tology of  the  Weather  Bureau,  the  Directorate  of 
Climatology  of  the  Air  Weather  Service,  and  the 
Aerology  Branch  of  the  Navy.-  Secretariat  serv- 
ices were  handled  by  the  Office  of  International 
Conferences  of  the  Department  of  State.  The 
Wmo  secretariat  was  represented  by  K.  Langlo 
and  O.  M.  Ashford  from  the  headquarters  of  the 
organization  at  Geneva.  Their  technical  assist- 
ance throughout  the  conference  contributed 
greatly  to  the  success  of  the  session. 

Most  of  the  woric  of  the  Commission  was 
handled  in  two  committees.  The  first  committee 
dealt  with  climatological  regulations,  require- 
ments, rules,  and  practices,  while  the  second  con- 
cerned itself  with  research  problems  and  applied 
climatology.  A  lengthy  agenda  of  6  administra- 
tive and  15  major  technical  items  was  handled. 
The  heavy  work  schedule,  which  often  required 
late  working  hours,  was  relieved  by  an  interesting 
program  of  social  and  scientific  events.  Among 
the  technical  attractions  was  a  tour  of  Weather 
Bureau  facilities  in  the  Washington,  D.C.,  area, 
including  a  visit  to  the  weather  center  in  Suit- 


^  For  a  Department  announcement  of  the  U.S.  delegation 
to  the  second  session,  see  ihid.,  Jan.  28,  1957,  p.  153. 


land,  Md.,  where  a  large  electronic  computer  has 
become  one  of  the  great  modern  aids  in  weather 
forecasting.  An  exliibit  of  weather  instrmnents 
and  equipment  which  had  been  arranged  in  the 
lobby  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce  build- 
ing formed  another  feature  of  interest  to  the 
delegates. 

The  president  of  the  Commission  had  arranged 
for  six  scientific  lectures  by  delegates  and  invited 
experts.  These  were  presented  during  two  after- 
noon sessions  and  dealt  with  some  of  the  latest 
technical  advances  and  problems.  Many  of  the 
delegates  also  attended  an  evening  meeting  of  the 
District  of  Columbia  Branch  of  the  American 
Meteorological  Society  and  the  national  meeting 
of  this  society  at  New  York  City  after  the  close 
of  the  session.  In  addition,  the  Weather  Bureau 
arranged  for  an  inspection  trip  to  the  National 
AVeather  Records  Center  in  Asheville,  N.C.,  after 
the  session.  This  is  the  greatest  depository  and 
processing  center  of  climatological  data  in  the 
world,  with  a  library  comprising  300  million 
weather  observations.  Twenty-two  foreign  dele- 
gates spent  2  days  inspecting  this  facility  and  its 
newest  electronic  equipment. 

Worldwide  Inventory  of  Climatic  Conditions 

The  final  results  of  the  meeting  were  contained 
in  10  resolutions  and  9  recommendations  to  the 
Executive  Committee  of  the  Wmo.  The  primary 
results,  when  implemented,  will  be  moderniza- 
tion and  modification  of  international  practices  in 
climatology.  These  will  be  of  considerable  practi- 
cal benefit.  Uniform  procedures  are  a  virtual 
necessity  in  the  mapi>ing  of  weather  elements, 
which  obviously  have  no  regard  for  national 
boundaries.  A  worldwide  effort  toward  an  in- 
ventory of  the  climatic  conditions  in  the  form  of 
a  climatic  atlas  is  also  to  be  undertaken  under  a 
unified  system  of  standards.  Such  an  atlas  should 
contribute  significajotly  to  economic  betterment 
since  temporarily  or  permanently  adverse  aspects 
of  climate  underlie  much  of  the  world's  trouble. 
Floods,  droughts,  and  hurricanes  are  among  the 
prime  causes  of  human  disaster.  Adequate  statis- 
tics on  these  as  well  as  the  less  frightening  but 
equally  important  elements  of  temperature  and 
rainfall  have  to  be  compiled.  They  are  basic 
material  for  agricultural  planning,  for  major 
projects  of  reforestation,  and  for  irrigation  and 
hydroelectric  schemes. 


April   IS,    1957 


613 


Of  basic  importance  is  a  continuous  -watch  on 
trends  in  the  climatic  elements,  both  from  natural 
and,  perhaps,  artificial  causes.  Among  the  last 
are  the  possible  climatic  changes  induced  by  large- 
scale  river  basin  developments.  One  of  the  ques- 
tions before  the  Commission  was  whether  such 
changes  might  be  adverse.  It  was  the  considered 
opinion  that  such  developments  would  have  only 
minor  local  effects  and  that  these  would  probably 
be  beneficial  rather  than  detrimental.  In  view 
of  the  widespread  international  interest  in  such 
questions,  the  Wmo  secretariat  was  urged  to  pub- 
lish a  technical  note  for  general  information, 
based  on  the  experience  of  various  member  nations. 

In  recognition  of  the  fact  that  water  resources 
are  among  the  most  critical  problems  confronting 
many  nations  or  areas,  a  number  of  discussions 
centered  around  hydrological  questions.  In  par- 
ticular, the  procedures  to  measure  water  income  in 
form  of  snow  and  water  loss  by  evaporation  came 
under  scrutiny.  Recommended  procedures  re- 
sulted in  draft,  chapters  for  the  ''Guide  to  Clima- 
tological  Practices."  This  will  be  a  book  contain- 
ing advice  on  the  best  techmques  at  present 
available  to  climatologists.  Considerable  draft 
material  for  this  text  was  accumulated  and  re- 
viewed during  the  session.  The  final  drafting 
and  editing  will  be  in  the  hands  of  a  small  working 
group  of  the  Commission. 

The  climate  of  the  upper  air,  especially  over  the 
oceans,  is  of  vital  interest  to  international  air 
traffic.  Specifically,  the  frequency  ot  encounters 
with  hazards  such  as  icing  and  severe  turbulence 
is  of  concern  to  every  airline.  Inflight  weather 
reports  are  regularly  filed  witli  the  meteorological 
services,  but  there  has  been  a  need  for  statistical 
studies  to  handle  and  analyze  this  infonnation. 
These  studies  will  be  initiated  under  a  recommen- 
dation of  the  Commission. 

Just  before  World  War  II  a  telecommunication 
exchange  of  monthly  temperature  and  rainfall 
values  was  begun.  It  was  thought  that  this  infor- 
mation, if  collected  on  a  worldwide  scale,  would 
help  long-range  weather  forecasting.  After  an 
interruption  by  the  war,  this  project  was  resumed 
with  the  cooperation  of  many  nations.  Currently 
the  data  thus  gathered  are  published  by  the  U.S. 
Weather  Bureau  under  Wmo  sponsorship  in  a 
bulletin  entitled  Monthly  Climatic  Data  for  the 
World,  which  has  proved  to  be  of  considerable 
economic  value.     Such  quastions  as  "Are  frosts 


damaging  the  Brazilian  coffee  crop?",  "Is  a 
drought  developing  in  Australia?",  or  "Did  the 
monsoon  bring  normal  amounts  of  rainfall  to 
India?"  can  be  readily  answered.  The  present 
session  of  the  Commission  reviewed  the  proce- 
dures for  both  the  radio  messages  and  publication 
of  the  data.  A  scheme  for  a  better  network  of 
stations  was  prepared,  and  a  plea  for  univei'sal 
cooperation  was  made.  In  view  of  the  general 
desire  for  this  uniform  collection  of  climatological 
information,  a  further  expansion  of  the  scheme  to 
all  member  nations  of  the  Wmo  can  now  be 
expected. 

The  exchange  of  views  on  scientific  matters  at 
the  session  was  particularly  helpful.  Latest  de- 
velopments in  the  various  countries  were  reviewed. 
Some  of  them  were  presented  in  the  scientific 
lectures  which  became  part  of  the  session's  docu- 
mentation and  will  therefore  be  available  to  all 
member  nations.  Others  were  presented  in  the 
form  of  national  progress  reports.  These  will  be 
condensed  by  (he  secretariat  of  the  Wmo  into  a 
technical  note. 

Among  the  final  actions  of  the  Commission  was 
the  election  of  officers  for  the  next  4-year  period. 
Dr.  Thornthwaite,  who  under  the  rules  could  not 
be  reelected,  was  succeeded  as  president  by  R.  G. 
Veryard  of  the  United  Kingdom.  C.  C.  Boughner 
of  Canada  was  elected  vice  president. 


Current  U.N.  Documents: 
A  Selected  Bibliography 


Economic  and  Social  Council 

Development  of  International  Travel,  Its  Pre.sent  Increas- 
ing Voliune  and  Future  Prospects.  Addendum  to  the 
note  by  the  Secretary-General.  B/2933/Add.3,  January 
17,  1957.  7  pp.  mimeo. 

Consideration  of  the  Provisional  Agenda  for  the  Twenty- 
Fourth  Session.  Note  by  the  Secretary-General. 
E/2949,  January  18, 1957.  9  pp.  mimeo. 

Commission  on  Human  Rights.  Periodic  Reports  on  Hu- 
man Rights  and  Studies  of  Specific  Rights  or  Groups 
of  Rights.  Note  by  the  Secretary-General.  E/CN.4/- 
7.'!4,  January  24,  19,^7.  4  i)p.  mimeo. 

Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Advisory  Services 
in  the  Field  of  Human  Rights.  Report  by  the  Secretary- 
General.     E/CN.6/294,  January  24,  1957.  4  pp.  mimeo. 

Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Bride-Price,  Polyg- 
amy and  Rights  of  the  Mother  with  Respect  to  her 
Children.  E/CN.6/295,  January  34,  1967.  47  pp. 
mimeo. 

Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Practical  Methods 
for  the  Implementation  of  Ekjual  Pay  for  Equal  Work. 
B/CN.6/296,  January  24,  1957.  35  pp.  mimeo. 


614 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


statute  of  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  Transmitted  to  Senate  ' 


PRESIDENT'S  MESSAGE  OF  TRANSMITTAL 

The  White  House,  March  21, 1957. 

To  the  Seriate  of  the  United  States: 

Witli  a  view  to  receiving  the  advice  and  consent 
of  tlie  Senate  to  ratification,  I  am  attaching  liere- 
with  a  certified  copy  of  the  Statute  of  the  Inter- 
national Atomic  Energy  Agency.-  I  also  transmit 
for  the  information  of  the  Senate  a  report  ad- 
dressed to  me  by  the  Secretary  of  State  in  regard 
to  the  statute,  together  with  certain  related  papers. 

When  the  Statute  of  the  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency  was  open  for  signature  at  United 
Nations  Headquarters  in  New  York  for  3  months, 
from  October  26, 1956,  to  January  24, 1957,  it  was 
signed  in  behalf  of  the  United  States  of  America 
and  by  79  other  nations.  It  is  the  product  of  al- 
most 3  years  of  negotiations,  beginning  with  my 
address  to  the  United  Nations  on  December  8, 
1953.^  There  I  expressed  the  profound  hope  of 
the  American  people,  a  hope  shared  by  people 
throughout  the  world,  that  means  could  be  found 
to  harness  the  atom  to  the  labors  of  peace. 

Today,  in  the  grim  necessity  of  preserving  the 
peace,  the  free  world  must  turn  to  the  deadly 
power  of  the  atom  as  a  guardian  of  freedom  and 
a  prime  deterrent  to  aggression.  Yet  the  true 
promise  of  the  atom  is  not  for  destructive  purposes 
but  for  constructive  purposes.  And,  in  America, 
M-e  can  already  see  in  atomic  energy  an  enormous 
potential  for  human  benefit :  electric  power,  treat- 
ment of  disease,  and  extraordinary  service  to  agi-i- 
culture,  industry,  and  science  itself.  And  this  is 
but  the  beginning.  There  is  every  indication  that 
we  can  look  forward  to  even  greater  values  of 
atomic  energy  in  America. 


'  Keprinted  from  S.  Exec.  I,  8oth  Cong.,  1st  sess. 
'  Not  iirinted  here ;  for  text,  see  Bxtixetin  of  Nov.  19. 
195G,  p.  820. 

=  IMd.,  Dec.  21,  1953,  i>.  847. 


Tlie  peoples  of  other  nations  also  see  great  hope 
in  the  atom  for  the  development  of  their  economies 
and  advancement  of  their  welfare.  They  devoutly 
wisli  for  ways  and  means  of  directing  the  atom  to 
peaceful  uses.  There  is  widespread  appreciation 
of  the  role  the  United  States  has  already  played  in 
the  great  atoms-for-peace  program  to  help  many 
of  these  nations  start  their  own  atomic  energy 
programs. 

Now,  in  our  proposal  to  the  United  Nations  for 
the  establishment  of  an  International  Atomic  En- 
ergy iVgency,  we  have  answered  the  basic  desire 
of  many  nations  for  an  international  body  to  which 
all  may  belong — a  body  in  which  all  may  safely 
pool  their  knowledge  and  skill  for  the  advance- 
ment of  all;  from  which  all  may  draw  knowledge, 
advice,  and  nuclear  fuels  to  aid  their  individual 
efforts  in  developing  the  atom  for  peaceful  em- 
ployment. 

This  promise  of  increased  well-being  for  the 
people  of  the  world  offered  by  the  International 
Atomic  f^nergy  Agency  is  a  major  purpose  of  our 
proposal.  Another  is  the  extension  of  our  fixed 
and  unending  determination  to  open  and  widen 
all  possible  avenues  toward  a  just  and  enduring 
world  joeace.  In  promoting  these  purposes,  the 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  would  pro- 
vide a  practical  meeting  place — a  common  gi'ound 
of  cooperative  effort  among  nations.  Thus, 
through  shared  \\o\yQ  and  work,  the  world  would 
come  to  realize  the  innnense  possibilities  of  the 
atom  for  the  benefit  of  all. 

The  statute  and  the  Agency  which  it  will  estab- 
lish hold  promise  of  important  progress  in  that 
direction.  They  constitute  both  a  practical  ap- 
proach and  a  symbol  of  all  that  people  of  good 
will  hope  to  see  accomplished  through  the  use  of 
atomic  energy.  They  offer  the  luiderdeveloped 
nations  in  particular  an  earlier  availability  of  the 
benefits  flowing  from  the  constructive  uses  of  the 
atom,  and  afford  all  countries  the  prospect  of 


April   IS,    1957 


615 


mutually  stimulated  scientific  advance  dedicated 
to  the  welfare  of  mankind. 

To  achieve  the  confidence  essential  to  coopera- 
tion among  membei"s  of  the  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency,  great  care  has  been  exercised  to 
insure  that  fissionable  material  will  be  safe- 
guarded to  prevent  its  diversion  to  any  military 
purpose.  A  comprehensive  safeguard  system  is 
provided  by  the  statute.  This  will  apply  to  all 
aspects  of  the  Agency's  activity  involving  nuclear 
materials.  A  key  part  of  this  system  is  a  plan 
of  thorough  international  inspection.  The  United 
States  will  provide  fissionable  materials  for 
Agency  projects  only  as  this  safeguard  system  is 
put  into  effect.  I  am  satisfied  that  the  security  of 
the  United  States  will  not  be  endangered  by  ma- 
terials made  available  to  or  through  this  Agency. 
I  should  add  that  the  United  States  is  under  no 
obligation  to  disclose  secret  information  to  this 
Agency. 

Authority  for  directing  the  Agency  will  rest 
primarily  in  a  Board  of  Governors.  The  method 
of  choosing  these  Governors  was  considered  with 
particular  care.  The  formula  finally  agreed  upon 
balances  geographic  considerations  with  the  capac- 
ity of  the  cooperating  nations  to  supjily  technical 
or  material  support  to  agency  projects.  This 
formula  assures  the  protection  of  the  interests  of 
America  and  the  free  world.  There  is  also  reason- 
able assurance  against  entry  into  the  Agency  of 
nations  which  are  excluded  from  the  United 
Nations,  and  which  were  excluded  from  the  Con- 
ference and  from  Agency  membership  by  over- 
whelming vote  on  a  number  of  occasions. 

This  statute  is  the  work  of  many.  It  reflects  the 
experience  of  those  concerned  with  our  Nation's 
efforts  since  World  War  II  to  relieve  the  burdens 
of  armament  for  all  people.  It  is  consistent  with 
the  policies  of  our  present  Atomic  Energy  Act.  It 
has  profited  by  the  addition  of  suggestions  from 
bipartisan  congressional  hearings. 

It  is  my  firm  belief  that  this  statute,  and  the 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  provided 
by  it,  are  in  the  present  and  future  interest  of  our 
country.  They  have  my  wholehearted  support. 
I  urge  early  consent  to  the  ratification  of  the 
statute,  so  that  the  United  States  which  proposed 
the  establishment  of  this  new  instrument  of  peace- 
ful progress  may  be  among  the  first  to  give  it 
final  approval. 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  STATE 

Department  of  State, 
Washington.,  February  21, 1957. 
The  President, 

The  White  House: 

I  have  the  honor  to  submit  to  you,  with  a  view 
to  transmission  to  the  Senate  for  advice  and  con- 
sent to  ratification,  a  certified  copy  of  the  Statute 
of  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency, 
which  was  open  for  signature  at  United  Nations 
Headquarters  in  New  York  from  October  26, 
1956,  to  January  24, 1957,  and  during  that  period 
was  signed  in  behalf  of  the  United  States  of 
America  and  79  other  nations. 

The  purpose  of  this  treaty  is  to  establish  an 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  pursuant 
to  the  atoms-for-peace  proposal  made  by  you  in 
your  historic  address  before  the  General  Assembly 
of  the  United  Nations  on  December  8,  1953.  In 
that  address  you  outlined  your  plan  for  an  inter- 
national agency,  to  be  established  under  the  aegis 
of  the  United  Nations,  with  responsibility  for  find- 
ing methods  to  apply  atomic  materials  to  the 
abundant  production  of  power  and  to  the  needs  of 
agriculture,  medicine,  and  other  peaceful  pursuits 
of  mankind. 

In  the  months  following  your  proposal,  discus- 
sions were  undertaken  among  those  nations  hav- 
ing either  developed  resources  of  nuclear  raw 
materials  or  advanced  atomic  energy  programs. 
An  eight-nation  group,  composed  of  representa- 
tives of  the  United  States,  Australia,  Belgium, 
Canada,  France,  Portugal,  the  Union  of  South 
Africa,  and  the  United  Kingdom,  worked  early  in 
1954  to  prepare  a  first  draft  of  a  statute  for  the 
proposed  agency.  The  subject  was  thoroughly 
debated  at  the  Ninth  General  Assembly  in  1954. 
On  December  4, 1954,  the  General  Assembly  of  the 
United  Nations  by  unanimous  vote  endoi-sed  the 
proposal  to  create  an  International  Atomic  Energy 
Agency.* 

A  report  on  the  progress  of  the  negotiation  of 
the  statute  was  made  to  members  of  t\\&  Joint  Com- 
mittee on  Atomic  Energy  in  July  1955  and  appro- 
priate revisions  were  made  in  the  draft  statute 
on  the  basis  of  their  comments. 

On  August  22,  1955,  a  draft  statute  ^  was  cir- 


*  For   text   of   the   General   Assembly   resolution,   see 
ibid.,  Dec.  13,  1954,  p.  919. 
"  For  text,  see  ibid.,  Oct.  24,  1955,  p.  666. 


616 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


ciliated  to  get  the  views  of  all  membei-s  of  the 
United  Nations  or  of  the  specialized  agencies,  a 
total  at  that  time  of  84  states.  The  subject  was 
again  debated  at  the  Tenth  General  Assembly  in 
1955,  and  a  resolution  endorsing  the  efforts  of  the 
negotiating  group  was  unanimously  adopted." 

On  February  27,  1956,  the  working  gi-oup,  now 
expanded  to  12  nations  by  the  inclusion  of  Brazil, 
Czechoslovakia,  India,  and  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics,  met  in  "Washington  at  the  in- 
vitation of  the  United  States.  This  group  worked 
to  revise  the  draft  statute.  It  considered,  and 
often  adopted,  ideas  and  suggestions  not  only  of 
the  members  of  the  drafting  group  but  of  other 
nations  the  world  over  from  which  comments  had 
been  received.  The  resulting  draft,'  adopted  on 
April  18  by  the  working  group  reflected  to  a  great 
degree  the  balance  of  views  of  a  large  number  of 
states. 

In  June  1956  a  further  report  on  the  progress 
of  negotiations  was  made  to  members  of  the  Joint 
Committee  on  Atomic  Energy. 

The  document  negotiated  by  the  group  of  12 
nations  was  presented  to  the  delegates  of  81  na- 
tions at  the  opening  of  the  Conference  on  the 
Statute  of  the  International  Atomic  Energy 
Agency,  which  convened  at  United  Nations  Head- 
quarters in  New  York  on  September  20,  1956. 
The  United  States  delegation  to  that  Conference 
was  under  the  chairmanship  of  Ambassador  James 
J.  "Wadsworth,  deputy  representative  of  the 
United  States  to  the  United  Nations  and  United 
States  representative  for  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency  Negotiations.  It  included  con- 
gressional advisers,  designated  by  the  President  of 
the  Senate  and  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, as  well  as  advisei-s  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  and  the  Atomic  Energy  Commis- 
sion. The  Conference  was  presided  over  by  Am- 
bassador Joilo  Carlos  Muniz  of  Brazil. 

The  Conference,  at  whicli  the  largest  number  of 
nations  in  history  were  gathered  together,  was 
distinguished  by  earnestness  of  purpose  and 
understanding.  Notwithstanding  the  complexity 
of  the  subject,  and  the  newness  of  the  field  in 
whicli  it  was  working,  the  Conference  found  it 
possible,  at  the  end  of  36  days  of  fruitful  dis- 
cussion and  negotiation,  to  arrive  at  agreement 


"For  text,  see  ibid.,  Nov.  H,  19.")r>.  p.  SOI. 
'  For  text,  see  ibid.,  May  21,  1956,  p.  852. 


on  the  setting  up  of  the  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency  and  its  statute.  The  statute  was 
opened  for  signature  on  October  26,  1956,  and  was 
signed  on  that  date  by  plenipotentiaries  of  70  of 
the  81  nations  represented  at  the  Conference. 
During  the  9()-day  period  during  which,  by  its 
tenns,  the  statute  remained  open  for  signature,  it 
was  signed  in  behalf  of  10  other  nations. 

The  statute  provides  for  the  establishment  of  an 
organization  to  assist  the  nations  of  the  world  in 
entering  tlie  atomic  era.  Created  under  the  aegis 
of  the  United  Nations,  the  International  Atomic 
Energy  Agency  will  function  as  an  autonomous 
international  organization  and  will  establish  an 
ajipropriate  relationshii)  with  the  United  Nations 
consistent  with  the  Agency's  statute.  The  pur- 
pose of  the  Agency  is  to  supply  a  means  tlirough 
wiiich  the  promise  of  nuclear  energy  will  be  open 
to  the  benefit  of  all,  to  be  utilized  as  an  instrument 
of  progress  and  peace. 

To  achieve  its  goal,  the  Agency  will  take  ad- 
vantage of  the  means  that  will  be  voluntarily 
placed  at  its  disposal  by  member  states.  It  will 
extend  aid  in  the  form  of  fissionable  materials, 
source  materials,  special  equipment,  and  technical 
assistance.  The  Agency's  assistance  will  be  based 
on  agreements  freely  negotiated  between  govern- 
ments and  the  Agency.  Provision  is  made  for 
controls  and  safeguards  to  ensure  that  fissionable 
materials  made  available  through  the  Agency  will 
not  be  diverted  to  nonpeaceful  purposes  and  will 
not  endanger  the  health  of  populations  or  in- 
dividuals. The  controls  and  safeguards  are  in- 
tended to  guarantee  the  peaceful  and  safe  utiliza- 
tion of  materials  supplied  by  the  Agency,  or  used 
in  Agency-sponsored  projects,  and  of  fissionable 
byproducts  derived  therefrom. 

Tliere  is  transmitted  herewith  a  summary  of  the 
statute  directed  to  its  specific  provisions.  There 
is  also  transmitted  a  copy  of  the  report  submitted 
to  the  Secretary  of  State  by  the  chairman  of  the 
United  States  delegation  to  the  Conference,  on  the 
statute.  In  addition,  a  copy  of  the  communica- 
tion dated  October  25,  1956,  to  which  reference  is 
made  in  the  statement  accompanying  the  Vene- 
zuelan signatures  to  the  .statute,  is  included,  to- 
gether with  a  translation  thereof. 

It  is  planned  that  a  draft  Participation  Act  to 
provide  for  appointment  of  representatives  of  the 
United  States  to  the  Agency,  and  to  make  pro- 
vision with  respect  to  United  States  participation 


Apr/7   15,    1957 


617 


in  the  Agency,  will  be  submitted  to  the  Congress 
early  in  the  present  session. 

It  is  earnestly  hoped  that  the  Senate  will  give 
prompt  consideration  to  the  Statute  of  the  Inter- 
national Atomic  Energy  Agency  and  that  the 
Congress  will  enact  without  delay  the  proposed 
Participation  Act.  Under  your  personal  initia- 
tive the  United  States  has  been  the  principal  ad- 
vocate of  an  international  organization  designed 
to  turn  the  mighty  force  of  the  atom  from  the 
devastation  of  war  to  the  constructive  avenues  of 
peace.  It  is  hoped  that  the  United  States  may  be 
among  the  (irst  to  ratify  the  Statute  of  the  Inter- 
national Atomic  Energy  Agency  and,  by  our 
leadership  and  support,  help  to  ensure  the  suc- 
cess of  that  Agency  from  its  inception. 

Kespectfully  submitted. 

John  Foster  Dulles. 

(Enclosures:  (1)  Certified  copy  of  the  Statute  of  the 
International   Atomic   Enersy   Agency;'    (2)    summary; 

(3)  report  by  chairman  of  United   States  delegation;' 

(4)  Venezuelan   communication  dated  October  25,  1956, 
and  translation.") 


SUMMARY  OF  THE  STATUTE 

ARTICLES    I    AND    n 

The  statute  upon  its  entry  into  force  will 
establish  the  International  Atomic  Energy 
Agency,  the  basic  objective  of  which  is  to  seek 
to  accelerate  and  enlarge  the  contribution  of 
atomic  energy  to  peace,  health,  and  prosperity 
throughout  the  world  without  at  the  same  time 
furthering  any  military  purpose. 

ARTICLE  ni 

The  functions  of  the  Agency  set  forth  in  article 
III  of  the  statute  are  (a)  to  encourage  and  assist 
research  on,  and  development  and  practical  appli- 
cation of,  atomic  energy  for  peaceful  purposes 
throughout  the  world ;  {b)  to  make  provision  for 
materials,  .services,  equipment,  and  facilities 
needed  to  carry  out  the  foregoing  purpose;  (c)  to 
foster  the  exchange  of  scientific  and  technical  in- 
formation on,  and  the  exchange  and  training  of 
scientists  and  experts  in,  the  peaceful  uses  of 
atomic  energy;  {d)  to  establish  and  administer 
safeguards  to  ensure  that  fissionable   or  other 


materials,  services,  equipment,  facilities,  and  in- 
formation with  which  the  Agency  deals  are  not 
used  to  further  any  military  purpose;  (e)  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  establishment,  adoption,  and  appli- 
cation of  standards  of  safety  for  the  protection  of 
health  and  the  minimization  of  danger  to  life  and 
property  from  activities  in  the  field  of  atomic 
energy;  and  (/)  to  acquire  or  establish  any  facili- 
ties, plant,  and  equipment  useful  in  carrying  out 
its  authorized  functions. 

In  carrying  out  its  functions,  the  Agency  is  re- 
quired by  the  statute  (a)  to  conduct  its  activities 
in  accordance  with  the  purposes  and  principles  of 
the  United  Nations  and,  in  particular,  in  con- 
formity with  United  Nations  policies  furthering 
the  establishment  of  a  safeguarded  worldwide  dis- 
armament; (6)  to  control  the  use  of  such  fission- 
able materials  as  are  received  by  the  Agency  so  as 
to  ensure  that  they  are  used  only  for  peaceful 
purposes;  (c)  to  allocate  its  resources  so  as  to 
secure  efficient  utilization  and  wide  distribution  of 
their  benefits  throughout  the  world,  bearing  in 
mind  the  special  needs  of  the  underdeveloped 
areas;  (d)  to  submit  annual  reports  on  its  activi- 
ties to  the  General  Assembly  of  the  United  Na- 
tions; (e)  when  appropriate,  to  submit  reports 
and  information  to  the  Security  Council,  Eco- 
nomic and  Social  Council,  and  other  organs  of 
the  United  Nations;  (/)  to  refuse  to  give  assist- 
ance to  member  countries  under  political,  eco- 
nomic, military,  or  other  conditions  that  are  in- 
consistent with  the  statute;  and  {(/)  subject  to  the 
terms  of  any  agreements  that  may  be  made  be- 
tween a  state  or  group  of  states  and  the  Agency, 
to  give  due  observance  to  the  sovereign  rights  of 
states. 

ARTICLE  IV 

Initial  members  of  the  Agency  are  to  be  states 
members  of  the  United  Nations  or  of  any  of  the 
specialized  agencies  which  signed  the  statute 
within  90  days  after  it  was  opened  for  signature 
and  which  deposit  instruments  of  ratification. 
The  following  80  states  signied  the  statute  during 
the  period  it  was  open  for  signature: 


'  Not  printed  here. 

"English  translation  only  printed  here. 


Afslianistan 

Albania 

Ar.sontina 

Australia 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 


Burma 

Byelorussian  Soviet  So- 
cialist Republic 
Cambodia 
Canada 
Ceylon 
Cbilo 
China 
Colombia 


618 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


Costa  Rica 

Cuba 

(Czechoslovakia 

Denmarlj 

Dominican  Republic 

Ecuador 

Egypt 

El  Salvador 

Ethiopia 

France 

Federal     Republic-     of 

Germany 
Greece 
Guatemala 
Haiti 
Honduras 
Hungary 
Iceland 
India 
Indonesia 
Iran 
Iraq 
Israel 
Italy 
Japan 
Korea 
Laos 
Lebanon 
Liberia 
Libya 

Luxembourg 
Mexico 
Monaco 
Morocco 
Netherlands 


New  Zealand 

Nicaragua 

Norway 

Pakistan 

rauania 

Paraguay 

Peru 

Philippine  Republic 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Spain 

Sudan 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Syria 

Thailand 

Tunisia 

Turkey 

Ukrainian  Soviet  So- 
cialist Republic 

Union  of  South  Africa 

Union  of  Soviet  Social- 
ist Republics 

United  Kingdom  of 
Great  Britain  and 
Northern  Ireland 

United  States  of  Amer- 
ica 

Uruguay 

Vatican  City 

Venezuela 

Viet-Nam 

Yugoslavia 


Otlier  states  may  become  members  of  the  Agency 
if  their  membership  is  approved  by  the  General 
Conference  upon  recommendation  of  the  Board 
of  Governors.  In  making  their  recommendations 
and  approvals,  the  Board  of  Governors  and  the 
General  Conference  are  directed  to — 

determine  that  the  State  is  able  and  willing  to  carry  out 
the  obligations  of  membership  in  the  Agency,  giving  due 
consideration  to  its  ability  and  willingness  to  act  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  purposes  and  principles  of  the  Charter 
of  the  United  Nations. 

ARTICLE  v 

The  General  Conference  of  the  Agency  is  to  be 
composed  of  representatives  of  all  the  members 
of  the  Agency,  each  member  having  one  vote 
therein.  The  General  Conference  is  to  meet  an- 
nually and  in  such  special  sessions  as  are  called 
by  the  Director  General  at  the  request  of  the  Board 
of  Governors  or  a  majority  of  the  members  of  the 
Agency.  Each  member  is  to  be  represented  at 
the  sessions  of  the  General  Conference  by  one  dele- 
gate who  may  be  accompanied  by  alternates  and 
advisers. 

The  General  Conference  is  to  have  powers  of 
discussion  and  recommendation  on  any  matters 
within  the  scope  of  the  statute.  In  addition,  it  is 
to  elect  10  members  of  the  Board  of  Governors. 


approve  states  for  memborsliip,  suspend  members 
for  persistent  violations  of  the  provisions  of  the 
statute  (art.  XIX),  and  consider  the  annual  re- 
port of  tlie  Board  of  Governors.  The  General 
Conference  is  also  to  be  responsible  for  approving, 
or  recommending  changes  in,  the  budget  submitted 
to  it  by  the  Board  of  Governors;  approving  re- 
ports to  be  submitted  to  the  United  Nations  except 
reports  to  the  Security  Council  of  noncompliance 
witli  Agency  safeguards  (art.  XII  (C))  ;  approv- 
ing, or  recommending  changes  in,  agreements  be- 
tween the  Agency  and  the  United  Nations  or  other 
organizations;  approving  rules  regarding  the  ex- 
ercise of  the  borrowing  power,  acceptance  of  vol- 
untai-y  contributions,  and  use  of  the  general  fund 
(art.  XIV  (F)):  approving  amendments  to  the 
statute;  and  approving  the  appointment  of  the 
Director  General.  The  General  Conference  may 
make  decisions  on  any  matter  referred  to  it  for 
that  purpose  by  the  Board  of  Governors  and  may 
propose  matters  for  consideration  by  the  Board 
or  request  reports  from  the  P>oard  on  any  matters 
relating  to  the  functions  of  the  Agency. 

ARTICLE  VI 

The  Board  of  Governors  is  to  have  primary 
responsibility  for  carrying  out  the  functions  of 
the  Agency.  In  pai-ticular,  it  is  to  have  responsi- 
bility for  determining  tlie  quantities  of  source  ma- 
terials, as  defined  in  article  XX,  and  other  ma- 
terials the  Agency  will  accept  and  the  use  of  such 
source  and  special  fissionable  materials  as  are  made 
available  to  the  Agency  (art.  IX) ;  for  ap^jroving 
projects  for  the  peaceful  use  of  atomic  energy 
(art.  XI)  ;  for  imposing  sanctions  against  mem- 
bers which  do  not  comply  with  Agency  safeguards 
(ai't.  XII)  ;  for  submitting  to  the  General  Con- 
ference an  annual  report  (art.  VI)  and  tlie  annual 
budget  estimates,  apportioning  administrative  ex- 
penses among  members  in  accordance  with  a  scale 
to  be  fixed  by  the  General  Conference,  and  estab- 
lishing periodically  a  scale  of  charges,  for  ma- 
terials, services,  equipment  and  facilities  fur- 
nished to  members  by  the  Agency  (art.  XIV) ;  for 
negotiating  agreements  establishing  the  relation- 
sliip  of  the  Agency  to  tlie  United  Nations  and 
other  organizations  (art.  XVI) ;  for  requesting, 
when  necessary,  special  sessions  of  the  General 
Conference  (art.  V)  ;  for  designating  nonelected 
members  to  the  succeeding  Board  and  for  estab- 
lishing necessary  committees  (art.  VI)  ;  for  ap- 


April    15,    1957 


619 


pointing  with  consent  of  the  General  Conference 
the  Director  General  (art.  VII)  ;  and  for  prepar- 
ing such  reports  as  the  Agency  is  required  to  make 
to  the  United  Nations  or  other  organizations  (art. 

VI). 

In  forming  the  composition  of  the  Board,  the 
outgoing  Board  (or  in  the  case  of  the  firet  Board, 
the  Preparatory  Commission  referred  to  in  the 
annex  to  the  statute)  designates  (a)  the  5  mem- 
bers most  advanced  in  the  technology  of  atomic 
energy  including  the  production  of  source  ma- 
terials; (b)  the  member  most  advanced  in  the 
technology  of  atomic  energy  including  the  pro- 
duction of  source  materials  from  each  of  the  fol- 
lowing areas  not  represented  by  the  aforesaid  5 : 
North  America,  Latin  America,  Western  Europe, 
Eastern  Europe,  Africa  and  the  Middle  East, 
South  Asia,  South  East  Asia  and  the  Pacific  and 
the  Far  East;  (c)  2  members  from  the  following 
producers  of  source  materials :  Belgium,  Czecho- 
slovakia, Poland,  and  Portugal;  (d)  1  other 
member  as  a  supplier  of  technical  assistance;  in 
addition,  the  General  Conference  elects  (e)  10 
members,  having  due  regard  to  the  equitable  rep- 
resentation on  the  Board  of  those  areas  listed  above 
(category  (&))  so  that  the  Board  at  all  times  in- 
cludes in  this  category  a  member  from  each  of 
those  areas  except  North  America.  Members  des- 
ignated under  categories  (d)  and  (e)  (except  for 
5  members  elected  to  the  first  Board)  are  ineligible 
for  redesignation  or  reelection  in  the  same  cate- 
gory the  following  year.  Each  member  of  the 
Board  has  one  vote,  and  decisions  are  taken  by  a 
majority  of  those  present  and  voting,  except  for 
decisions  on  the  Agency's  budget  which  require  a 
two-thirds  majority  of  those  present  and  voting. 

ARTICLE  VII 

The  staif  of  the  Agency  is  to  be  headed  by  a 
Director  General  appointed  for  4  years  by  the 
Board  of  Governors  with  the  approval  of  the 
General  Conference.  He  is  to  be  responsible  for 
the  appointment,  organization,  and  functioning 
of  the  staif,  subject  to  the  control  of  the  Board  of 
Govemoi-s  and  in  accordance  with  regulations 
they  adopt.  The  Agency  staff  is  to  be  kept  to  a 
minimum.  In  recruiting  the  staff  and  determin- 
ing the  conditions  of  service,  the  paramount  con- 
sideration is  to  be  to  secure  em])loyees  of  the 
higliest  standards  of  efficiency,  technical  com- 
petence, and  integrity.     Subject  to  that  considera- 


tion, due  regard  is  to  be  paid  to  members'  con- 
tributions to  the  Agency  and  to  tlie  importance  of 
recruiting  staff  on  as  wide  a  geographical  basis 
as  possible. 

The  Director  General  and  the  staff  are  forbid- 
den to  disclose  any  industrial  secret  or  other  con- 
fidential information  coming  to  their  knowledge 
by  reason  of  their  official  duties  for  the  Agency. 
Tlie  international  character  of  the  responsibilities 
of  the  Director  General  and  the  staff'  are  recog- 
nized. 

ARTICLE   VIII 

Article  VIII  of  the  statute  contains  provisions 
for  the  exchange  and  dissemination  of  informa- 
tion relating  to  the  nature  and  peacefid  uses  of 
atomic  energy.  It  provides  that  each  member 
should  make  available  such  information  as  would, 
in  the  judgment  of  the  member,  be  helpful  to  the 
Agency,  and  requires  each  member  to  make  avail- 
able all  scientific  information  acquired  as  a  result 
of  assistance  extended  by  the  Agency.  The 
Agency  ia  to  make  information  thus  acquired 
available  in  accessible  form  and  to  encourage  the 
exchange  of  information  among  its  members.  The 
statute  in  no  way  requires  a  government  to  trans- 
mit classified  information. 

ARTICLE  IX 

Provisions  governing  the  supply  of  special  fis- 
sionable, source,  and  otlier  materials  by  members 
to  the  Agency  are  detailed  in  article  IX.  Mem- 
bers are  required  to  notify  the  Agency  annually  of 
the  quantities,  form,  and  composition  of  the  ma- 
terials that  they  will  voluntarily  make  available 
to  the  Agency  during  the  succeeding  calendar 
year.  The  materials  are  to  be  supplied  on  terms 
agreed  to  between  the  Agency  and  the  members 
supplying  them.  The  Boai'd  of  Governors  is  to 
determine  the  use  to  be  made  of  materials  supplied 
by  members,  and  no  member  has  the  right  to  re- 
quire the  Agency  to  keep  separate  the  materials 
that  it  supplies  or  to  designate  the  specific  project 
in  which  they  may  be  used.  The  materials  sup- 
plied may,  in  the  discretion  of  the  member  sup- 
plying them,  be  stored  by  that  member  or  by  the 
Agency.  The  Agency  is  to  be  resjionsible  for 
storing  and  protecting  the  materials  in  its  pos- 
session, and,  to  that  end,  the  Agency  is  required 
to  establish  or  acquire  such  facilities  (storage, 
laboratories,  housing,  etc.) ,  safeguards,  and  health 
and  safety  measures  as  are  necessary. 


620 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


ARTICLE  X 

In  addition  to  special  fissionable,  source,  and 
otlier  materials,  members  may  make  available  to 
tiie  Agency  services,  equipment,  and  facilities  that 
may  be  of  assistance  in  carrying  out  the  Agency's 
projects. 

ARTICLE  XI 

Agency  participation  in  pi-ojects  for  peaceful 
uses  of  atomic  energy  may  be  requested  by  any 
member  or  group  of  members.  Agency  participa- 
tion takes  the  form  of  supplying,  or  arranging  for 
the  supply  of,  necessary  materials,  services,  equip- 
ment, and  facilities,  as  well  as  assisting  in  securing 
financial  support  from  outside  sources.  A  mem- 
ber or  group  of  members  requesting  the  assistance 
of  the  Agency  is  required  to  submit  an  explana- 
tion of  the  purpose  and  extent  of  the  project  and, 
in  considering  the  request,  the  Agency  may  send 
qualified  persons  into  the  territory  of  the  member 
or  members  making  the  request  to  examine  the 
l^roject.  The  Statute  states  specific  criteria  that 
are  to  be  considered  by  the  Board  of  Governors 
before  approving  a  project:  (1)  usefulness  and 
technical  feasibility ;  (2)  probability  of  successf id 
completion;  (3)  adequacy  of  safeguards;  (4)  need 
for  Agency  assistance;  (5)  equitable  distribution 
of  materials  and  other  resources  available  to  the 
Agency;  (6)  special  needs  of  the  underdeveloped 
areas.  In  addition  the  Board  is  directed  to  con- 
sider "such  other  matters  as  may  be  relevant." 

If  the  Board  approves  a  project,  an  implement- 
ing agreement  is  concluded  between  the  Agency 
and  the  member  or  group  of  members  submitting 
the  project.  The  statute  requires  that  the  agree- 
ment shall  include  provisions  covering  the  follow- 
ing topics:  (1)  allocation  of  required  special  fis- 
sionable or  other  materials  to  the  project;  (2) 
transfer  of  such  materials,  under  appropriate  safe- 
guards, to  the  member  or  group  of  members  sub- 
mitting the  project;  (3)  terms  and  conditions  on 
which  any  materials,  services,  equipment,  and  fa- 
cilities are  provided  to  the  member  or  members 
submitting  the  project;  (4)  an  undertaking  that 
the  assistance  provided  will  not  be  used  to  further 
any  military  purpose;  (5)  the  relevant  safeguards 
applicable  under  article  XII  of  the  statute;  (6) 
rights  and  interests  of  the  Agency  and  of  the 
member  or  members  concerned  in  any  invention  or 
discoveries  arising  from  the  project;  (7)  settle- 
ment of  disputes ;  and  (S)  such  other  provisions  as 
the  Board  of  Governors  considers  appropriate. 


ARTICLE  XII 

Article  XII,  dealing  witli  safeguards,  is  crucial 
to  the  acliievement  of  the  Agency's  objectives.  It 
was  debated  at  great  length  in  tlie  Conference  tliat 
drafted  the  statute.  By  incorporating  article 
XII  in  the  statute,  the  Conference  gave  recog- 
nition to  tiie  need  for  .safeguards  designed  to  pre- 
vent source  and  fissionable  material  used  or  pro- 
duced in  Agency-sponsored  projects  from  being 
diverted  to  use  for  militai-y  purposes. 

The  safeguards  are  applicable  only  "to  the  ex- 
tent relevant  to  the  project  or  arrangement"  in 
question.  For  example,  if  the  Agency  were  to 
supply  radioisotopes  for  medical  diagnosis,  there 
would  be  neither  occasion  nor  need  for  any  safe- 
guards other  than  those  relating  to  the  protec- 
tion of  health  and  safety.  The  first  safeguard 
specified  in  article  XII  (A)  gives  the  Agency  the 
right  and  the  responsibility  to — ■ 

examine  the  design  of  specialized  equipment  and  facilities, 
incluclini:  luielear  reactors,  and  to  approve  it  only  from 
tlie  viewpoint  of  assuring  tliat  it  will  not  further  any 
military  purpose,  that  it  complies  with  applicable  health 
and  safety  standards,  and  that  it  will  permit  elTective 
application  of  the  safeguards  provided  for  in  this  article. 

Approval  or  disapproval  of  a  design  on  the  basis 
of  criteria  that  are  not  relevant  to  the  problem  of 
safeguards  would  be  improper  under  article  XII, 
altliough  it  should  be  pointed  out  that  questions  of 
scientific  and  technical  feasibility,  etc.,  are  to  be 
considered  by  the  Board  of  Governors  in  approv- 
ing the  project  as  a  whole  (art.  XI). 

The  second  listed  safeguard,  requiring  observ- 
ance of  health  and  safety  measures  prescribed  by 
the  Agency,  is  aimed  at  the  protection  of  life  and 
property. 

The  third  and  fourth  listed  safeguards,  dealing 
with  the  making  of  operating  records  and  prog- 
ress reports  in  order  to  insure  accountability  for 
source  and  special  fissionable  materials  used  or 
produced  in  Agency  products,  are  necessary  to 
prevent  diversion  to  military  purposes  as  well  as 
to  achieve  sound  management  and  administration. 

The  fifth  listed  safeguard  provides  that  the 
means  used  for  chemical  processing  of  materials 
irradiated  in  an  Agency-sponsored  project  must 
be  approved  by  the  Agency.  It  is  necessary  that 
the  Agency  have  this  right,  for  the  dangers  to 
health  and  safety  and  the  possibility  of  diversion 
to  military  purposes  during  the  chemical  pro- 
cessing are  great.  The  Agency  is  also  given  the 
right  to  require  that  any  special  fissionable  ma- 


April   ?5,   7957 


621 


terials  recovered  or  produced  as  a  byproduct  of 
an  Agency-sponsored  project  be  used  for  peace- 
ful purposes  under  continuing  Agency  safe- 
guards or,  if  such  byproducts  are  in  excess  of 
current  needs  for  peaceful  purposes,  to  require 
that  they  be  deposited  with  the  Agency  until  such 
time  as  the  member  or  members  concerned  can 
put  them  to  peaceful  uses.  These  requirements 
provide  the  basis  for  preventing  the  accumulation 
by  members  of  stockpiles  of  special  fissionable 
materials  from  Agency  projects.  Such  provisions 
are  essential,  since  a  stockpile  honestly  intended 
for  future  peaceful  use  is  indistinguishable  from 
one  intended  for  future  military  use  and  could, 
in  fact,  be  turned  to  military  uses.  However,  the 
fact  that  a  nation  producing  byproduct  fissionable 
materials  in  an  Agency-sponsored  project  cannot 
stockpile  them  itself  does  not  mean  that  it  cannot 
make  full  use  of  them  for  peaceful  purposes  at 
some  future  time,  for  the  Statute  expressly  pro- 
vides that  such  materials  deposited  with  the 
Agency  shall  "at  the  request  of  the  member  or 
members  concerned  ...  be  returned  promptly 
.  .  .  for  use  under"  continuing  Agency  safe- 
guards. 

The  sixth  listed  safeguard  is  inspection.  After 
consultation  with  the  state  or  states  concerned,  the 
Agency  has  the  right  to  send  into  recipient  states 
inspectors  selected  in  accordance  with  the  stand- 
ards set  foi-th  in  article  VII.  They  are  to  be  given 
access  at  all  times  to  all  places  and  data  and  to  any 
person  who  by  reason  of  his  occupation  deals  with 
materials,  equipment,  or  facilities  which  are 
required  by  the  statute  to  be  safeguarded,  as 
necessary  to  account  for  source  and  fissionable 
materials  and  to  verify  compliance  with  the  ap- 
plicable health  and  safety  measures,  witli  the 
undertaking  against  use  in  furtherance  of  any 
military  purpose,  and  with  any  other  conditions 
prescribed  in  the  agreement  between  the  Agency 
and  the  state  or  states  concerned. 

The  inspectors  ai-e  also  charged  with  the  respon- 
sibility (art.  XII  (B))  for  examining  all  opera- 
tions conducted  by  the  Agency  itself  in  order  to 
insure  that  the  Agency's  activities,  equally  with 
those  of  the  recipient  countries,  comply  with  the 
appropriate  health  and  safety  measures  and  <^hat 
adequate  measures  are  taken  to  prevent  source 
and  special  fissionable  materials  in  the  custody  of 
the  Agency  or  used  or  produced  in  its  operations 
from  being  used  in  furtherance  of  any  military 
purpose. 


Subparagraph  C  of  article  XII  spells  out  the 
procedures  by  which  sanctions  are  brought  to  bear 
in  the  event  of  noncompliance  with  the  applicable 
safeguards  and  undertakings.  The  inspectors  re- 
port noncompliance  to  the  Director  General,  who 
in  turn  transmits  the  report  to  the  Board  of 
Governors.  The  Board  is  required  to  report  the 
noncompliance  to  all  members  of  the  Agency  and 
to  the  Security  Council  and  General  Assembly  of 
the  United  Nations.  If  the  recipient  state  or 
states  fail  to  take  corrective  action  within  a  reason- 
able time,  the  Board  may  curtail  or  suspend 
Agency  assistance  and  call  for  the  return  of  ma- 
terials and  equipment  made  available  to  the  state 
or  states  concerned.  In  accordance  with  article 
XIX,  the  Agency  may  also  suspend  any  non- 
complying  member  from  the  exercise  of  the  privi- 
leges and  rights  of  membei"shii3. 

ARTICLE  xm 

Article  XIII  provides  that,  unless  otherwise 
agreed  upon  between  the  Board  of  Governors  and 
the  member  furnishing  to  the  Agency  materials, 
services,  equipment,  or  facilities,  the  Board  shall 
enter  into  an  agreement  with  such  member  pro- 
viding for  reimbursement  for  the  items  furnished. 

ARTICLE  xrv 

Provisions  regarding  finance  are  set  forth  in  ar- 
ticle XIV.  Annual  budget  estimates  for  Agency 
expenses  are  to  be  prepared  initially  by  the  Di- 
rector General  and  submitted  by  the  Board  of 
Governors  to  the  General  Conference  for  approval. 
If  the  General  Conference  does  not  approve  the 
estimates,  it  may  make  recommendations  to  the 
Board  so  that  the  latter  may  submit  further  esti- 
mates. 

Administrative  expenses  of  the  Agency  will  in- 
clude costs  of  administrative  staff,  costs  of  meet- 
ings, expenses  of  preparing  Agency  projects  and 
distributing  information,  together  with  such  costs 
of  implementing  safeguards  and  of  handling  and 
storing  special  fissionable  material  as  are  not  other- 
wise recoverable.  The  scale  to  be  used  in  appor- 
tioning administrative  expenses  among  the  mem- 
ber states  is  to  be  fixed  by  the  General  Conference, 
which  is  to  be  guided  by  the  principles  followed 
in  assessing  contributions  of  member  states  to  the 
United  Nations  budget. 

The  cost  of  materials,  facilities,  plants  and  equip- 
ment furnished  by  tlie  Agency  and  expenses  (other 
than  administrative  expenses)  incurred  in  connec- 


622 


Department   of   Sfafe   Bulletin 


tion  therewith  are  to  be  financed  through  charges. 
The  scale  of  charges  is  to  be  worked  out  periodi- 
cally by  the  Board  of  Governors.  In  addition, 
voluntary  contributions  received  by  the  Agency 
may  be  applied,  at  the  discretion  of  the  Board  of 
Governors,  to  meet  such  expenses.  A  separate 
fund  is  to  be  set  up  to  receive  the  proceeds  of  the 
operational  charges  assessed  against  members. 
Out  of  this  fund,  members  furnishing  materials, 
services,  equipment,  or  facilities  are  to  be  reim- 
bursed and  operational  expenses  of  the  Agency 
in  connection  with  these  items  are  to  be  met. 

If  the  revenues  of  this  type  exceed  operational 
expenses  and  costs,  the  excess  is  to  be  placed  in  a 
general  fund,  together  with  any  unobligated  vol- 
untary contributions  received  by  the  Agency.  The 
general  fund  may  be  used  as  detei'mined  by  the 
Board  of  Governors,  with  the  approval  of  the 
General  Conference. 

The  statute  provides  also  for  borrowing  powere 
on  the  part  of  the  Agency.  It  makes  clear,  how- 
ever, that  members  of  the  Agency  ai-e  not  legally 
or  financially  liable  for  lepayment  of  the  money 
borrowed. 

A  two-thirds  majority  of  those  present  and  vot- 
ing is  required  for  decisions  of  the  General  Con- 
ference on  financial  questions  and  of  the  Board  of 
Governors  on  the  amount  of  the  Agency's  budget. 


AKTICLE  XV 


Article  XV  concerns  legal  capacity,  privileges, 
and  immunities  to  be  enjoyed  by  the  Agency  in 
the  territory  of  each  member,  and  the  privileges 
and  immunities  to  be  enjoyed  by  delegates,  alter- 
nates, advisers,  the  Director  General,  and  the 
Agency  staff  in  exercising  their  official  functions. 
Provision  is  made  for  special  agreements  on  this 
subject  between  the  Agency  and  its  members. 

It  is  anticipated  that  such  privileges  and  im- 
munities as  may  be  granted  in  the  United  States 
will  be.  pursuant  to  the  International  Organiza- 
tions Immunities  Act  (22  U.S.C.  288  et  seq.). 

ARTICLE  XVI 

Establislunent  by  special  agreement  of  the  re- 
lationship between  the  Agency  and  the  United 
N'ations  is  provided  for  by  article  XVI,  with 
special  reference  to  submission  of  reports  to  the 
United  Nations  and  consideration  of  United 
Nations  resolutions.  The  article  also  anticipates 
the  establishment  by  special  agi-eement  of  an  ap- 


propriate relationship  between  the  Agency  and 
other  organizations  wilh  lelalod  interests. 

ARTICLE  XVII 

Article  XVII  calls  for  reference  to  the  Inter- 
national (yourt  of  Justice  of  disputes  concerning 
interpretation  or  application  of  the  statute,  unless 
the  parties  concerned  agree  on  another  mode  of 
.settlement.  In  addition,  the  General  Conference 
and  the  Board  of  (lovernors  are  separately  em- 
powered, subject  to  autliorization  from  the  United 
Nations  General  Assembly,  to  request  the  Inter- 
national Court  of  Justice  to  give  an  advisoiy 
opinion  on  any  legal  question  arising  within  tlie 
scope  of  the  Agency's  activities. 

ARTICLE   XVIII 

Amendments  to  the  statute  are  [jrovided  for  in 
article  XVIII.  Proposals  for  amendment  may 
be  made  by  any  member  and  will  be  communi- 
cated to  all  members  at  least  ninety  days  before 
being  considered  by  the  General  Conference. 
Amendments  come  into  force  for  all  membei-s 
when  they  have  been  approved  by  the  General 
Conference  by  a  two-thirds  majority  of  those 
present  and  voting  and  have  been  accepted  by  two- 
thirds  of  all  the  members  in  accordance  with  their 
respective  constitutional  processes. 

If  a  member  is  unwilling  to  accept  an  amend- 
ment to  the  statute,  it  may  withdraw  from  the 
Agency  by  notice  in  writing  to  the  depositary 
government.  In  addition,  a  member  may  with- 
draw for  any  reason  at  any  time  after  5  years  from 
the  date  the  statute  takes  effect.  Withdrawal 
does  not  relieve  a  member  of  its  contractual  obli- 
gations with  regard  to  assistance  received  from 
the  Agency,  or  budgetary  obligations  for  the  year 
in  which  it  withdraws. 

This  article  also  provides  that  the  question  of 
a  general  review  of  the  statute  is  to  be  placed  on 
the  agenda  of  the  fifth  annual  session  of  the  Gen- 
eral Conference.  If  approved  by  a  majority  of 
members  present  and  voting,  the  review  is  to  take 
place  at  the  next  General  Conference.  There- 
after, a  proposal  for  general  review  may  be  sub- 
mitted at  any  General  Conference  session. 

ARTICLE  XIX 

If  a  member  of  the  Agency  becomes  in  arrears 
in  its  financial  contributions  to  the  Agency  in  an 
amount  totaling  2  years'  contributions,  it  is  to  lose 
its  vote  in  the  Agency  unless  the  General  Con- 


April   15,   1957 


623 


ference  is  satistiod  that  failuiv  to  pay  is  due  to 
conditions  bevond  the  member's  control  (art, 
XIX). 

Persistent  violation  of  the  statute  or  of  any 
airreeinent  made  under  it  may  result  in  suspension 
of  tlie  otlenilinir  member  from  privilesres  and 
riirhts  of  membership.  Decisions  on  suspension 
are  to  be  made,  upon  recommendation  of  the  Board 
of  Governors,  by  a  two-thirds  majority  of  niem- 
l)ei's  present  and  voting  in  the  General  Gonfer- 
ence. 

ARTICLE  XX 

Article  XX  defines  the  terms  "special  fissionable 
material."  "uranium  enriched  in  the  isotopes  235 
or  2'.M."  and  "source  material." 

.\RT1CLE  XXI 

In  accordance  with  article  XXI,  the  statute  was 
opened  for  signature  on  October  26,  lOoG,  by  states 
meml>ei-s  of  the  Ignited  Nations  or  of  any  of  the 
specialized  airencies  and  remained  open  for  90 
days.  KatiHcation  bv  signal orv  states  is  called 
for. 

The  United  States  is  named  depositary  Gov- 
ernment for  receipt  of  instruments  of  notification 
by  signatory  states  and  instruments  of  acceptance 
by  states  approved  for  membership  in  conformity 
with  the  statute.  It  is  specified  that  ratification 
or  acceptance  by  states  is  to  be  efi'ected  in  accord- 
ance with  constitutional  proi-esses. 

The  statute,  apart  from  its  annex,  conies  into 
force  on  deposit  of  instnunents  of  ratification  by 
18  states,  including  3  of  the  following:  Ganada, 
France,  the  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics, 
the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  United  States. 
The  annex,  by  the  terms  of  article  XXI,  came  into 
force  Octolier  26,  lt>56,  the  day  on  which  the 
statute  was  opened  for  signature. 

.\RTICLE  XXII 

Article  XXIl  provides  for  registration  of  the 
statute  pursuant  to  article  102  of  the  United  Na- 
tions Gharter.  In  addition,  agreements  between 
the  Agency  ami  any  member  or  membei-s,  agree- 
ments between  the  Agency  and  any  other  org-ani- 
zation  or  organizations,  and  agreements  between 
members  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Agency 
are  to  be  i-egistered  with  the  Agency  and,  if  re- 
quired by  article  102  of  the  United  Nations  Ghar- 
ter, are  also  to  be  registered  with  the  United 
Nations. 


ARTICLE  xxm 

Article  XXIIl  provides  for  equal  authenticity 
of  the  five  langiuvge  texts  in  which  the  statute  is 
drawn  up  and  for  transmittal  of  certified  copies 
of  the  statute  to  the  governments  concerned. 

AXXEX    I 

The  annex  to  the  statute  establishes  a  Prepara- 
tory Gommission,  which  is  composed  of  1  repre- 
sentative each  of  Australia,  Belgium,  Brazil, 
Ganada,  Gzechoslovakia,  France,  India,  Portugal, 
Union  of  South  Africa,  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist 
Republics,  the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  United 
States,  and  1  representative  each  of  6  other  states 
which  were  chosen  by  the  International  Gonfer- 
ence  on  the  Statute  of  the  International  Atomic 
Energy-  Agency  (Argentina,  Egypt,  Indonesia, 
Japan,  Pakistan,  and  Peru).  The  Preparatory 
Gommission  is  to  remain  in  existence  until  the 
first  General  Gonference  of  the  Agency  is  con- 
vened and  a  Board  of  (lovernoi-s  has  Ihhmi  selected 
in  accordance  with  article  VI  of  the  statute.  The 
Gonunission  elects  its  own  officers,  adopts  its  own 
rules  of  privedure,  establishes  such  committees  as 
it  deems  necessttry,  and  determines  its  place  of 
meeting.  It  has  appointed  an  Executive  Secre- 
tary and  a  small  stall  in  accordance  with  the  pro- 
visions of  the  annex.  The  expenses  of  the  Com- 
mission are  being  met  by  a  loan  negotiated  by  the 
Gonunission  with  the  United  Nations.  The  loan 
is  ultimately  to  be  repaid  by  the  Agency.  If  the 
funds  from  this  source  should  prove  insufficient, 
the  Gommission  is  empowered  to  accept  advances 
from  governments;  if  such  advances  are  made, 
they  may  be  set  otf  against  contributions  of  the 
governments  concerned  to  the  Agency. 

The  functions  of  the  Preparatory  Gonunission 
are  (a)  to  make  arrangements  foi'  the  first  session 
of  the  General  Gonference  of  the  Agency,  includ- 
ing the  preparation  of  a  provisional  agenda  and 
draft  rules  of  procedure;  (h)  to  designate  certain 
members  of  the  first  Board  of  Governors  of  the 
Agency  in  accordajiee  with  subparagraphs  A-1 
and  A-2  and  paragraph  B  of  article  VI  of  the 
statute;  (c-)  to  make  studies,  reports,  and  recom- 
mendations for  tJie  first  session  of  the  General 
Gonference  and  for  the  Board  of  Governors  on 
subjects  requiring  immediate  attention,  including 
financing,  prognwus  and  budget,  technical  prob- 
lems relevant  to  planning  Agency  operations, 
establishment  of  a  permanent  stall'  of  the  Agency, 
and  location  of  permanent  headquartere  for  the 


624 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


Agency;  {d)  to  make  recommendations  for  the 
first  meetinf^  of  the  ]ioar«i  of  (iovemois  concern- 
ing the  provisions  of  a  headquarters  agreement; 
(e)  to  negotiate  with  the  United  Nations  regard- 
ing a  draft  agi-eement  to  define  the  relationship 
between  the  United  Nations  and  the  Agency;  and 
(/)  to  make  recommendations  wjncerning  tlie 
relationship  of  the  Agency  to  other  international 
organizations. 


LETTER     FROM     CHAIRMAN     OF    VENEZUELAN 
DELEGATION 

Republic  of  Venezuela 
delega'non  to  tjie  united  nations 

New  Yohk,  M  October  1956 
Sir,  I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you  that  in  ac- 
cordance with  instructions  I  have  received  from 
the  Venezuelan  Government  my  delegation  has 
been  authorized  to  sign  the  Statute  of  the  Inter- 
national Atomic  Energy  iVgency,  subject  to  the 
terms  of  the  following  declaration: 

"The  Delegation  of  Venezuela  signs  the  pres- 
ent Statute  a/1  refererulum  and  on  the  under- 
standing that : 

1)  As  regards  article  XVII,  the  signing  or 
ratification  of  this  Instrument  b}-  Venezuela 
does  not  imply  Venezuela's  acceptance  of  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  International  Court  of 
Justice  without  its  express  consent  in  each  in- 
dividual case: 

2)  No  amendment  to  this  Instrument  under 
paragraph  C  of  article  XVIII  shall  be  re- 
garded by  Venezuela  as  operative  until  its 
constitutional  provisions  concerning  the  rati- 
fication and  def)Osit  of  public  treaties  have 
been  complied  with." 

I  also  have  the  honour  to  confirm  that  the  fol- 
lowing members  of  my  delegation  ha%-e  been  au- 
thorized to  sign  the  aforesaid  Statute :  the  under- 
signed. Dr.  FrancLsco  Alfonzo  Ravard  and  Dr. 
Marcel  Granier. 

I  have  the  honour  to  Ije,  Sir,  etc., 

(signed)     Hu3Ibebto  Feenaxdez-Moran 
Chairman  of  the  Venezuelan  Delegation  to  the 

Conference  on  the  Statute  of  the  Interruitiorud 

Atomic  Energy  Agency. 

His  Excellency  Mr.  Joao  Carlos  Muniz, 
Preiident  of  tlce  Conference  on  the  Statute  of  the 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency. 


Amendment  to  Anglo-American 
Financial  Agreement  of  1945 

Statcnumt  hy  'J'/iorHten  V.  KoJijurvi ' 

It  is  a  pleasant  duty  to  n\)\)f,u-  fjcfon-  this  com- 
mittee to  speak  in  support  of  Senate  Joint  Reso- 
lution 72  to  approve  tlie  signature  )<y  tin;  Sc/rre- 
tary  of  the  Treasury  of  the  agreement  of  March  C, 
19.'i7,  amending  the  Anglo-American  Financial 
Agreement  of  104.0.^ 

Secretary  Humphrey  has  explained  the  sub- 
stance and  financial  significance  of  the  amenda- 
tory agre(;ment  and  the  tw;lmical  proljU-ms  that 
led  to  its  negotiation,  and  I  assume  that  you  do 
not  wish  me  to  cover  the  same  ground.  I  would, 
however,  like  to  add  a  fwjtnote  on  the  financial 
side. 

A\lien  the  financial  agreement  was  concluded  in 
V.)i.},  the  United  States  and  the  Unite^l  Kingdom 
alsfj  agreed  on  a  joint  statement  on  the  settle- 
ment for  lend-lease  and  reciprocal  aid,  surj>lus 
war  property,  and  claims.  Paragraph  4  of  the 
joint  statement  provides:  "The  total  liability 
found  U>  be  due  to  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  will  be  disf,liarged  on  the  same  terms  as 
those  specified  in  the  Financial  Agrftement.  .  .  ." 
Accordingly,  the  provisions  of  the  amendatory 
agreement  now  before  this  committee  will,  when 
approved,  automatically  apply  to  Uriti.sh  pay- 
ments on  the  lend-lease  and  suq>lu.s-property 
obligations. 

The  total  liability  of  the  I'liited  Kingdom  un- 
der the  settlement  was  determined  U>  Ije  $022 
million,  requiring  payments  of  interest  and  prin- 
cipal, combine<l,  of  %V.i  million  a  year.  The  United 
States  has  received  almf^st  §70  million  on  the  prin- 
cipal and  %:)H  million  in  interest  on  this  a/:count. 
These  amounts  represent  payments  in  full  of  in- 
stallments due  in  V.):)\  through  V.):>:>  and  the  pay- 
ment of  principal  due  in  lO.vO.  Interest  of  alxjut 
$11  million  due  in  19.56  was  withheld  [sending  tlie 
outcome  of  the  liriti.sh  claim  for  a  waiver  of 
interest.  These  figures  are  indudwl  in  the  t/jtaLs 
jast  given  to  the  committee  by  Secretary 
Humphrey. 


'  Made  before  the  Senate  Banking  and  Currency  Com- 
mittee on  Mar.  l-'J  rpreKs  release  147).  Mr.  Kalijarri  was 
testifyinsr  a«  Acting  Deputy  Under  Secretary  for  Eco- 
nomic Affairs. 

'  For  text  of  amendatory  agreement  and  Prerf'lerit'H 
mei».sage  of  tranamittal,  see  liCLiXTi."!  of  Mar.  ^-I,  I'J'il, 
p.  492. 


April   15,    7  957 


625 


Paragraph  6  of  the  joint  statement  provides 
for  drawings  by  the  United  States  of  up  to  $50 
million  in  sterling  against  the  total  British  lia- 
bility. These  funds  may  be  used  to  finance  the 
Fulbright  educational  exchange  program  and  the 
United  States  foreign  buildings  program.  Un- 
der the  original  understanding,  this  facility  was 
to  terminate  on  December  31,  1951,  but  the  termi- 
nation date  was  later  changed  by  agreement  to 
December  31,  1958.  Since  the  termination  date 
is  not  far  off  and  since  it  appeared  that  a  sub- 
stantial part  of  the  $50  million  would  not  be  drawn 
by  1958,  the  Department  of  State  took  the  oppor- 
tunity afforded  by  the  recent  discussions  to  sug- 
gest that  the  termination  date  be  deferred  for  a 
further  period.  The  British  Govermnent  has  in- 
dicated that  it  is  willing  to  eliminate  the  terminal 
date  entirely,  thus  giving  the  United  States  the 
right  to  draw  sterling  against  the  remainder  of 
the  $50  million  for  the  duration  of  the  agreement. 
This  change  will  insure  that  sterling  funds  will 
be  available  to  continue  for  a  number  of  years 
the  educational  and  buildings  programs  aiithor- 
ized  by  the  Congress. 

Importance  of  U.S.-U.K.  Relations 

Now  we  may  turn  to  some  broader  questions.  I 
do  not  believe  that  the  Department  of  State  can 
speak  in  support  of  the  measure  before  the  com- 
mittee without  again  referring  to  the  importance 
to  the  United  States  of  our  relations  with  the 
United  Kingdom.  The  United  States  and  the 
United  Kingdom  stand  together  as  friends  in  pro- 
moting, with  other  countries  of  the  fi'ee  world, 
our  common,  fmidamental  ideals  of  justice  and 
freedom  for  people  and  nations.  Without  this 
firm  association,  the  security  of  the  two  countries 
and  of  other  free  and  independent  nations  would 
be  weakened.  We  in  the  United  States  put  a  high 
value  on  the  close  relationships  between  the  United 
States  and  the  United  Kingdom ;  the  United  King- 
dom does  also,  and  so  do  other  nations  of  the  free 
world. 

Nations,  like  people,  keep  their  friendsliips  in 
good  repair  by  forestalling  potential  sources  of 
friction  and  by  resolving  differences  fairly  and 
amicably,  and  as  quickly  as  possible,  when  they 
arise.  In  this  conception  lies  the  plain  virtue  of 
the  amendatory  agreement  that  the  Piesident  has 
sent  to  the  Congress  for  its  approval.  The  new 
arrangement  provides  an  answer  to  a  difficult  ques- 


tion that  arose  in  the  ordinary  course  of  the  rela- 
tions between  the  United  States  and  the  United 
Kingdom  and,  despite  good  will  on  both  sides, 
remained  unsettled  for  several  years.  The  answer, 
which  we  see  before  us,  is  a  fair  one.  Taken  as 
a  whole,  the  new  arrangement  retains  the  balance 
that  was  embodied  in  the  original  agi-eement  of 
1945  and  does  not  confer  on  either  side  unreason- 
able advantages  or  place  upon  them  unreasonable 
burdens.  As  Secretary  Humphrey  has  shown,  the 
arrangement  is  workable  and  happily  simple.  For 
these  reasons,  the  Department  of  State  regards 
the  amendatory  agreement  as  a  good  agreement — 
good  for  the  United  States  and  good  for  the  United 
Kingdom. 

Need  for  Amending  Financial  Agreement 

Before  concluding  this  statement,  I  wish  to  un- 
derscore one  matter  that  the  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury  discussed,  that  is,  the  fundamental  need 
for  amending  the  original  text  of  the  financial 
agreement.  Wlien  the  1945  agreement  was  nego- 
tiated, the  two  Governments,  looking  ahead  to  55 
years  of  an  uncertain  future,  agreed  on  the  reason- 
ableness of  a  waiver  provision.  The  right  to  a 
■waiver  in  specified  circumstances  was  made  an 
integral  part  of  the  balance  of  the  agreement — in 
plain  words,  part  of  the  bargain.  Unfortunately, 
when  the  time  came  for  using  the  tests  enumerated 
in  the  waiver  formula,  it  was  found  practically 
impossible  to  apply  some  of  them  to  existing  con- 
ditions. 

It  became  clear  that,  if  this  problem  remained 
unresolved,  an  important  feature  of  the  agreement 
would  be  effectively  nullified.  This  result  was 
certainly  not  contemplated  when  the  agreement 
was  negotiated  in  1945.  In  the  circumstances, 
considerations  of  good  business,  constructive 
foreign  policy,  and  fair  play  dictated  that  the  two 
Governments  jointly  find  a  solution — in  particu- 
lar, a  solution  that  would  carry  out  the  spirit  of 
tlie  agreement  by  restoring  to  it  a  reasonable 
counterpart  of  the  balance  that  the  two  Govern- 
ments had  agreed  upon  in  1945.  The  Department 
of  State  believes  that  a  fair,  simple,  and  common- 
sense  solution  has  been  found  to  achieve  this  ob- 
jective. The  very  fact  that  such  a  sohilion  has 
been  found  through  amicable  negotiations  slmuld 
strengthen  the  bonds  of  friendship  and  respect 
tliat  hold  the  United  States  and  the  United  King- 
dom together. 


626 


Deparlmenf  of  State   Bulletin 


Question  of  U.S.  Approval 

of  Plant  Protection  Convention 

Statement  hy  Christofher  H.  Phillips ' 

1  am  appearing  here  today  as  a  representative 
of  the  Department  of  State  to  support  approval 
of  the  International  Plant  Protection  Convention, 
transmitted  to  the  Senate  by  the  President  on 
January  12, 1956.-  Tlie  convention  is  designed  to 
provide  for  international  cooperation  in  control- 
ling pests  and  diseases  of  phmts  and  plant  prod- 
ucts and  in  preventing  their  introduction  and 
spread  across  international  boundaries.  This  De- 
partment strongly  supports  the  objectives  and 
procedures  prescribed  in  the  convention  and  re- 
quests that  favorable  action  on  it  be  taken  bj'  this 
committee.  Some  historical  background  concern- 
ing the  development  of  the  convention  may  be  of 
assistance  to  the  committee. 

The  first  draft  of  the  International  Plant  Pro- 
tection Convention  was  drawn  up  at  an  Interna- 
tional Pliytopathological  Conference  held  on  the 
invitation  of  the  Government  of  the  Netherlands, 
April  26  to  May  3, 1950.  This  Conference  had  on 
its  agenda,  among  others,  a  consideration  of  cer- 
tain phases  of  international  relationships  in  the 
field  of  plant  protection,  in  particular,  (1)  the 
abrogation  of  the  Phylloxera  Convention  of  1881 ; 
(2)  the  drafting  of  a  revision  of  the  International 
Plant  Protection  Convention  of  1929;  (3)  the 
discussion  of  a  constitution  for  a  European  Plant 
Protection  Conference,  then  in  the  process  of  for- 
mation. 

The  inclusion  of  these  items  in  the  agenda  re- 
sulted from  recommendations  of  the  fifth  session 
of  the  Conference  of  the  Food  and  Agriculture 
Organization  (Fag)  held  in  "Washington  in  1949, 
Avhich  approved  a  previous  proposal  by  the  Direc- 
tor-General that  Fao  organize  a  worldwide  plant- 
pest  reporting  service.  This  action  covered  both 
Fao's  responsibility  for  facilitating  action  by  gov- 
ernments to  eradicate  and  control  plant  diseases 
and  assistance  to  member  countries  in  the  forma- 
tion of  an  international  network  to  report  on  the 
incidence  of  plant  diseases  and  insect  pests  of 
international   interest.    The  United  States  was 


'Made  before  the  Senate  Foreign  Relations  Committee 
on  Mar.  19  (press  release  157).  Mr.  Phillips  is  Deputy 
Assistant  Secretary  for  International  Organization 
Affairs. 

'  S.  Exec.  D,  84th  Cong.,  2d  sess. ;  also  printed  in  Bul- 
letin of  Feb.  20,  1956,  p.  311. 


represented  at  the  Conference  at  The  Hague  and 
in  the  subsequent  consultations  at  which  the  lan- 
guage of  the  convention  was  perfected.  The  re- 
sulting draft  was  presented  to  the  Fao  Conference, 
sixth  session,  meeting  in  Rome  in  November  1951. 
Tlie  Fao  Conference  apjjroved  the  convention  at 
tliat  time  and  recommended  that  it  be  opened  to 
signature  and  ratification  by  member  governments. 
The  convention  was  signed  on  belialf  of  the  United 
States  of  America  and  36  otlier  states  in  tlie  period 
between  December  6,  1951,  to  May  1,  1952.  The 
United  States  signed  ad  referendnm.  The  con- 
vention, in  accordance  with  article  XIV,  came  into 
force  on  April  3,  1952.  It  is  now  in  force  with 
respect  to  37  countries  wliich  have  completed  the 
ratification  or  adiierence  procedure. 

Previous  Conventions 

Tlie  Phylloxera  Convention  of  Bern  of  1881, 
which  was  ratified  and  adhered  to  by  16  European 
countries,  represented  the  first  international  action 
for  coordination  in  plant  protection  by  means  of 
quarantine  measures.  In  1929  an  International 
Plant  Protection  Convontion  was  dmwn  up  and 
agreed  to  at  a  meeting  sponsored  by  the  Interna- 
tional Institute  of  Agriculture  in  Rome.  The 
United  States  was  not  a  party  to  either  of  these 
conventions,  as  the  Department  of  Agriculture 
considered  that  they  were  not  satisfactory  from 
the  point  of  view  of  United  States  interests  and 
legislation.  However,  the  United  States  has  al- 
ways recognized  the  value  of  international  co- 
operation in  regard  to  the  international  control 
of  plant  pests  and  diseases  and,  tliercfore,  wel- 
comed the  new  approach  to  this  problem  through 
the  Fao. 

FAO's  Functions  in  Regard  to  International  Con- 
ventions 

Under  its  constitution,  the  Conference  of  the 
Fao  is  authorized  to  "submit  to  Member  Nations 
conventions  or  agreements  concerning  questions 
relating  to  food  and  agriculture.  .  .  .  Conven- 
tions or  agreements  approved  by  the  Conference 
or  Council  shall  come  into  force  for  each  Member 
Nation  only  after  acceptance  by  it  in  accordance 
with  its  constitutional  procedure." ' 

The  Rules  of  Procedure  wliich  govern  the  de- 
velopment of  conventions  by  Fao  provide  for  cer- 


'  FAO  Constitution,  art.  XIV. 


AprW    15,    1957 


627 


tain  specific  consiiltations  with  member  fjovern- 
ments  pi-ior  to  approval  of  the  convention  for  sub- 
mission to  governments  and,  in  addition,  provide 
that  "Any  convention  or  agreement  submitted  to 
Member  Nations  by  the  Conference  or  the  Coun- 
cil .  .  .  shall  come  into  force  as  the  convention, 
agreement,  regulations,  or  supi)lementary  agi-ee- 
ments  may  prescribe,  provided  that  no  Nation 
shall  be  bound  unless  such  Nation  has  accepted  it 
in  accordance  with  its  constitutional  procedure."'  ■* 
As  far  as  the  objectives  and  provisions  of  the 
International  Plant  Protection  Convention  are 
concerned,  they  deal  only  with  broad  international 
relationships  in  the  field  of  plant  protection.  The 
convention  does  not  disturb  the  responsibility  of 
the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  under  the  Plant 
Quarantine  Act  of  1912,  as  amended,  to  decide  on 
pest-prevention  measures  to  protect  American 
agriculture.  Nor  does  it  attempt  to  take  over  any 
of  the  responsibility  of  individual  governments 
for  final  decision  on  needed  plant  quarantine 
measiires.  The  convention  does  not  require  that 
the  judgment  of  the  contracting  governments  be 
superseded  by  decisions  of  an  international  body. 

Effective  Regional  Action  Developed  Under  Inter- 
national Plant  Protection  Convention 

The  International  Plant  Protection  Convention 
has  been  an  effective  influence  in  stimulating  the 
development  of  supplementary  regional  plant  \ivo- 
tection  agreements,  under  article  III  of  the  con- 
vention.   Two  such  agreements  are  now  in  effect, 

(1)  European  Plant  Protection  Agreement  and 

(2)  Plant  Protection  Agreement  for  Southeast 
Asia  and  the  Pacific  Region.  The  United  States 
Government  is  not  and  does  not  intend  to  become 
a  part}'  to  either  of  these  agreements,  since  they 
are  concerned  with  plant  protection  measures  to 
be  taken  entirely  within  the  respective  regions. 
However,  the  U.S.  appi-oves  of  the  objectives  of 
these  regional  conventions.  Effective  action 
taken  by  goAernments  within  these  regions  for  the 
control  and  prevention  of  the  spread  of  specific 
plant-pest  and  quarantine  problems  cannot  help 
but  contribute  to  the  welfare  of  U.S.  agriculture, 
since  tlie  dangers  of  infestation  in  the  U.S.  from 
these  sources  will  thereby  be  reduced. 

In  conclusion,  I  should  like  to  call  attention  to 
the  inipoi-tanco  of  becoming  party  to  this  conven- 
tion as  an  evidence  of  our  wholeliearted  support  of 

*P'AO  Uules  of  Proeeduio,  rule  XXI,  pur.  4. 


the  objectives  and  work  of  the  Fao.  This  is  the 
first  and  most  important  convention  developed  by 
the  Fao,  an  important  specialized  agency  of  the 
United  Nations,  of  wliich  the  U.S.  has  been  a  mem- 
ber since  its  inception  in  1945.  The  objective  of 
the  Fao  is  to  promote  international  cooperation  in 
the  improvement  of  food  and  agi-icultural  produc- 
tion, marketing,  and  trade,  with  a  view  to  raising 
the  levels  of  living  of  rural  populations  and  im- 
proving nutritional  standards  generally.  These 
objectives  are  especially  important  to  the  two- 
thirds  or  more  of  the  world's  population  who 
depend  on  agi-iculture,  forestry,  or  fishing  for  sub- 
sistence, but  who  often  still  live  in  conditions  of 
extreme  poverty  and  malnutrition. 

The  U.S.,  through  its  bilateral  program  of  eco- 
nomic aid  and  cooperative  technical  assistance,  is 
helping  people  in  many  of  the  free  countries  in 
underdeveloped  areas  of  Latin  xlmerica,  Asia, 
Africa,  and  the  Near  East  to  raise  their  agi-icul- 
tural  and  nutritional  levels.  We  have  a  consider- 
able investment  in  their  welfare.  Also,  through 
Fao,  the  U.S.  is  cooperating  with  71  other  govern- 
ments to  bring  about  the  better  exchange  of  agi'i- 
cultural  technical  knowledge  and  techniques  which 
will  help  governments  in  all  parts  of  the  world  to 
improve  food  and  agricultural  production  to  meet 
the  needs  of  the  world's  growing  population.  The 
International  Plant  Protection  Convention  is  one 
way  by  which  all  signatory  governments  are 
undeitaking  to  work  together  to  reduce  the  danger 
of  the  international  spread  of  plant  pests  and  dis- 
eases. Effective  action  taken  by  participating  gov- 
ernments along  the  lines  recommended  by  this 
convention  should,  over  a  period  of  time,  con- 
tribute materially  toward  the  control  of  devastat- 
ing plant  pests  and  diseases,  thereby  permitting 
a  continued  progress  in  food  and  agricultural  de- 
velopment. Inasmuch  as  the  convention  is  now 
in  force  for  37  countries,  we  believe  that  favorable 
action  by  the  United  States  Government  will  be 
warndy  welcomed  by  the  37  countries  which  are 
already  parties  to  the  convention,  and  by  the  Di- 
rector-General of  Fao,  who  has  certain  responsi- 
bilities under  the  convention  for  its  successful 
operation,  and  by  the  11  govei'uments  in  wliich 
ratification  is  currently  pending.  I,  theroi'ore, 
hope  that,  both  as  a  means  of  promoting  our 
friendly  relationships  witli  I'ountries  membere  of 
Fao  and  also  because  ajiproval  of  the  convention 
is  deemed  to  be  in  the  national  interest,  you  will 
recommend  favorable  action. 


628 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


I  should  now  like  to  ask  the  representative  of 
the  DeiJartnient  of  Agriculture  to  discuss  with 
you  the  details  of  the  International  Plant  Pro- 
tection Convention,  particularly  as  (hey  apply  to 
the  responsibilities  of  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture 
under  existing  legislation  and  to  the  interests  of 
United  States  agriculture  generally. 


Congressional  Documents 
Relating  to  Foreign  Policy 

85th  Congress,  1st  Session 

The  Objectives  of  United  States  Economic  Assistance 
Programs.  A  study  prepared  at  the  request  of  the  Sen- 
ate Special  Committee  To  Study  the  Foreign  Aid  Pro- 
gram by  the  Center  for  International  Studies,  Massa- 
chusetts Institute  of  Technology   (pursuant  to  S.  Res. 

285,  84th  Cong.).     No.  1,  January  ia")7.     73  pp.   [Com- 
mittee print.] 

Control  and  Reduction  of  Armaments.  Hearings  before  a 
subcommittee  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  Foreign  Re- 
lations pursuant  to  S.  Res.  03,  S.  Res.  1K5,  and  S.  Res. 

286.  Part  12,  January  10-17.  1957,  Washington,  D.C. 
147  pp. 

Economic  Report  of  tlie  President.  January  23,  1057. 
200  pp. 

First  Annual  Report  on  the  Operation  of  the  Trade  Agree- 
ments Program.     H.  Doc.  93.  Febniary  11,  1957.    248  pp. 

Economic  Aid  and  Technical  Assistance  in  Africa.  Re- 
port of  Senator  Theodore  Francis  Green  on  a  study  mis- 
sion jiursuant  to  S.  Res.  102,  84th  Congre.ss.  February 
21,  19.^)7.     34  pp.  [Committee  print.] 

Twelfth  Rei>ort  of  United  States  Advisory  Commission  on 
Information.     H.  Doc.  98,  February  22,  1957.     19  pp. 

Improvement  of  Procedures  for  the  Development  of 
Foreign  Air  (I'ommerce.  Report  to  accompany  S.  1423. 
S.  Rept.  119,  Febniary  27,  1957.     IS  pp. 

Greece,  Turkey,  and  Iran.  Report  on  Unitetl  States 
foreign  assistance  programs  prepared  at  the  request  of 
the  Senate  Special  Committee  To  Study  the  Foreign  Aid 
Program  by  Former  Ambas.sador  Norman  Armour  (pur- 
suant to  s".  Res.  285,  S4th  Cong,  and  S.  Res.  35,  85tJi 
Cong.).  Survey  No.  1,  February  19.57.  53  pp.  [Com- 
mittee print.] 

Lebanon,  Jordan,  and  Iraq.  Report  on  United  States 
foreign  assistance  programs  prepared  at  the  request  of 
the  Senate  Siwcial  Committee  To  Study  the  Foreign 
Aid  Program  by  Hamilton  Fish  Armstrong,  editor. 
Foreign  Affairs  (pursuant  to  S.  Re.s.  285,  S4th  Cong,  and 
S.  Res.  35,  S.otb  Cong. ) .  Survey  No.  2,  February  1957. 
28  pp.  [Committee  print.] 

Personnel  for  the  Mutual  Security  Program.  A  study 
prepared  at  the  re<iuest  of  the  Senate  Special  Committee 
To  Study  the  Foreign  Aid  Program  by  Louis  J.  Kroeger 
and  Associates.  No.  2,  February  1957.  68  pp.  [Com- 
mittee print.] 

American  Private  Enterprise,  Foreign  Economic  Develop- 
ment, and  the  Aid  I'rograms.  A  study  prepared  at  the 
request  of  the  Senate  Special  Committee  To  Study 
the  Foreign  Aid  Program  by  the  American  Enterprise 
Association,  Inc.  (pursuant  to  S.  Res.  2S.5,  84th  C<ing., 
and  S.  Res.  35,  .S"tli  Cong.).  No.  7,  February  1957. 
68  pp.     [Committee  print.] 

Trading  With  the  Enemy  Act.  Report  of  the  Senate  Com- 
mittee on  the  Judiciary  made  by  its  Subcommittee  To 
Examine  and  Review  the  Administration  of  the  Trading 
With  the  Enemy  Act,  pursuant  to  S.  Res.  171,  S4th 
Cong.,  2d  sess.,  as  extended  by  S.  Res.  84,  85th  Con- 
gress.   S.  Rept.  120,  JIarch  1,  1957.    23  pp. 


TREATY  INFORMATION 


Atoms-for-Peace  Agreement  With  Iran 

On  March  6  the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  Commis- 
sion and  the  Department  of  State  (press  release 
116)  announced  that  representatives  of  Iran  and 
the  United  States  on  March  5  signed  a  proposed 
agreement  for  cooperation  in  research  in  the 
peaceful  uses  of  atomic  energy.  The  signing  was 
announced  in  Iran  by  His  Imperial  Majesty,  the 
Shah,  at  the  opening  ceremony  of  the  U.S.  atoms- 
for-peace  exhibit  at  Tehran  on  March  6. 

The  agreement  was  signed  by  Ali  Amini,  the 
Iranian  Ambassador  to  the  United  States,  I^ewis 
L.  Strauss,  Chairman  of  the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy 
Commission,  and  William  M.  Eountree,  Assistant 
Secretary  of  State. 

Under  the  proposed  agreement,  the  Govern- 
ment of  Iran  will  receive  information  as  to  the 
design,  con.struction,  and  operation  of  research 
reactors  and  their  use  as  research  development 
and  engineering  tools.  It  is  contemplated  that 
private  American  citizens  and  organizations 
would  be  authorized  to  supply  to  the  Government 
of  Iran,  or  to  authorized  private  persons  under  its 
jurisdiction,  appropriate  equipment  and  service. 

The  proposed  agreement  further  provides  that 
the  U.S.  xVtomic  Energy  Commission  will  lease 
to  the  Government  of  Iran  for  use  in  research 
reactors  up  to  6  kilograms  (1.^.2  ))0unds)  of  con- 
tained U-235  in  uranium  enriched  up  to  a  maxi- 
mum of  20  percent  U-235.  Iran  assumes  respon- 
sibility for  using  and  safeguarding  the  fissionable 
material  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  pro- 
posed agreement.  The  agreement  provides  for 
the  exchange  of  unclassified  information  in  the 
research  reactor  field,  related  health  and  safety 
problems,  and  the  use  of  radioactive  isotopes  in 
physical  and  biological  research,  medical  therapy, 
agrii'iilture,  and  industry. 

Ijooking  to  the  future,  the  agreement  expresses 
the  hope  and  expectation  of  the  parties  that  this 
initial  agreement  for  cooperation  will  lead  to  con- 
sideration of  further  cooperation  at  some  future 
date  in  an  agreement  in  the  field  of  nuclear  power. 

This  proposed  cooperative  agreement  will  en- 


April    75,    1957 


629 


able  the  Iranians  to  enhance  their  own  country's 
training  and  experience  in  nuclear  science  and 
engineering  for  the  development  of  peaceful  uses 
of  atomic  energy  within  the  framework  of  the 
atoms-for-peace  program.  Students  from  Iran 
have  been  among  the  enrollees  from  many  nations 
attending  the  reactor  technology  courses  at  the  In- 
ternational School  for  Nuclear  Science  and  Engi- 
neering operated  for  the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy 
Commission  by  the  Argonne  National  Laboratory 
in  cooperation  with  Pennsylvania  State  Uni- 
versity and  North  Carolina  State  College. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  U.S.  Atomic  En- 
ergy Act  of  1954,  certain  procedural  steps  must 
be  taken  by  the  executive  and  legislative  branches 
of  the  U.S.  Government  before  the  agreement 
may  enter  into  force.  The  agreement  must  also 
be  ratified  by  the  Iranian  Parliament. 


Current  Actions 


MULTILATERAL 

Postal  Services 

Universal  postal  convention,  with  final  protocol,  annex, 
re'-rulations  of  execution,  anO  i)rovisions  regardins  air- 
mail and  final  protocol  thereto.  Signed  at  Brussels 
Julv  11,  10.52.  Entered  into  force  July  1,  1953.  TIAS 
2800. 
Ratification  deposited:  Ethiopia,  February  22,  1957. 

United  Nations 

Charter  of  the  United  Nations  and  Statute  of  the  Inter- 
national  Court  of  .Justice.     Signed   at   San   Franci-sco 
.Tune  26.   1945.     Entered   into  force  October  24,  1945. 
!59  Stat.  1031. 
Admission  to  membership:  Ghana,  March  8,  1957. 


at  Dublin  March  16,  19.57.  Enters  into  force  on  date 
of  i-eceipt  of  notification  by  Ireland  that  implementing 
procedures  have  been  completed. 

Japan 

Protocol  supplementing  the  convention  for  avoidance  of 
double  taxation  and  prevention  of  fiscal  evasion  with 
respect  to  taxes  on  income  of  April  16,  1954  (TIAS 
3176).  Signed  at  Tokyo  March  23,  1957.  Enters  into 
force  on  date  of  exchange  of  written  notifications  of 
ratification  or  approval. 

Netherlands 

Agreement  extending  the  agreement  relating  to  American 
war  graves  in  the  Netherlands  of  April  11,  1947  (TIAS 
1777).  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes  at  The  Hague 
January  14  and  August  29,  1955,  and  March  9,  1956. 
Entrii  into  force:  March  IS,  19.57. 

Thailand 

Agreement  amending  agreement  for  cooperation  concern- 
ing civil  uses  of  atomic  energy  of  March  13,  1956  (TIAS 
3-522).  Signed  at  Washington  March  27.  1957.  Enters 
into  force  on  date  on  which  each  Government  receives 
from  the  other  written  notification  that  it  has  complied 
with  statutory  and  constitutional  requirements. 

United  Kingdom 

Agreement  amending  agreement  for  sale  of  tobacco  to  the 
United  Kingdom  and  the  construction  of  military  hous- 
ing and  community  facilities  for  use  of  the  United 
States  Air  Force  of  June  5,  1956  (TIAS  358S) .  Effected 
by  exchange  of  notes  at  London  March  13,  1957.  En- 
tered into  force  March  13, 1957. 

Yugoslavia 

Ai;reenient  amending  the  agricultural  commodities  agree- 
ment of  November  3,  19.56  (TIAS  368'^).  Effected  by 
exchange  of  notes  at  Washington  March  22,  1957.  En- 
tered into  force  March  22,  1957. 


DEPARTMENT  AND  FOREIGN  SERVICE 


BILATERAL 

Chile 

Agreement  for  the  establishment  and  operation  of  rawin- 
sonde  ob.servation  stations  at  .\ntofagasta,  Quintero, 
and  Puerto  Montt,  Chile.  Effected  by  exchange  of 
notes  at  Santiago  March  1,  1957.  Enters  into  force 
on  date  of  signature  of  an  arrangement  embodying  the 
technical  details. 

Iceland 

A 

iz 

Key 

ruary  23,  1957 

Ireland 

Agreement  for  an  educational  exchange  program. 


Hand 

Tcement  for  a  program  of  educational  exchanges  author- 
ized by  the  Fulbright  Act  (60  Stat.  7.54).  Signed  at 
Heykjax  ik  February  23,  1957.     Entered  into  force  Feb- 


Signed 


Confirimatioris 

The  Senate  on  March  22  (legi.slative  day  of  March  21) 
confirmed  Andrew  H.  Berding  to  be  an  Assistant  Secre- 
tary of  State.  (For  biographic  details,  see  press  release 
101  dated  March  1.) 

The  Senate  on  March  28  confirmed  Philip  W.  Bonsai 
to  be  Ambassador  to  Bolivia.  (For  biographic  details, 
see  press  release  159  dated  March  IS.) 

The  Senate  on  March  28  confirmed  John  Clifford  Folger 
to  be  Ambassador  to  Belgium.  (For  biographic  details, 
see  press  release  146  dated  Mai'ch  14.) 

The  Senate  on  March  2S  coiifinned  Philip  Young  to  be 
-\mba.ssador  to  the  Netherlands.  (For  biographic  de- 
tails, see  press  release  162  dated  March  19.) 


630 


Department  of  State   Bulletin 


April  15,  1957 


Index 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  929 


Agriculture.     Question  of  V.S.  Ajutnival   of  Tlaut 

I'rotettion  (,  ouveution    (PliillipsJ 627 

American  Republics.     Secretary  Dulles'  News  Con- 

fereute  oi  March  26 595 

Atomic  Energy 

Atoius-for-Peace  Agreement  With    Irau     ....      629 
Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26     .       595 
Statute   of    International    Atomic    Energy   Agency 
Transmitted     to     Senate     (Eisenhower,     Dulles, 
FernanUez-Moran,  summary  of  statute)    ....       61.") 

Belgium.    Folger  confirmed  as  ambassadoi-     .     .     .       630 

Bolivia.     Bonsai  confirmed  as  ambassador  ....       6i;u 

China,  Communist 

Secretary  L)ulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26  .     .       .595 
Secretary  Dulles  Writes  Foreword  for  New  Editions 

of  War  or  Peace GOl 

Communism.     Secretary   Dulles    Writes   Foreword 

for  New  Editions  of  War  or  Peace 601 

Congress,  The 

Amendment  to  Anclo-American  Financial  Agree- 
ment of  1945  (Kalijarvi) 625 

Congressional    Documents     Relating    to     Foreign 

Policy 629 

Question  of  U.S.  Approval  of  Plant  Protection  Con- 
vention   (Phillips) 627 

Statute  of  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency 
Transmitted  to  Senate  ( Ei.senhower,  Dulles, 
Ferniindez-Moran,  summary  of  statute)    ....       615 

Department   and   Foreig^n   Service.     Confirmations 

(Herding,  Donsal,  Folger,  Young) 6.'?0 

Dominican  Republic.  U.S.  Asks  Dominican  Gov- 
ernment To  Reopen  Gsrald  Murphy  Case  .     .     .      610 

Economic  Affairs.     Amendment  to  Anglo-American 

Financial  Agreement  of  1945   (Kalijarvi)   .     .     .      625 

Educational  Exchange.    Polish  Coal  Mining  Officials 

Visit   United   States 611 

Egypt.     Secretary    Dulles'    News    Conference    of 

March  26 595 

Germany,  East.  The  Soviet-Occupied  Zone  of  Ger- 
many :  A  Case  Study  in  Communist  Control 
(Eleanor  Dulles) 605 

International  Organizations  and  Conferences 

International  Cooperation  in  Climatology  (Lands- 
berg)      612 

Statute  of  International  Atomic  Energy  .\gency 
Transmitted  to  Senate  ( Eisenhower,  Dulles, 
Fern;lndez-Moran,  summary  of  statute)     .     .     .      615 

Iran.     Atoms-for-Peaee  Agreement  With   Iran  .     .       629 

Israel.     Secretary     Dulles'    News    Conference    of 

Jlarch  26 .595 

Korea.     Secretary  Dulles  Writes  Foreword  for  New 

Editions  of  War  or  Peace 601 

Middle  East.     Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference 

of  March  26 595 

Military  Affairs 

Deployment  of  Ballistic  Missiles  In  United  King- 
dom   (Hagerty) 596 

Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26     .       595 

Mutual  Security.  Secretary  Dulles  Writes  Fore- 
word for  New  Editions  of  War  or  Peace    .     .     .      601 

Netherlands.    Young  confirmed  as  ambassador   .     .      6.30 

Poland 

Polish  Coal   Mining  Officials  Visit  United  States  .       611 
Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26     .       595 

Presidential  Documents.     Statute  of  International 

Atomic  Energy  Agency  Transmitted  to  Senate    .      615 


Science.     International  Cooperation  in  Climatology 

(Laudslierg) 612 

Treaty  Information 

Amendment  to  Anglo-.\mericau  Financial  Agree- 
ment of  1045   (Kalijarvi) 625 

Atoms-t'or-1'eace  Agreement  With  Iran 629 

Current   Actions 630 

Question  of  U.S.  Approval  of  Plant  Protection  Con- 
vention (Phillips) 627 

Statute  of  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency 
Transmitled  to  Senate  (Eisenhower,  Dulles, 
Fernandez-Morfin,  summary  of  statute)    ....       615 

U.S.S.R.  The  Soviet-Occupied  Zone  of  Germany : 
A  Case  Study  in  Communist  Control  (Eleanor 
Dulles)       605 

United  Kingdom 

Amendment  to  .\nglo-American  Financial  Agree- 
ment of  1945   (Kalijarvi) 625 

Deployment  of  Ballistic  Missiles  in  United  King- 
dom   (Hagerty) 596 

Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  March  26  .      595 

United  Nations 

C'urrent   U.N.  Documents 614 

International  Cooperation  in  Climatology  (Lands- 
berg)      612 

Secretary  Dulles  Writes  Foreword  for  New  Editions 
of  War  or  Peace 601 

Statute  o(  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency 
Transmitted  to  Senate  (Eisenhower,  Dulles, 
Fernandez-Moran,  summary  of  statute)    ....       615 

Venezuela.  Statute  of  International  Atomic  Energy 
.^Liency  Transmitted  to  Senate  (Eisenhower, 
Dulles,  Fernandez-Moran,  summary  of  statute)    .      615 

Xante  Index 

Berding,  Andrew  11 630 

Bonsai,  Philip  W 630 

Dulles,   F.leanor 605 

Dulles,  Secretary 595,  601,  616 

Eisenhower,   President 615 

Pernandez-Morrm,    Ilumberto 625 

Folger,  John  Clifford 630 

Hagerty,  .lames  C 59(5 

Kalijarvi,  Thorsten  V 625 

Landsherg,  Helmut  E 612 

Murphy,  Gerald  Lester 610 

Phillii)S,  Christopher   U 627 

Young,    Philip 630 


Check  List  of  Department  of  State 
Press  Releases:  March  25^31 

Releases  may  be  obtained  from  the  News  Division, 
Departnjent  of  State,  Washington  25,  D.  C. 

I'ress  releases  issued  prior  to  March  25  which 
appear  in  this  issue  of  the  Bulletin  are  Nos.  116 
of  .March  6,  147  of  March  ]5,  150  of  March  16,  157 
of  March  10,  and  165  of  JIarch  21. 

No.        Date  Subject 

174    3/26    Eleanor  Dulles:  "The  Soviet  Occupied 
Zone  of  Germany." 
175     .3/26     r)ulles :  news  conference. 
tl76    3/28    Communique  on  U.S.-Iranian  talks. 
tl77    3/28    Delegation     to     ICEM     Council     (re- 
write). 
tl78    3  28    Murder  of  Americans  in  Iran. 
179    3/29     Dulles :  foreword     for     new     editions 
of  War  or  Peace. 


illeld  for  a  later  issue  of  the  Bulletin. 


U.  S.  GOVERNMENT  PAINTING  OFFICE:  1957 


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OFFICIAL    BUSINESS 


NATO — Its  Development  and  Significance 


The  growth  and  accomplishments  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Organization  from  the  signing  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  on 
April  4,  1949,  to  the  present  time  are  described  in  this  61-page 
pamphlet,  a  recent  publication  of  the  Department  of  State. 

The  topics  discussed  include : 

America's  Interest  in  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Origin  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Purposes  and  Activities  of  Nato 
Organization  of  Nato 
U.S.  Contributions  to  Nato 
Nato  Accomplishments 
The  Future  of  Nato 

Two  appendixes  carry  the  text  of  the  Repoit  of  the  Committee 
of  Tliree  on  Non-Military  Cooperation  in  Nato  and  the  text  of 
the  North  Atlantic  Treaty. 

Copies  of  NATO — Its  Development  and  /Significance  may  be 
purchased  from  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Govern- 
ment Printing  Office,  Washington  25,  D.C.,  for  30  cents  each. 


Publication  6467 


30  cents 


Please  send  me   copies   of  NATO — Its  Development  and 

Significance. 
Order  Form 

To:    Supt.  of  Documents  Name:   

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City,  Zone,  and  State: 
Enclosed  find: 


(cash,  check,  or 
money  order). 


THE    DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  930 


AprU  22,  1957 


HE 


THE    EMERGENCE    OF    AFRICA     •     Report  to  President 

Eisenhower  by  Vice  President  Nixon 635 

SECRETARY     DULLES'     NEWS     CONFERENCE    OF 

APRIL  2 641 

BUILDING      FOR      PEACE      •      by  Deputy  Under  Secretary 

Murphy 647 

ADVANTAGES  TO  THE  UNITED  STATES  OF  MEM- 
BERSHIP IN  PROPOSED  ORGANIZATION  FOR 

TRADE     COOPERATION      •      Message  of  President 
Eisenhower  to  the  Congress 657 

PRINCIPLES  OF  U.S.  FOREIGN  ECONOMIC  POLICY  • 

Statement  by  Thorsten  V.  Kalijarvi 659 

LIMITATIONS  ON  TRAVEL  OF  AMERICAN  CITIZENS 
ABROAD  AND   ON   CULTURAL   EXCHANGES   • 

Statements  by  Deputy  Under  Secretary  Murphy  and  Robert 

F.  Cartwright 663 


■ 


For  index  see  inside  back  cover 


THE    DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 


Vol..  XXXVI,  No.  930  •  Publication  6480 
AprU  22,  1957 


For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents 

U.S.  Government  Printing  Office 

Washington  M,  D.C. 

Pbicb: 

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Single  copy,  20  cents 

The  printing  of  thb  publication  has  been 
approved  by  the  Director  of  the  Bureau  of 
the  Budget  (January  19,  1965). 

Note:  Contents  of  this  publication  are  not 
copyrighted  and  ltoin.i  conUilned  her^-ln  may 
be  reprinted  Citation  of  the  Dkpaktuent 
OF  Statb  Bulletin  as  the  source  will  be 
appreciated. 


The  Department  of  State  BULLETIN, 
a  weekly  publication  issued  by  the 
Public  Services  Division,  provides  the 
public  and  interested  agencies  of 
the  Government  with  information  on 
developments  in  the  field  of  foreign 
relations  and  on  the  work  of  the 
Department  of  State  and  the  Foreign 
Service.  The  BULLETIN  includes  se- 
lected press  releases  on  foreign  policy, 
issued  by  the  White  House  and  the 
Department,  and  statements  and  ad- 
dresses made  by  the  President  and  by 
the  Secretary  of  State  and  other 
officers  of  the  Department,  as  well  as 
special  articles  on  various  phases  of 
international  affairs  and  the  func- 
tions of  the  Department.  Informa- 
tion is  included  concerning  treaties 
and  international  agreements  to 
which  tlic  United  States  is  or  may 
become  a  party  and  treaties  of  gen- 
eral international  interest. 

Publications  of  the  Department, 
United  Nations  documents,  and  legis- 
lative nuiterial  in  the  field  of  inter- 
national relations  are  listed  currently. 


The  Emergence  of  Africa 


REPORT  TO  PRESIDENT  EISENHOWER  BY  VICE  PRESIDENT  NIXON 


On  the  basis  of  my  visits  to  Morocco,  Ghana, 
Liberia,  Uganda,  Ethiopia,  Sudan,  Libya,  Italy, 
and  Tunisia,  from  February  28  to  March  21, 
1  submit  the  following  observations  and 
recommendations : 


IMPORTANCE  OF  AFRICA 

No  one  can  travel  in  Africa,  even  as  briefly  as 
I  did,  without  realizing  the  tremendous  potentiali- 
ties of  this  great  continent.  Africa  is  the  most 
rapidly  changing  area  in  the  world  today.  The 
course  of  its  development,  as  its  people  continue  to 
emerge  from  a  colonial  status  and  assume  the  re- 
sponsibilities of  independence  and  self-govern- 
ment, could  well  prove  to  be  the  decisive  factor  in 
the  conflict  between  the  forces  of  freedom  and  in- 
ternational communism. 

The  leaders  and  peoples  of  the  coimtries  I 
visited  in  Africa  have  many  things  in  common. 
They  cherish  their  independence,  which  most  of 
them  have  only  recently  acquired,  and  are  deter- 
mined to  protect  it  against  any  form  of  foreign 
domination.  They  rightfully  expect  recognition 
from  us  and  others  of  their  dignity  and  equality 
as  individuals  and  peoples  in  the  family  of  na- 
tions. They  Mant  economic  progress  for  their  un- 
developed economies. 

The  great  question  which  is  presented  to  the 
leaders  of  Africa  is  whether  they  can  attain  these 


'  Issued  by  the  White  House  for  release  on  Apr.  7.  For 
backgrouud,  see  Bulletin  of  Mar.  4,  1957,  p.  34S,  and  Mar. 
18,  1957,  p.  436. 


justifiable  objectives  and  at  the  same  time  main- 
tain and  develop  governmental  institutions  which 
are  based  on  principles  of  freedom  and  democracy. 
I  believe  they  all  are  convinced  that  they  can,  and 
that  the  Free  World  has  a  vital  interest  in  assist- 
ing them  to  do  so.  For  the  success  or  failure  of 
these  new  members  of  the  family  of  nations  to 
realize  their  aspirations  in  this  manner  will  have 
profound  effects  upon  the  development  of  Africa 
and  on  the  world  in  the  years  to  come. 

Herein  lies  the  wider  significance  of  the  emer- 
gence of  the  new  nation  of  Ghana.  The  eyes  of  the 
peoples  of  Africa  south  of  the  Sahara,  and  of 
Western  Europe  particularly,  will  be  upon  this 
new  state  to  see  whether  the  orderly  transition 
which  has  taken  place  from  dependent  to  inde- 
pendent status,  and  whether  the  retention  of  close 
ties  on  a  basis  of  equality  with  the  British  Com- 
monwealth, will  continue  to  work  successfully  and 
thereby  present  a  fonnula  of  possible  application 
in  other  cases.  By  the  same  token,  inimical  forces 
will  be  closely  following  the  situation  to  see 
whether  any  openings  present  themselves  for  ex- 
ploitation in  a  manner  which  would  enable  them 
to  disrupt  and  destroy  the  independence  which 
Ghana  seeks  to  achieve. 

Nor  is  this  a  situation  peculiar  to  Ghana.  The 
same  factors  are  present  everywhere  among  the 
independent  states  which  I  visited.  Africa  is 
emerging  as  one  of  the  great  forces  in  the  world 
today.  In  a  world  in  which,  because  of  advances 
in  technology,  the  influence  of  ideas  and  principles 
is  becoming  increasingly  important  in  the  battle 
for  men's  minds,  we  in  the  United  States  must 


April  22,   1957 


635 


come  to  know,  to  understand  and  to  find  common 
ground  with  the  peoples  of  this  great  continent. 
It  is  in  this  context  that  the  recommendations  in 
this  report,  together  with  others  previously  made 
to  the  appropriate  government  agencies,  are 
presented. 

Appraisal  of  African  Leadersliip 

Africa  is  producing  gxeat  leaders,  dedicated  to 
the  principles  of  independence,  world  responsi- 
bility and  the  welfare  of  their  peoples.  Such  men 
as  the  Sultan  of  Morocco,  Prime  Minister  Nkru- 
mah  of  Ghana,  President  Tubman  of  Liberia,  the 
Emperor  of  Ethiopia,  and  Prime  Ministers  Ab- 
dullah Khalil  of  the  Sudan,  Ben  Halim  of  Libya 
and  Habib  Bourguiba  of  Tunisia,  certainly  com- 
pare most  favorably  with  the  gi'eat  leaders  of  the 
world.  Nor  should  one  omit  King  Idris  of  Libya, 
whom  I  unfortunately  missed  seeing  on  this  trip 
because  of  an  engine  failure,  but  whose  wisdom 
and  statesmanship  I  remember  most  vividly  from 
my  previous  trip  to  that  country  in.  1953.  These 
are  all  men  who  command  respect  beyond  the  bor- 
ders of  their  own  country.  They  are  backed  up  by 
other  equally  dedicated  leaders  who  have  much  to 
contribute  both  to  the  problems  of  their  own  coun- 
tries and  to  those  which  plague  the  world  today. 

Recommendation 

The  United  States  must  come  to  know  these 
leaders  better,  to  miderstand  their  hopes  and  as- 
pirations and  to  support  them  in  their  plans  and 
progi-ams  for  strengthening  their  own  nations  and 
contributing  to  world  peace  and  stability.  To  this 
end,  we  must  encourage  the  greatest  possible  inter- 
change of  persons  and  ideas  with  the  leaders  and 
peoples  of  these  countries.  We  must  assure  the 
strongest  possible  dii)lomatic  and  consular  repre- 
sentation to  those  countries  and  stand  ready  to 
consult  these  countries  on  all  matters  affecting 
their  interests  and  ours. 

Attitudes  Toward  tlie  United  States 

There  is  no  area  in  the  world  today  in  wliich 
the  prestige  of  the  United  States  is  more  uni- 
formly high  than  in  the  countries  which  I  visited 
on  this  trip.  The  President  is  respected  as  the 
acknowledged  leader  of  the  Free  World.  There 
is  a  most  encouraging  understanding  of  our  pro- 
grams and  policies.  These  countries  know  that 
we  have  no  ambitions  to  dominate  and  that  the 


cornerstone  of  our  foreign  policy  is  to  assist  coun- 
tries in  resisting  domination  by  others.  They 
understand  that  the  United  States  stands  on  prin- 
ciple and  that  this  was  the  motivating  force,  for 
example,  which  led  us  to  act  as  we  did  in  the  re- 
cent Suez  crisis.  They  approve  the  stand  which 
we  took  at  that  time  and  look  confidently  to  us  to 
act  consistently  with  that  stand  in  the  future. 
They  understand  that  the  American  Doctrine  for 
the  Middle  East  is  dedicated  to  the  principle  of 
assisting  the  states  of  the  Middle  East  to  main- 
tain their  independence.  They  know  that  the 
United  States  stands  for  the  evolution  of  depend- 
ent peoples  toward  self-government  and  independ- 
ence, as  they  become  able  to  discharge  the  responsi- 
bilities involved. 

Recommendation 

This  understanding  of  the  principles  for  which 
we  stand  as  a  nation  is  a  tremendous  asset  to  us  in 
this  area.  The  maintenance  of  the  present  liigh 
prestige  we  are  fortunate  to  have  in  Africa  will 
depend  upon  whether  the  people  of  the  Continent 
continue  to  understand  our  dedication  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  independence,  equality  and  economic 
progress  to  which  thej^  are  so  deeply  devoted.  We 
must  staff  our  diplomatic  and  information  estab- 
lisliments  in  these  countries  with  men  and  women 
capable  of  interpreting  and  explaining  our  poli- 
cies and  actions  in  a  way  which  will  guarantee  that 
they  are  so  understood. 

Effect  of  Discrimination  in  U.S.  on  African  Attitudes 

As  a  result  of  skillful  propaganda  primarily 
inspired  by  the  enemies  of  freedom,  a  consistently 
distorted  jjicture  of  the  treatment  of  minority 
races  in  the  United  States  is  being  effectively  pre- 
sented in  the  countries  I  visited.  Every  instance 
of  prejudice  in  this  country  is  blown  up  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  create  a  completely  false  impres- 
sion of  the  attitudes  and  practices  of  the  great 
majority  of  the  American  people.  The  result  is 
irreparable  damage  to  the  cause  of  freedom  Avhich 
is  at  stake. 

Recommendation 

We  must  continue  to  strike  at  the  roots  of  this 
problem.  We  cannot  talk  equality  to  the  peoples 
of  Africa  and  Asia  and  practice  inequality  in  the 
United  States.  In  the  national  interest,  as  well  as 
for  the  moral  issues  involved,  we  must  support 


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the  necessary  steps  which  will  assure  orderly  prog- 
ress toward  the  elimination  of  discrimination  in 
the  United  States.  And  we  should  do  a  far  more 
effective  job  than  we  are  presently  doing  in  telling 
the  true  story  of  the  real  progress  that  is  being 
made  toward  realizing  this  objective  so  that  the 
people  of  Africa  will  have  a  true  picture  of  con- 
ditions as  they  really  are  in  the  United  States. 

Economic  Assistance 

All  of  the  African  states  which  I  visited  are 
underdeveloped.  Most  of  them  have  great  eco- 
nomic potential.  Their  leaders  are  anxious  to 
strengthen  the  economies  of  their  countries  in 
order  to  assure  for  their  peoples  a  larger  share  of 
the  advantages  of  our  modern  civilization.  They 
seek  economic  as  well  as  political  independence 
insofar  as  this  is  possible  in  the  world  of  today. 

Their  needs  are  great  in  terms  of  education  and 
public  health.  They  require  roads  and  other  com- 
munications in  order  to  open  inaccessible  parts  of 
their  territory  to  economic  development.  They 
need  agricultural  development  to  sustain  their  ex- 
panding populations.  They  want  assistance  in 
developing  their  great  mineral  and  forest  re- 
sources. They  foresee  great  opportunities  for  de- 
veloping small  industrial  enterprises.  In  most 
cases,  these  developmental  needs  are  beyond  their 
capacity  to  finance. 

All  of  the  leaders  with  whom  I  talked  expressed 
preference  for  developing  their  economies  through 
encouraging  the  investment  of  private  capital  and 
through  loans  from  international  agencies  such  as 
the  World  Bank  where  feasible  rather  than 
through  government-to-government  grants.  It 
can  truly  be  said  that  the  welcome  sign  is  out  for 
investment  of  foreign  private  capital  in  Africa. 
African  leaders  are  aware  of  the  great  role  that 
such  private  capital  can  play  in  the  development 
of  their  countries  and  many  of  them  have  adopted, 
or  are  in  the  process  of  adopting,  special  legisla- 
tion designed  to  create  an  atmosphere  conducive  to 
expanded  foreign  investment. 

Recommendation 

Consistent  with  the  desires  of  African  leaders, 
the  United  States  Government  through  its  agen- 
cies should,  as  appropriate,  draw  the  attention  of 
private  American  capital  to  opportunities  for  in- 
vestment in  those  areas  where  the  conditions  for 
such  investment  are  propitious.  Strengthening 
the  economic  sections  of  American  Embassies  in 


this  area  is  needed  if  this  objective  is  to  be  carried 
out. 

We  should  support  applications  before  the  ap- 
propriate international  agencies  for  financing 
sound  economic  development  projects  in  the 
area. 

To  the  extent  that  our  resources  and  the  de- 
mands of  other  areas  permit,  we  should  extend 
economic  and  technical  assistance  to  the  countries 
of  Africa  in  helping  them  to  further  their  eco- 
nomic development. 

In  this  connection,  I  think  it  is  appropriate  to 
place  in  proper  context  the  United  States  eco- 
nomic assistance  programs.  These  programs 
should  be  approved  only  when  they  are  in  the 
mutual  interests  of  the  United  States  and  the  re- 
cipient country.  They  should  be  administered  as 
efficiently  as  possible. 

But  while  these  progi'ams  should  be  constantly 
re-examined  and  improved  so  that  they  can  better 
serve  the  national  interest,  shotgim  attacks  on  our 
foreign  assistance  programs  as  such  cannot  be 
justified. 

In  this  connection,  I  believe  a  comment  on  what 
has  happened  in  Italy  is  pertinent.  Wliile  my 
visit  to  Italy  was  not  on  an  official  basis,  I  did  have 
the  opportunity  to  discuss  economic  and  political 
problems  with  President  Gronchi,  Prime  Minister 
Segni  and  other  Italian  officials.  It  was  signifi- 
cant to  me  that  at  the  time  I  arrived  in  Italy,  the 
last  American  aid  office  was  being  closed.  I  re- 
called that  ten  years  before  when  I  visited  Italy 
as  a  member  of  the  Herter  Committee  on  Foreign 
Aid,  the  most  dire  predictions  were  being  made  as 
to  the  future  of  the  Italian  economy.  It  was  said 
that  American  assistance  would  be  thrown  down 
a  rat  hole,  that  the  Italian  people  should  live  with- 
in their  own  means,  that  they  should  work  harder, 
and  that  in  any  event,  once  the  economic  program 
began,  we  would  never  see  the  end  of  it.  The  fact 
that  Italy  today  has  one  of  the  soundest,  most 
productive  economies  in  Europe  is  eloquent  proof 
of  the  validity  of  economic  assistance  properly  ad- 
ministered and  properly  used  by  the  recipient 
country. 

Wliile  the  economic  problems  of  Italy  were  ob- 
viously different  from  those  Africa  now  faces,  I 
am  confident  that  in  the  African  countries  I 
visited,  we  shall  have  similar  success  as  we  work 
in  cooperation  with  the  enlightened  leaders  of 
these  nations  towards  the  development  of  their 
great  natural  and  human  resources. 


April  22,   J  957 


637 


Special  Relations  With  Other  Countries 

Africa  and  Europe  have  much  in  common.  To 
a  large  extent,  their  economies  are  complemen- 
tary. Certain  of  the  independent  states  on  the 
African  continent  maintain  close  ties  of  an  his- 
torical, cultural  and  economic  nature  with  the 
states  of  Europe.  The  maintenance  of  these  rela- 
tionships, on  a  basis  of  equality,  can  greatly  bene- 
fit botla  Africa  and  Europe. 

Recominendation 

We  should  encourage  the  continuance  of  tliese 
special  ties  where  they  are  considered  mutually 
advantageous  by  tlie  states  concerned.  "We  should 
take  them  in  account  in  formulating  our  own 
policies  to  the  extent  compatible  with  the  funda- 
mental requirement  of  conducting  our  own  rela- 
tions with  those  states  on  a  fully  equal  and  inde- 
pendent basis. 

Tlie  task  of  providing  the  economic  assistance 
whicli  is  needed  by  the  newly  independent  coun- 
tries of  Africa  cannot  be  done  by  the  United  States 
alone.  We  should  make  it  clear  that  we  desire  no 
exclusive  position  in  any  country  in  that  area  and 
that  we  want  to  work  with  otlier  Free  World  na- 
tions in  providing  the  assistance  which  will  build 
strong,  free,  and  independent  nations  in  this  area 
of  the  world. 

Communism 

Africa  is  a  priority  target  for  the  international 
communist  movement.  I  gathered  the  distinct 
impression  that  the  communist  leaders  consider 
Africa  today  to  be  as  important  to  their  designs 
for  world  conquest  as  they  considered  China  to 
be  twenty-five  years  ago.  Consequently,  they  are 
mounting  a  diplomatic  propaganda  and  economic 
offensive  in  all  parts  of  the  continent.  They  are 
trying  desperately  to  convince  the  peoples  of 
Africa  that  they  support  more  strongly  than  we 
do  their  natural  aspirations  for  independence, 
equality  and  economic  progress. 

Fortunately,  their  efforts  thus  far  have  not  been 
generally  successful  and,  for  the  present,  com- 
munist domination  in  the  states  of  the  area  is  not 
a  present  danger.  All  of  the  African  leaders  to 
whom  I  talked  are  determined  to  maintain  their 
indoi)endence  against  communism  or  any  other 
form  of  foreign  domination.  They  have  taken 
steps  to  bring  under  control  tlie  problem  of  com- 
munist subversion  of  their  political,  economic  and 


social  life.  It  would  be  a  great  mistake,  however, 
to  be  complacent  about  this  situation  because  the 
Communists  are  without  question  putting  their 
top  men  in  the  fields  of  diplomacy,  intrigue,  and 
subversion  into  the  African  area  to  probe  for  open- 
ings wliich  they  can  exploit  for  their  own  selfish 
and  disruptive  ends. 

Recommendation 

The  communist  threat  underlines  the  wisdom 
and  necessity  of  our  assisting  the  countries  of 
Africa  to  maintain  their  indej^endence  and  to 
alleviate  the  conditions  of  want  and  instability 
on  which  communism  breeds.  The  importance  of 
Africa  to  the  strength  and  stability  of  the  Free 
World  is  too  great  for  us  to  underestimate  or  to 
become  complacent  about  this  danger  without  tak- 
ing every  step  within  our  power  to  assist  the  coun- 
tries of  this  area  to  maintain  their  effective  inde- 
pendence in  the  face  of  this  danger. 

Trade  Unionism 

In  every  instance  where  my  schedule  permitted, 
I  made  it  a  point  to  talk  to  the  leading  labor  lead- 
ers of  the  countries  I  visited.  I  was  encouraged 
to  find  that  the  free  trade  union  movement  is 
making  great  advances  in  Africa,  particular^  in 
Ghana,  Morocco,  and  Tunisia.  The  leaders  of 
these  countries  have  recognized  the  importance 
of  providing  an  alternative  to  communist  dom- 
inated unions  and  they,  thereby,  are  keeping  the 
Communists  from  getting  a  foothold  in  one  of  their 
favorite  areas  of  exploitation.  In  this  connec- 
tion, I  wish  to  pay  tribute  to  the  effective  support 
that  is  being  given  by  trade  unions  in  the  United 
States  to  the  free  trade  union  movement  in  the 
countries  which  I  visited.  These  close  and  mutu- 
ally advantageous  relationships  are  in  the  national 
interest  as  well  as  in  the  interest  of  developing  a 
strong  labor  movement. 

Recommendation 

It  is  vitally  important  that  the  United  States 
Government  follow  closely  trade  union  develop- 
ments in  the  Continent  of  Africa  and  that  our  dip- 
lomatic and  consular  representatives  should  come 
to  know  on  an  intimate  basis  the  trade  union 
leaders  in  these  countries.  I  believe,  too,  that 
American  labor  unions  should  continue  to  main- 
tain close  fraternal  relationships  with  tlie  African 
free  trade  union  movement  in  order  that  each  may 


638 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


derive  the  greatest  possible  advantage  of  the  wis- 
dom and  experience  of  the  other. 

Nile  Development 

The  Nile  is  one  of  the  world's  greatest  inter- 
national rivers.  Perhaps  in  no  other  part  of  the 
world  are  the  economies  of  so  many  states  tied  to  a 
particular  waterway.  The  river  is  so  located 
geographically  that  whatever  projects  are  under- 
taken on  it  within  the  territorial  domains  of  one 
state  are  boxnid  to  have  their  effect  on  the  econo- 
mies of  other  states. 

Recommendation 

The  United  States  must  take  into  account  the 
common  interests  of  the  riparian  states  in  the  de- 
velopment of  this  great  river  and,  at  such  time  as 
political  conditions  permit,  should  support  a  co- 
operative approach  to  its  development  which 
would  accord  with  the  common  interests  of  all  the 
states  involved. 

Operation  of  United  States  Programs 

Specific  recommendations  as  to  the  operation  of 
American  programs  in  the  countries  I  visited  have 
been  made  on  a  classified  basis  to  the  various  in- 
terested agencies.  In  general,  I  found  that  our 
political,  economic  and  information  programs  in 
the  countries  which  I  visited,  are  being  adminis- 
tered in  accordance  with  our  obligations  to  the 
United  States  taxpayer.  There  is,  however,  al- 
ways room  for  improvement  and,  in  the  spirit  of 
constructive  criticism,  I  wish  to  make  the  follow- 
ing public  recommendations. 

Recommendations 

On  the  political  side,  I  believe  that  our  diplo- 
matic and  consular  missions  are  generally  under- 
staffed. We  must  assure  that  these  establishments 
have  sufficient  personnel  to  enable  them  to  inter- 
pret our  policies,  to  consult  fully  with  the  local 
governments  on  matters  of  mutual  interest  and  to 
report  on  developments  of  importance  to  the 
United  States.  We  must  assure  that  our  diplo- 
matic and  consular  offices  have  sufficient  funds  to 
enable  them  to  travel  about  the  vast  territories 
within  their  jurisdiction  for  the  purposes  of  re- 
porting on  developments  outside  the  major  centers 
of  population  and  of  forming  contacts  with  the 
peoples  of  those  areas.  We  must  recognize  that 
the  posts  in  this  area  are,  in  many  instances,  un- 


healthful  and  trying  climatically  to  those  who  are 
raised  in  a  temperate  zone.  We  must,  therefore, 
endeavor  to  ameliorate  hardship  conditions  for  our 
personnel  in  order  to  enable  them  more  effectively 
to  perform  their  tasks.  We  must  recognize  that 
the  importance  of  the  African  area  and  the  difficult 
living  conditions  there  necessitate  our  assigning 
officials  of  the  highest  possible  competence  and 
stability.  The  emphasis  should  be  on  youth,  vigor 
and  enthusiasm. 

Insofar  as  our  economic  programs  are  con- 
cerned, I  believe  that  our  technicians  in  the  field 
are  doing  an  excellent  job  in  working  alongside 
the  African  and  teaching  him  to  perform  the 
various  fimctions  of  social  and  economic  develop- 
ment for  himself.  Obviously,  the  maintenance  and 
support  of  these  tecluiicians  in  the  field  require 
a  headquarters  staff  in  the  country  capitals.  From 
my  own  observations,  I  believe  these  headquarters 
staffs  sometimes  tend  to  become  inflated  and  I, 
therefore,  recommend  that  they  be  carefully  re- 
viewed to  see  whether  economies  in  personnel  could 
not  be  effected.  I  believe  also  that  there  is  some- 
times a  tendency  to  scatter  programs  over  a 
number  of  fields  of  economic  and  social  develop- 
ment, whereas  greater  concentration  on  a  few 
key  projects  would  bring  more  lasting  returns  to 
the  country  concerned.  Our  programs  should  con- 
stantly be  reviewed  from  this  point  of  view.  The 
same  comments  which  I  made  with  respect  to  the 
calibre  of  our  diplomatic  and  consular  representa- 
tion apply  as  well  to  our  economic  and  informa- 
tion personnel. 

On  the  informational  side,  I  believe  that  the 
most  worthwhile  projects  are  the  libraries  and 
reading  rooms  which  we  have  established  in  a 
number  of  centers  overseas  and  the  exchange  of 
persons  programs.  The  funds  available  for  these 
programs  in  the  African  area  should  be  substan- 
tially increased  over  the  present  level. 

To  the  extent  that  the  Africans  become  familiar 
with  the  culture  and  technology,  the  ideals  and 
aspirations  and  the  traditions  and  institutions 
which  combine  to  make  up  the  American  charac- 
ter, we  shall  have  made  great  advances  in  com- 
mon understanding.  This  can  be  done  through 
books  and  periodicals,  through  student  exchanges 
and  through  the  leader  grant  program  for  bring- 
ing outstanding  Africans  to  the  United  States  for 
study  and  travel.  We  should  also  assist  as  we 
can  in  the  development  of  indigenous  educational 


April  22,   ?957 


639 


facilities  in  Africa.    In  this  way,  we  can  get  to 
know  them  and  they  to  know  us. 

I  believe  that  the  information  output  from  our 
radio  and  news  programs  in  the  African  area  have 
in  the  past  not  been  as  effective  as  they  should  be 
if  we  are  adequately  to  counter  the  propaganda 
being  disseminated  by  the  Communists.  In  the 
studies  which  are  currently  being  made  of  these 
progTams  by  the  Usia,  I  believe  it  is  important 
that  the  highest  priority  be  assigned  to  this  area 
both  as  to  improving  the  quality  of  personnel  in 
the  field  and  in  more  adequately  providing  infor- 
mation which  is  particularly  suited  to  the  special 
problems  of  Africa. 


M.  Rene  Mayer 

To  Visit  Wasliington 

Press  release  180  dated  April  1 

The  President  of  the  High  Authority  of  the 
European  Commimity  for  Coal  and  Steel,  Rene 
Mayer,  who  is  in  this  country  for  the  conclusion 
of  negotiations  for  a  loan  to  be  issued  by  the  Com- 
mmiity  on  the  United  States  financial  market,  will 
pay  a  brief  informal  visit  to  Washington  on  April 
2  and  3.  During  his  stay  he  will  call  on  the  Secre- 
tary of  State,  the  Secretary  of  Commerce,  and 
other  members  of  this  Government. 


CONCLUSION 

For  too  many  years,  Afi-ica  in  the  minds  of 
many  Americans  has  been  regarded  as  a  remote 
and  mysterious  continent  which  was  the  special 
province  of  big-game  hunters,  explorers  and  mo- 
tion picture  makers.  For  such  an  attitude  to  exist 
among  the  public  at  large  could  greatly  prejudice 
the  maintenance  of  our  own  independence  and 
freedom  because  the  emergence  of  a  free  and  in- 
dependent Africa  is  as  important  to  us  in  the  long 
run  as  it  is  to  the  people  of  that  continent. 

It  is  for  this  reason  that  I  strongly  support  the 
creation  within  the  Department  of  State  of  a  new 
Bureau  of  African  Affairs  which  will  place  this 
continent  on  the  same  footing  as  the  other  great 
area  gi-oupings  of  the  world.  I  recommend  simi- 
lar action  by  the  Ica  and  Usia.  These  bureaus, 
properly  staffed  and  with  sufficient  funds,  will 
better  equip  us  to  handle  our  relationships  with 
the  countries  of  Africa.  But  this  in  itself  will 
not  be  enough.  There  must  be  a  corresponding 
realization  throughout  the  executive  branches  of 
the  Government,  throughout  the  Congress  and 
throughout  the  nation,  of  the  growing  importance 
of  Africa  to  the  future  of  the  United  States  and 
the  Free  World  and  the  necessity  of  assigning 
higher  priority  to  our  relations  with  that  area. 


Eiglith  Anniversary  of  NATO 

Statement  by  President  Eisenhower 

White  House  press  release  dated  April  4 

Today  is  the  eighth  anniversary  of  the  signing 
on  April  4,  1949,  here  m  Washington  of  the 
North  Atlantic  Treaty. 

Since  the  mception  of  Nato,  the  member  coun- 
tries, by  dedicated  cooperative  effort,  have  de- 
veloped a  strong  defensive  shield  which  has  been 
a  major  factor  in  maintaining  the  peace  in 
Europe. 

The  cooperative  efforts  of  the  Nato  nations 
have  now  been  extended  beyond  the  field  of  mili- 
tary activity.  The  feeling  has  steadily  grown 
among  the  governments  and  people  of  the  Nato 
countries  that  increased  unity  among  them  is  both 
natural  and  desirable.  In  the  face  of  an  un- 
changing challenge  to  their  traditions  and  indeed 
their  very  freedom,  they  have  agreed  to  work 
together  on  an  ever-widening  range  of  problems. 
Thus,  the  Atlantic  Community  will  continue  to 
grow  in  unity  and  in  strength.  Personally  and 
officially  I  shall  do  everything  in  my  power  to 
assist  in  this  further  development. 


640 


DeparfmenI  of  Sfofe   Bulletin 


Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of  April  2 


Press  release  184  dated  April  2 

Secretary  Dulles:  I  am  available  to  answer 
questions. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  has  the  United  States  given 
any  gxuiranties  to  Chiang  Kai-shek  that  it  will 
help  defend  Qiiemoy  and  Matsu  in  the  event  of 
attack? 

A.  No.  The  only  commitments  of  the  United 
States  are  as  authorized  in  the  act  of  Congress 
which  calls  for  the  defense  of  Formosa  (Taiwan) 
and  the  Pescadores  (Penghu)  area,  and  of  other 
related  areas  if  their  defense  is  connected  with  the 
defense  of  Taiwan  and  Penghu.  ^  That  decision 
will  be  made  by  the  President,  when  the  circum- 
stances call  for  it. 

Q.  Was  there  ever  a  secret  letter  sent  to  Chiang 
Kai-sheh  which  might  have  raised  some  question 
on  this  point? 

A.  Well,  I  wouldn't  want  to  say  there  had  never 
been  any  private  communication  between  the  Pres- 
ident and  the  heads  of  other  governments.  He  has 
quite  an  extensive  correspondence  of  that  kind, 
and  that  is  a  matter  which  is  within  his  jurisdic- 
tion and  on  which  I  won't  comment. 

Q.  Well,  Mr.  Secretary,  do  you  know  anything 
abaut  a  personal  assurance  from  President  Eisen- 
hower on  this  point  that  might  have  satisfied 
Chiang  Kai-shek  that  the  United  States  would  de- 
fend those  two  islands? 

A.  I'm  quite  coiifident  that  there  is  nothing  be- 
yond what  I  have  described.  Obviously,  that  de- 
scription which  I  have  given  implies  that  under 
certam  conditions  we  would  go  to  the  defense  of 
the  offshore  islands;  that  is,  if  their  defense 
seemed  related  to  the  defense  of  Taiwan  and 
Pengliu. 


^  For  text  of  H.  J.  Res.  159,  84th  Cong.,  1st  sess.,  see 
Bui-LETIN  of  Feb.  7, 1955,  p.  213. 

April  22,   J  957 


Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  is  it  fair  to  say  then,  on  the 
basis  of  lohat  you  have  told  us,  that  there  is  no 
American  commitment  of  any  kind  implicit  or  ex- 
plicit, stated  or  implied,  to  defend  these  islands 
beyond  the  actual  language  of  the  congressional 
resolution? 

A.  That  is  correct. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  would  you  comment  on  the 
statement  of  your  most  recent  biographer  to  the 
effect  that  the  withdrawal  of  the  Aswan  Dam  offer 
to  Mr.  Nasser  was  a  truly  major  gambit  in  the  cold 
war? 

A.  I  don't  care  to  comment  on  articles  written 
about  me.  If  there  are  any  subjects  that,  as  a  re- 
sult of  such  writing,  seem  to  merit  your  question- 
ing me,  I'm  glad  to  answer  your  questions  on  their 
merits  but  not  in  terms  of  what  may  have  been 
written  about  me. 

Canceling  OHer  of  Aid  on  Aswan  Dam 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  let  us  put  it  this  way:  Did 
you  make  a  decision  to  cancel  the  offer  of  aid  on 
the  Aswan  Dam  in  order  to  force  a  showdown  with 
the  Soviet  Union  in  the  Middle  East? 

A.  I  think  that  question  could  be  answered  in 
the  negative.  There  were,  of  course,  a  number  of 
reasons  which  dictated  our  declining  to  go  ahead 
with  the  Aswan  proposal. 

There  was,  perhaps  first  of  all  and  most  impera- 
tive, the  fact  that  the  Appropriations  Committee 
of  tlie  Senate  had  unanimously  passed  a  resolu- 
tion providing  that  none  of  the  1957  funds  could 
be  used  for  the  Aswan  Dam. 

There  was  the  fact  that  we  had  come  to  the  feel- 
ing in  our  own  mind  that  it  was  very  dubious 
whether  a  project  of  tlris  magnitude  could  be 
carried  through  with  mutual  advantage.  It  is  a 
tremendous  project,  involving  an  estimated  bil- 
lion and  a  half  dollars— probably  it  would  cost 

641 


more  than  that.  And  the  Egyptian  component 
of  that,  in  terms  of  domestic  currency  and  effort, 
would  involve  a  gigantic  effort  and  call  for  an 
austerity  program  over  a  period  of  12  to  15  years. 
Undoubtedly,  that  would  be  a  burden  and  cause 
of  complaint  on  the  part  of  the  Egyptian  people, 
and  probably  the  responsibility  for  that  would  be 
placed  upon  the  foreign  lenders  and  they  would 
end  up  by  being  disliked  instead  of  liked. 

Then  there  was  the  further  fact  that  the  Egyp- 
tians had  during  the  immediately  preceding 
period  been  developing  ever  closer  relations  with 
the  Soviet-bloc  countries.  Only  a  few  days  before 
I  was  asked  for  a  definitive  answer  by  the  Egyp- 
tians, they  had  recognized  Communist  China — 
being  the  first  Arab  nation  to  do  so.  And,  indeed, 
it  became,  I  think,  the  first  nation  in  the  world  to 
do  so  since  the  attack  on  Korea. 

And  in  that  way  the  Egyptians,  in  a  sense, 
forced  upon  us  an  issue  to  which  I  think  there  was 
only  one  proper  response.  That  issue  was,  do 
nations  which  play  both  sides  get  better  treatment 
than  nations  which  are  stalwart  and  work  with  us  ? 
That  question  was  posed  by  the  manner  in  which 
the  Egyptians  presented  their  final  request  to  us, 
and  stalwart  allies  were  watching  very  carefully 
to  see  what  the  answer  would  be — stalwart  allies 
which  included  some  in  the  same  area. 

Under  all  the  circumstances  I  think  there  was 
no  doubt  whatsoever  as  to  the  propriety  of  the 
answer  given.  It  was  given  in  a  courteous  manner, 
as  j'ou  will  find  if  you  will  go  back  and  reread  the 
statement  which  was  given  out  at  the  time,  which 
reaffirmed  our  friendship  for  the  Egyptian  people 
and  indicated  our  willingness  in  other  ways  to  try 
to  assist  the  Egyptian  economy.^ 

Current  Negotiations  on  Canal 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  to  bring  this  discussion  up  to 
date,  what  can  you,  tell  us  about  the  status  of  the 
negotiations  over  the  canal — lohether  there  has 
been  any  response  to  our  response  to  the  Egyptian 
memorandum,^  and  what  you  consider  to  be  the 
outlook  for  a  settlement  based  on  the  six  principles 
of  the  United  Nations? 

A.  We  presented  our  views  on  Simday  [March 
31],  I  think  it  was,  indicating  what  we  thought 
was  necessary  in  order  to  bring  the  so-called  draft 

'  Ihid.,  July  .".0,  195G,  p.  1S8. 
'Not  printed. 


memorandum  into  line  with  the  Security  Council 
action.  The  Security  Council  had,  last  October, 
said  that  any  settlement  ought  to  meet  certain 
specified  requirements,  and  then  it  listed  six  re- 
quirements of  any  settlement.  It  seemed  to  us  that 
the  so-called  draft  memorandum  fell  short  of 
meeting  those  requirements.  We  pointed  out  to 
the  Government  of  Egypt  the  respects  in  which  it 
did,  in  our  opinion,  so  fall  short  and  ways  by 
which  that  shortfall  might  perhaps  be  remedied. 
We  have  had  no  response,  as  yet,  from  the  Egyp- 
tian Government. 

Q.  Can  you  tell  us  any  of  those  points,  especially 
how  if  one  of  the  shortfalls,  in  fact  the  question  of 
the  binding  nature  of  this  document — how  you 
would  propose  to  make  it  an  international  obliga- 
tion on  all  countries  involved? 

A.  WeU,  one  of  the  weaknesses  is  the  fact  that, 
even  though  perhaps  the  Egyptians  intended  this 
to  constitute  an  international  obligation,  our  law- 
yers are  not  at  all  sure  that  they  did  in  fact  produce 
that  result  but  that  it  may  be  merely  a  unilateral 
statement  subject  to  unilateral  change  at  any  time, 
without  any  right  on  anybody's  part  to  prevent 
that. 

Now  we  believe  that  it  can,  with  some  rather 
minor  word  changes,  be  converted  into  a  multi- 
lateral obligation  by  perhaps  some  such  measure 
as  filing  it  with  the  United  Nations  and  providing 
that  any  nation  which  files  an  acceptance  of  it  shall 
thereby  gain  rights  under  it.  There  are  various 
ways  in  which  I  think  that  could  be  done;  I  am 
not  at  all  sure  that  the  Egyptians  did  not  by  their 
original  draft  intend  some  such  result.  But,  if  so, 
I  do  not  think  they  made  their  intent  adequate 
from  the  legal  standpoint. 

Use  of  Canal  by  Israel 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  has  Israel  informed  this 
Government  that  it  will  try  to  send  a  ship  through 
the  Suez  Canal,  and,  if  it  does  make  this  attempt, 
can  you  tell  us  what  the  American  Govemment''8 
attitude  ivill  be? 

A.  I  am  not  aware  of  our  being  officially  advised 
in  the  sense  that  you  mentioned,  although  it  is  pos- 
sible that  in  the  course  of  conversations  with  some 
of  my  associates  such  an  intent  may  have  been  in- 
dicated. I  just  don't  know  about  that.  I  would 
point  out  that,  at  the  time  of  the  withdrawal  of 


642 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Israeli  forces  and  at  the  time  of  the  discussions 
which  preceded  that,  tlie  empliasis  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  Israel  in  their  communications  with  the 
United  States  was  upon  the  situation  of  the  Gulf 
of  Aqaba  and  the  situation  in  the  Gaza  Strip. 
Prime  Minister  Ben-Gurion's  letter  to  President 
Eisenhower  did  not  mention  the  Suez  Canal. 
Nevertheless,  they  and  we  do  believe  that  every 
country  has  a  right  to  send  its  ships  and  cargoes 
through  the  Suez  Canal.  Our  belief  was  reflected 
by  the  Security  Council  decision  of  '51,  where  the 
United  States  voted  in  that  sense  as  a  member  of 
the  Security  Council,  and  we  continue  to  adliere  to 
that  view. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  do  you  have  any  indication  at 
all  from  sources  in  Egypt  that  Egypt  may  soon 
renounce  its  belligerency  against  Israel  and  permit 
her  ships  to  go  through  the  canal? 

A.  No,  we  have  no  evidence  of  that  sort.  I 
believe  that  that  matter  is  perhaps  still  under 
consideration  as  a  result  of  the  mission  of  Mr. 
Hammarskjold  to  the  area.  His  public  report 
did  not  cover,  I  think,  all  of  the  matters  which 
he  discussed.  It  does  include  a  report,  of  course, 
on  the  Gaza  Strip,  and  I  want  to  say  that  the 
United  States  shares  the  sentiments  of  satisfaction 
expressed  yesterday  by  his  Advisory  Committee 
consisting  of  seven  important  countries.  He  made 
at  least  some  progi'ess  in  assuring  the  tranquillity 
of  the  Gaza  area  and  that  it  will  not  be  a  base  of 
hostile  activities — fedayeen  activities  and  the  like. 

Also,  of  course,  that  Committee  expressed  the 
opinion  that  if,  in  fact,  the  measures  taken  did 
not  prove  adequate  in  that  respect,  then  the  matter 
would  have  to  be  further  considered  and  request 
made  for  further  action.  That,  however,  did  not 
deal  with  the  belligerency  aspect  of  the  matter, 
which  I  think  is  still  in  abeyance. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  what  bargaining  powers,  if 
a7iy,  do  we  still  retain  in  negotiations  with  Egypt 
over  Suez  and  the  relations  loith  Israel?  For 
instance,  you  mentioned  that  some  of  these  changes 
in  your  opinion  might  he  minor.  What  if  Eqypt 
chose  n-ot  to  go  along  with  even  a  minor  change? 
What  if  she  chose  to  ignore  our  invocation  of 
moral  principles  in  the  area?  What  do  we  do 
then? 

A.  When  I  said  the  changes  might  be  minor, 
I  did  not  intend  to  imply  that  they  would  be  minor 
in  their  significance.    I  think  they  might  be  minor 


in  terms  of  the  actual  changes  in  phraseology 
that  would  be  required,  and,  as  I  say,  it  may  be 
that  those  changes  would  be  in  accord  with  what 
Egypt's  actual  intentions  were. 

Now,  on  the  question  of  what  pressures  we  have 
to  bring  to  bear,  I  think  the  situation  basically  is 
what  I  described  last  week  when  I  said  that  the 
problem  is  one  which  confronts  Egypt  itself  with 
a  choice  between  whether  it  wishes  to  try  to  rees- 
tablish the  confidence  of  the  world  in  the  depend- 
ability of  the  canal  and  its  availability  for  use  on 
the  terms  contemplated  by  the  1888  convention  or 
not.  Upon  the  choice  that  Egypt  makes  a  great 
deal  will  depend,  and  a  great  deal  of  the  future 
of  Egypt  itself  will  depend  upon  that.  We  are 
anxious — I  think  most  countries  are  anxious — to 
see  developments  which  will  improve  and  uplift 
the  economy  of  Egypt  and  its  Arab  neighbors; 
and  we  think  it  is  in  the  mutual  interest  that  the 
interdependence  of  this  area  with  other  areas 
should  be  promoted  by  sound  Egyptian  policies. 

The  United  States  has  no  pressures  to  bring  to 
bear  in  terms  of  military  threats  or  boycotts  of 
the  canal  or  the  like.  I  think  I  said  that  back  last 
October,  September.  That  remains  true  today, 
and  indeed  it  has  been  demonstrated,  I  think,  that 
nonuse  of  the  canal  is  not  a  very  profitable  opera- 
tion from  the  standpoint  of  the  users.  But  we 
still  feel  able  to  entertam  hopes,  at  least,  that  this 
jDroblem  will  be  worked  out  in  a  way  which  we 
think  is  clearly  in  the  interest  not  only  of  the 
nations  which  use  the  canal  but  in  the  interest 
of  Egypt  itself. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  does  one  infer  correctly  from 
what  you  just  said  that  ive  toould  not  participate 
in  any  kind  of  economic  sanctions  against  Egypt 
if  the  situation  deteriorated? 

A.  I  would  not  say  that  we  would  never  par- 
ticipate in  economic  sanctions  against  Egypt. 
However,  the  word  "sanctions"  is,  as  I  think  we 
developed  in  the  course  of  some  of  om-  talks  about 
Israel,  a  word  of  a  great  many  connotations.  Tlie 
so-called  boycotting  of  the  canal,  if  that  is  a  sanc- 
tion, is  a  matter  primarily  for  the  coimtries  to  de- 
cide whose  economies  depend  upon  the  canal. 
United  States  economy  does  not  depend  in  any 
appreciable  degree  upon  the  canal.  Other  coun- 
tries do  have  a  great  deal  of  dependence,  and  I 
think  that  any  initiative  in  that  respect  should 
come  from  them  and  not  from  us. 


April  22,   1957 


643 


Use  of  Canal  by  American  Ships 

Q.  Mi'.  Secretary,  if  American,  ships  were  to 
enter  the  canal  zoithin  the  next  few  days,  would 
the  Government  have  any  objections  if  they 
turned  over  in  dollars  toll  payments  to  the  Egyp- 
tian Government  on  Egyptian  terms  such  as  they 
exist  now? 

A.  Well,  the  United  States  ships  were,  of  course, 
paying  in  that  way  before  the  canal  was  closed  and 
I  think  have  always  paid  in  that  way.  In  that 
respect  their  practice  is  different  from  that  of  the 
British  and  the  French.  We  always  paid,  so  to 
speak,  on  the  barrelhead  at  the  canal. 

Now,  since  the  Suez  Canal  Company  has  been 
seized,  the  persons  who  pay  are  subject  to  double 
jeopardy  in  the  sense  that,  whereas  undoubtedly 
the  seizure  would  be  recognized  as  valid  in  Egypt, 
it  may  not  be  recognized  as  valid  by  the  courts  of 
other  countries.  Therefore,  the  Suez  Canal  Com- 
pany may  have  a  right  to  sue  for  those  tolls  in 
other  jurisdictions  than  in  Egypt.  Now  to  pro- 
tect against  that  risk  was  one  of  the  reasons  why 
we  froze  Egyptian  Government  funds  here.  And 
until  there  is  a  settlement,  we  would  probably  look 
to  those  funds  as  a  source  to  indemnify  American 
ships  who  went  through  the  canal  and  paid  mider 
conditions  which  may  not  be  held  as  valid  and 
adequate  by  the  courts  of  the  United  States. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  to  answer  the  question,  would 
we  have  any  objections  if  any  American  ships  did 
go  in  in  the  next  feio  days  and  paid  on  the  'barrel- 
head as  they  did  before  the  blowup? 

A.  I  would  prefer  not  to  answer  that  question 
until  I  know  a  little  bit  more  of  the  outcome  of 

these  negotiations. 

Q.  How  do  these  negotiations  provide  for  what 
you  once  defined  as  a  major  purpose  of  all  negotia- 
tions with  Egypt  over  the  canal,  that  is,  the  insu- 
lating of  the  canal  in  its  day-to-day  operations 
against  the  whims  and  cham,ges  of  Egyptian 
politics? 

A.  That  is  one  of  the  aspects  of  the  matter  which 
is  very  difficult  to  deal  with  but  which  we  believe 
could  be  dealt  with  if  there  is  what  was  referred 
to  by  the  Secretary-General  in  his  summary  of  the 
October  negotiations  as  "organized  cooperation" 
between  the  Egyptian  Government  and  the  users 
and  if  there  were  adequate  riglits  of  arbitration 
and  so  forth.  I  believe  that  that  could  be  pro- 
vided  for,  and  indeed  the  draft  memorandum 


filed  by  the  Egyptian  Government  does  suggest 
certain  rights  of  arbitration.  'Wliether  they  are 
adequate  or  not  is  a  question. 

Question  of  Users  Association 

Q.  The  draft  memorandum,  sir,  does  not  give 
much  recognition — /  don''t  believe  it  gives  any  rec- 
ognition to  the  rights  of  the  users  as  a  group. 
Would  the  establishment  of  such  rights  for  the 
users  be  an  objective  of  the  United  States? 

A.  It  would  be,  because  that  is  implicit  in  the 
six  requirements  of  the  Security  Council.  They 
provide,  for  example,  that  the  tolls  should  be  a 
matter  of  agreement  between  Egypt  and  the  users. 
That  implies,  I  think,  very  clearly  an  organiza- 
tion of  the  users,  and  that  was  the  implication 
that  was  accepted  by  the  Egyptian,  British,  and 
French  Governments  in  the  talks  which  took  place 
concurrently  with  the  Security  Council  meeting  at 
New  York. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  would  you  like  to  see  the  for- 
mation of  a  council  of  users  which  uwuld  have 
some  authority  in  developing  canal  policy,  operat- 
ing policy? 

A.  Well,  the  conditions  which  we  would  like  to 
see  are  those  which  were  portrayed  in  the  pro- 
posals that  were  made  by  the  18  countries  and 
were  carried  to  Egypt  by  Prime  Minister  Menzies.* 
Now  those  were  not  the  only  way  of  accomplish- 
ing the  purposes  in  mind.  But  if  you  want  to  ask 
what  our  optimum  desiderata  are,  you  would  have 
to  go  back  to  that. 

Q.  What  I  would  like  to  get  at  is,  what  have 
you  proposed  to  Egypt  in  your  latest  note? 

A.  I  don't  want  to  disclose  that  note  beyond 
saying,  as  I  have  said,  that  we  are  suggesting 
changes  in  the  memorandum  which  in  our  opin- 
ion will  bring  it  in  conformity  with  the  six  re- 
quirements, and  those  six  requirements,  in  turn, 
seemed  to  us  to  contemplate  some  organization  of 
the  users  to  deal  with  Egypt. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  in  view  of  all  that  has  hap- 
pened in  the  Middle  East  since  October,  is  inter- 
natiorud  operation  of  the  canal  a  practical  pos- 
sibility, or  must  the  Western  countries  be  content 
with  some  sort  of  advisory  role  to  the  Egyptian 
Government,  which  actually  operates  the  canal? 

A.  Well,  again  I  would  prefer  not  to  answer 
'  HuuJSTiN  of  Sept.  24,  1956,  p.  467. 


644 


Department  of  Stale   Butletin 


that  question  at  this  staijo  because  it  might  have 
an  undesirable  impact  upon  the  negotiations. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  your  statement  last  week  that 
we  are  giving  so  rmich  attention  to  Latin  America 
certainly  gratified  a  good  many  diplomats  in 
totim.  However,  they  are  mystif,ed  why  the  ad- 
ministration hasnH  appointed  an  Assistant  Secre- 
tary for  Inter-American  Affairs,  lohich  has  been 
vacant  since  last  August,  and  why  at  a  thiie  when 
there  is  so  much  activity  in  the  Latin  American 
field  the  two  principal  positions  in  the  Depart- 
ment are  noxo  on  the  shoulders  of  Mr.  Ruhottom  as 
Acting  Assistant  Secretary  and  Deputy  Assistant 
Secretary. 

A.  Well,  the  position  is  filled  by  an  Acting  As- 
sistant Secretary.  There  is  no  de  facto  vacancy 
in  the  position.  I  have  not  heard  any  complaints 
of  substance  with  respect  to  our  handling  of  Latin 
American  affairs,  and  I  think  that  personnel  mat- 
ters probably  couldn't  be  advantageously  dis- 
cussed here. 

Q.  Could  yoxu  tell  us  if  an  appointment  is  im- 
minent, sir? 

A.  No. 

Q.  Was  there  agreement  at  Bermuda,  Mr.  Sec- 
retary, on  the  withdrawal  of  British  troops  from 
Malaya,  and,  if  so,  what  would  the  United  States 
do  to  fill  the  vacuum? 

A.  There  was  no  precise  statement  made  by  the 
United  Kingdom  as  to  its  intentions  with  regard 
to  Malaya.  That  general  topic  was  discussed,  as 
I  think  perhaps  I  indicated,  at  the  Canberra  con- 
ference, the  Seato  Council.  But  the  situation  had 
not  developed  as  yet  into  a  sufficiently  concrete 
form  so  that  it  was  appropriate  or  advantageous 
to  consider  concrete  measures,  if  any,  to  deal  with 
it.  Of  course  Malaya  will  become  an  independent 
state  sometime  next  August,  and  the  problem  of 
the  future  of  Malaya — whether  it  will  enter  the 
pact  and  what  its  arrangements  will  be  with  the 
other  countries — will  then  have  to  be  decided  by 
the  independent  Government  of  Malaya. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  at  the  time  you  decided  to 
unthdram  the  Aswan  Dam  offer,  did  you  expect 
Colonel  Nasser  to  react  by  seizing  the  canal? 

A.  No.  We  did  not  expect  that  to  happen,  al- 
though we  now  know  that  the  seizure  of  the  Canal 
Company  had  been  planned  by  President  Nasser 
for  some  time.    I  don't  recall  that  I  recently  men- 


tioned it,  but  President  Tito  in  a  speech  of  his 
last  November  said  that  President  Nasser  had  told 
him  at  their  first  meeting  [February  1955]  that  it 
was  his  intention  to  seize  the  Suez  Canal  Company 
because  Egypt  as  an  independent  nation  could  not 
tolerate  this  exercise  of  authority  on  Egyptian 
soil  by  foreigners.  That  was  while  the  Aswan 
Dam  matter  was,  I  think,  being  discussed  by  the 
World  Bank.  But  it  was  a  year  or  more  before 
our  decision  not  to  go  ahead  with  the  dam. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  since  your  retu/rn  from  Ber- 
muda, have  you  acquainted  yourself  with  the 
work  of  the  Milton  Eisenhower  committee? 

A.  I  am  familiar  with  it  in  general.  I  have 
had  several  reports  made  to  me  about  it. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  yesterday  on  Capitol  Hill, 
Dr.  Hannah,  President  of  Michigan  State  Uni- 
versity and  former  AssiMant  Secretary  of  De- 
fense, urged  the  United  States  to  consider  the  Ko- 
rean armistice,  the  armistice  in  North  Korea,  void 
and  that  we  ship  modern  arms  to  Korea  and 
atomic  weapons  to  out  own  divisions  in  Korea. 
What  is  your  opinion  of  that,  sir? 

A.  We  do  not  think  it  is  wise  to  treat  the  armis- 
tice as  void.  It  is  quite  true  that  we  are  convinced 
of  rather  serious  violations  of  the  armistice  by 
the  other  side  and  it  may  be  that  those  violations 
give  us  a  greater  freedom  of  action  in  the  respects 
in  which  it  has  been  violated  by  the  Communists, 
but,  as  far  as  relates  to  treating  the  entire  armis- 
tice as  void  and  in  effect  resuming  a  state  of  active 
belligerency,  that  is  not  something  we  favor. 

Q.  Will  the  Richards  mission  go  to  Egypt  and 
Syria,  assuming  that  either  or  both  Governments 
invite  it  to  come? 

A.  No  decision  has  yet  been  made  on  that  point. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  in  listing  the  reasons  for 
withdrawing  from  the  financing  of  the  Aswan 
High  Dam.,  you  mentioned  that  the  strain  of  re- 
payment might  tend  to  turn  the  Egyptian  people 
against  us.  Is  it  your  feeling  that  foreign  eco- 
nomic aid  to  any  country  ^vhere  repayment  might 
be  a  strain  roould  work  against  the  United  States? 

A.  It's  always  a  question  of  degree,  and  cer- 
tainly I  would  not  think  that  would  always  be 
the  case  or  even  usually  be  the  case.  But  remem- 
ber, tliis  was  a  very  unusual  case.  There  has  never 
been  in  the  whole  history  of  the  world  an  irriga- 
tion project  of  comparable  magnitude. 


AptW  22,   7957 


645 


Q.  Mr.  Secretary^  has  there  been  any  change  in 
the  administration's  position  barring  travel  by 
American  reporters  to  Red  Chinaf 

A.  No.  There  has  been  no  change  in  our  posi- 
tion in  tliat  respect.  We  are  continuing  to  study 
the  matter  and  have  been  in  fact  doing  this  ac- 
tively over  the  past  week  or  two.  But  I'm  not  in 
a  position  to  announce  it  or  forecast  any  change. 

Aid  to  Poland 

Q.  There  have  been  reports,  Mr.  Secretary,  that 
the  administration  is  thinking  in  terms  of  a  $75 
million  aid  contribution  to  Poland.  First  of  all, 
is  this  figure  roughly  correct,  and,  if  so,  do  you 
feel  that  that  is  suffident  to  encourage  Poland  and 
other  Communist  satellites  to  veer  away  front 
Moscow?  Because  there  have  been  reports  that 
Poland  does  not  think  that  that  would  be  a  suffi- 
cient sum. 

A.  Well,  I  don't  think  that  the  question  of 
whether  or  not  Poland  veers  away  from  Moscow 
is  quite  as  simple  as  saying,  can  it  be  bought  for 
$60  million  or  $70  million  or  $100  million.  This 
is  all  part  and  parcel  of  a  very  complicated  and 
perhaps  not  very  rapid  process  of  evolution  where 
some  of  the  satellite  comitries  are  seeking  to  exer- 
cise a  greater  degree  of  independence.  We  are 
anxious  to  encourage  that  trend  toward  inde- 
pendence. We  don't  think  we  are  going  to  buy 
anything  spectacular  just  by  putting  up  a  certain 
number  of  dollars.  And  as  to  the  figures  you 
mentioned,  I  don't  feel  I  can  discuss  them  here 
because  they  are  the  subject  of  negotiations  which 
are  at  the  moment  going  on  and  it  would  perhaps 
prejudice  those  negotiations  if  I  got  into  the  num- 
bers racket. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  if  Egypt  should  continue  to 
maintain  her  belligerency,  in  your  opinion  would 
this  indicate  on  Egypt's  part  a  loch  of  decent  re- 
spect for  the  opinions  of  mankind? 

A.  That  is  a  little  difficult  to  answer,  I  think, 
in  the  abstract.  The  question  of  belligerency  is 
pretty  difficult  to  answer  I  think,  except  in  terms 
of  certain  specifics.  You  might  say,  for  example, 
that  the  United  States,  despite  the  Korean  armi- 
stice, exei'cises  certain  aspects  of  belligerency  as 
regards  Communist  China — the  provisions  of  the 
Trading  With  the  Enemy  Act,  for  example,  are 
still  in  force.    If,  without  regard  to  the  general 


question  of  belligerency  you  ask  whether  the  Gaza 
Strip  should  be  used  as  a  base  of  fedayeen  activi- 
ties, if  you  ask  whether  or  not  ships  should  be  al- 
lowed to  pass  through  the  Straits  of  Tiran,  and  if 
you  ask  whether  or  not  Israeli  ships  should  be 
allowed  to  pass  through  the  Suez  Canal,  then  I 
can  answer  those  three  questions.  I  think  I  have 
answered  them.  But  I  don't  want  to  get  into  ab- 
stractions which  are  pretty  difficult  to  deal  with. 

Q.  Well,  putting  it  on  those  specifics,  those  last 
three  that  you  mentioned,  if  Egypt  insisted  on 
belligerency  in  those  three  points,  would  you  then 
in  your  opinion  think  she  would  be  showing  a  dis- 
regard for  the  decent  opinions  of  mankind? 

A.  Well,  I  can't  speak  for  all  of  mankind. 
(Laughter)  How  the  rest  of  mankind  would  feel 
about  it,  I  don't  want  to  say ;  but,  I  think,  as  far 
as  the  public  opinion  of  the  United  States  is  con- 
cerned, it  would  support  the  views  which  I  have 
expressed  here. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  it  seems  that  the  negotiations 
on  aviation  matters  between  the  Netherlands  and 
the  United  States  have  ar-rived  at  a  complete  dead- 
lock. Would  you  mind  telling  us  what,  according 
to  you,  is  the  position  now? 

A.  Well,  that  again  is  one  of  these  matters 
which,  being  in  the  course  of  unresolved  negotia- 
tions, isn't  aided  by  a  discussion  at  a  press  con- 
ference. I  would  say  that  there  has  been  an  ex- 
change of  views.  There  has  not  yet  been  a  reso- 
lution of  certain  differences  which  have  arisen. 
We  are  not  without  hope  that  the  differences  still 
will  be  resolved. 

Q.  Mr.  Secretary,  on  the  Suez  Canal  matter, 
time  appears  to  be  running  out  in  the  sense  that  the 
canal  is  about  ready  to  resuine  full-scale  oper- 
ations. How  long  would  you  expect  that  these 
negotiations  with  Egypt  would  continue  before 
some  kind  of  decision  loould  have  to  be  reached  or 
ought  to  be  reached? 

A.  Well,  measuring  the  length  of  negotiations 
is  a  good  bit  like  saying,  how  long  is  a  piece  of 
string?  And  sometimes  the  estimates  prove  not 
to  be  well  founded.  I  would  say  that  we  ought 
to  know,  I  would  think,  within  the  next  2-1  or  48 
hours  whether  there  is  a  likelihood  of  serious  ne- 
gotiations along  lines  which  hold  out  promise. 
Now,  if  those  negotiations  develop,  they  in  turn 


646 


Department  of  State  BuUetin 


mifijht  take  some  little  time.  On  the  other  hand, 
it  could  be  that  the  Egyptian  attitude,  as  expressed 
during  the  next  day  or  two,  ^yould  indicate  so  little 
likelihood  of  a  successful  outcome  that  there  would 
be  no  detailed  negotiation. 


Q.  At  this  tijne,  Mr.  Secretary,  do  you  have  any 
information  on  which  way  you  think  it  might  go? 

A.  None  at  all. 

Q.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Secretary. 


Building  for  Peace 


hy  Deputy  Under  Secm^etary  Murphy ' 


The  world  is  now  entering  upon  the  second 
decade  since  the  end  of  World  War  II.  We  have 
learned  a  lot  in  the  past  10  years.  Striking 
changes  have  taken  place  in  Eui'ope,  in  Asia,  and  in 
Africa.  Our  foreign  relations  have  gone  through 
at  least  three  basic  stages :  in  1947  with  the  Mar- 
shall plan;  in  1949-1950  with  the  Berlin  air- 
lift, the  Communist  attack  in  Korea,  and  the 
creation  of  Nato;  and  in  1953  with  the  decision 
that  our  national  energy  must  be  geared  to  the 
"long  haul"  in  our  contest  with  international 
communism. 

In  our  planning  for  the  next  decade  we  must 
identify  and  understand  the  basic  forces  and 
trends  at  worlc.  Then  we  must  insure  that  our 
policies  are  calculated  to  use  our  means  to  the  best 
advantage  for  shaping  these  forces.  We  must 
recognize  that  our  means  are  not  sufficient  to  halt 
or  reverse  these  basic  forces,  and  our  aim  must  be 
to  channel,  deflect,  and  manage  these  forces  in 
ways  compatible  with  our  interests. 

At  least  tliree  of  these  forces  and  trends  are  of 
overshadowing  significance — hostile  Soxdet  power, 
developing  military  technology,  and  the  rise  of  the 
nations  of  Asia  and  Africa.  These  forces  will 
merit  our  closest  attention  in  the  years  to  come. 

The  greatest  threat  to  our  security  and  that  of 
the  free  nations  is  found  in  the  hostility  and 
strength  of  international  communism.    Our  basic 


'  Address  made  at  the  Conference  on  World  Affairs  at 
the  University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colo.,  on  Apr.  4  (press 
release  186  dated  Apr.  3). 


endeavor  is  to  meet  that  threat  without  destroying 
fundamental  American  values  and  institutions  or 
damaging  our  own  economy. 

The  Communist  bloc  has  a  well-balanced  mili- 
tary array,  ranging  from  very  large  armed  forces 
to  a  considerable  arsenal  of  nuclear  weapons  and 
modern  delivery  systems.  Its  ideology  is  un- 
compromisingly hostile.  Absolute  political 
power  is  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  a  few.  It 
continues  to  devote  a  large  proportion  of  its  re- 
soui'ces  to  development  of  military  strength  and 
heavy  industry. 

At  the  same  time  the  Soviet  rulers  are  con- 
fronted with  strong  pressures  for  change  and  for 
relaxation  of  rigid  controls,  both  domestic  and 
foreign.  The  de-Stalinization  progi-am,  the  fer- 
ment among  Soviet  academic  and  cultural  groups, 
and  the  events  in  the  satellites  all  reflect  these 
pressures  and  the  efforts  of  the  Soviet  leadership 
to  adjust  to  them. 

The  astonishing  growth  of  military  technology 
can  be  pointed  up  by  a  few  hard  facts.  Experts 
have  made  a  thorough  study  of  the  increase  of  de- 
structive power  beginning  with  the  age  of  gun- 
powder. What  they  call  the  "explosive  index" 
has  increased  from  a  factor  of  one  in  the  Middle 
Ages  to  eight  on  the  eve  of  Hiroshima.  The 
ratio  jumped  virtually  overnight  to  10,000.  With 
the  development  of  the  H-bomb,  the  ratio  went  to 
10  million.  Compared  with  pre-Hiroshima  1945, 
therefore,  the  destructive  power  of  war  has  multi- 
plied over  one  million  times.      With  the  develop- 


April  22,   J 957 


647 


ment  of  guided  missiles,  the  ability  to  deliver  this 
awesome  destructive  power  is  also  on  the  verge  of 
astonishing  growth. 

The  rise  of  the  new  nations  of  Asia  and  Africa 
is  a  promising  trend  ni  postwar  developments. 
Since  the  end  of  the  war,  19  new  nations  with  pop- 
ulations of  about  700  million  people  have  achieved 
independence.  There  will  be  a  number  more  in 
the  next  few  years.  These  nations  are  imbued 
with  patriotism  and  with  a  desire  for  economic 
progress.  They  want  to  transform  their  countries 
into  modern  states  by  the  most  rapid  means.  The 
economic  obstacles  they  face  are  indeed  formi- 
dable, since  the  new  nations  have  on  an  average 
about  one-tenth  of  the  per  capita  gross  national 
product  of  the  advanced  nations.  Communists 
from  IMoscow  and  Peiping  seek  to  play  on  and 
distort  the  aspirations  of  the  new  nations  and  to 
stimulate  their  suspicions  of  the  so-called  colonial 
powers. 

Our  Fundamental  Objectives 

The  requirements  for  our  national  effort  in  the 
decade  ahead  will  in  some  respect  differ  markedly 
from  those  of  the  last  10  years.  But  in  their  basic 
aspects  they  will  continue  to  pose  the  same  funda- 
mental set  of  objectives : 

First,  we  must  maintain  our  own  strength,  for 
our  strength  is  essential  to  the  free  world ; 

Second,  we  must  keep  our  alliances  strong  and 
vigorous,  for  reasons  which  deeply  involve  both 
the  spiritual  purposes  of  our  nation  and  the  stra- 
tegic requirements  of  this  technological  age; 

And  finally,  we  must  work  for  the  close  associa- 
tion and  cooperation  of  the  uncommitted  states 
and  the  emerging  new  nations  with  the  active 
community  of  the  free  world,  in  order  that  the 
area  of  freedom  may  expand  rather  than  contract. 

These  three  fundamental  tasks  have  been  the 
constants  of  United  States  purpose  since  the  end 
of  "World  War  II.  They  have  been  the  unifying 
elements  of  the  history  of  our  exertions  over  the 
decade  since  the  brief  period  of  high  hopes  for 
honorable  collaboration  with  the  Soviet  Union 
broke  against  the  aggressive  expansionism  of 
Stalinist  ambition.  They  characterized  the  pe- 
riod of  the  gathering  cold  war — the  program  to 
strengthen  Greece,  the  foreign  aid  progi-am,  and 
the  establishment  of  Nato.  They  marked  tlie 
period  of  the  hot  wars  in  Korea  and  Indochina 


and  the  recurrent  crises  of  the  Far  East.  They 
underlay  the  further  development  of  the  gi"eat 
systems  of  collective  security  and  the  purpose  of 
our  negotiations  with  the  post-Stalinist  leaders  of 
the  Communist  world. 

In  the  light  of  the  requirements  of  our  national 
strategy  to  influence  the  forces  and  trends  at  work 
in  the  world,  a  look  at  the  main  regions  of  the 
world  may  be  profitable. 

U.S.  Support  for  Western  Europe 

Europe  is  the  area  with  which  we  have  histori- 
cally had  the  closest  ties.  Most  of  our  basic  con- 
cepts are  products  of  European  thought.  Our 
social  institutions,  our  predominant  religions,  and 
our  cultural  heritage  were  brought  here  by  the 
people  of  Europe,  whose  descendants  now  largely 
populate  our  countiy. 

If  anything,  the  United  States  is  now  more 
closely  involved  in  Europe  than  ever  before  in 
time  of  peace.  American  troops  are  standing  with 
our  allies  in  defense  of  free  Europe.  Our  com- 
mercial relations  with  Western  Europe  are  at  lev- 
els which  represent  an  alltime  high.  Political 
consultation  with  our  European  friends  has  been 
more  active  in  the  past  few  years  than  ever  before 
in  history.  The  successful  conference  just  con- 
cluded at  Bermuda  is  a  good  example  of  our  con- 
sultation with  one  of  our  most  important  allies.  - 
The  North  Atlantic  Council,  following  a  recent 
decision,  is  now  one  of  the  most  important  centers 
of  political  consultation  for  its  15  members  as  well 
as  being  a  prime  example  of  collective  defense 
effort.  It  is  the  intention  of  the  United  States, 
together  with  its  allies,  to  continue  to  strengthen 
Nato  as  a  forum  for  productive  international 
discussion. 

In  Western  Europe  steps  have  been  taken  and 
agreements  reached  which  as  little  as  10  years  ago 
would  have  been  dismissed  as  fantastic.  One  of 
these  is  the  development  of  Franco-German  co- 
operation. These  two  coimtries  work  together  in 
the  Coal  and  Steel  Community,  cooperate  in  their 
common  defense  as  members  of  Nato,  and  have 
succeeded  in  settling  amicably  the  very  difficidt 
question  of  the  Saar.  INIore  recently,  they  have 
joined  with  other  nations  in  the  agreements  on 
EuRATOM  and  the  Common  Market. 


-  For  text  of  joint  communique  issued  at  close  of  Ber- 
muda mooting  on  Mar.  24,  see  Bulletin  of  Apr.  S,  1957, 
p.  .^01. 


648 


Deparlment  of  Sfa/e  Bulletin 


I  would  like  to  take  a  minute  to  discuss  these  two 
agreenaents,  which  have  been  much  in  the  news 
lately. 

The  term  "common  market"  refers  to  an  agi-ee- 
ment  just  concluded  between  Belgimn,  France,  the 
German  Federal  Republic,  Italy,  Luxembourg, 
and  the  Netherlands.  It  involves  the  elimination 
of  substantially  all  of  the  barriers  to  trade  among 
those  countries  and  the  establisliment  of  a  common 
external  tariif  toward  outside  countries.  The 
United  Kingdom  has  expressed  a  desire  to  associ- 
ate itself  with  the  Common  Market  in  a  free  trade 
area. 

United  States  support  of  European  proposals 
for  a  common  market  and  free  trade  area  is  based 
on  two  traditional  policies :  our  consistent  support 
of  moves  to  further  the  political  and  economic 
strength  and  cohesion  of  "Western  Europe  withm 
an  expanding  Atlantic  Community  and  our  long- 
standing devotion  to  progress  toward  freer  non- 
discriminatory, multilateral  trade  and  converti- 
bility of  currencies. 

The  Atomic  Energy  Community  (Eukatom)  is 
intended  to  mobilize  in  Europe  the  teclinical  and 
industrial  resources  required  to  develop  atomic 
power  to  meet  that  area's  growing  need  for  energy. 
It  would  also  provide  a  political  entity  competent 
to  afford  adequate  safeguards  and  to  enter  into 
comprehensive  and  practical  engagements  with 
the  United  States  Government. 

The  United  States  Government  welcomes  this 
initiative  for  a  bold  and  imaginative  application 
of  nuclear  energy,  and  we  anticipate  active  associ- 
ation with  the  European  Atomic  Energy  Com- 
munity. 

The  Satellites  in  Eastern  Europe 

Moving  to  Eastern  Europe,  tiie  events  of  the 
past  year  have  been  spectacular. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  developments  in 
Hungary  last  October  and  November  presented 
grave  problems  to  the  Kremlin.  The  Soviet 
rulei-s  were  faced  with  the  choice  of  keeping  faith 
with  their  own  promises  or  of  brutally  maintain- 
ing their  colonial  empire.  They  chose  the  latter 
course.  Reinforcements  were  rushed  into  Hun- 
gary, and  in  a  month  of  bloody  fighting  the  Hun- 
garians were  again  ground  into  submission  with 
the  connivance  of  a  puppet  government  he^aded  by 
Janos  Kadar.  Communist  ideology  and  methods 
were  thus  discredited  all  over  the  world.    The 

April  22,    1957 

422775—57 3 


Soviet  charge  of  "a  Fascist  counterrevolution  in- 
spired by  U.S.  and  other  Western  agents"  fooled 
no  one  outside  the  Communist  orbit  and  probably 
very  few  inside. 

Have  the  events  in  Hungary  resulted  in  a  re- 
newal of  the  Soviet  hard  policy?  This  question 
cannot  be  answered  as  yet  with  any  certainty. 
There  have,  however,  been  some  straws  in  the 
wind.  One  of  these  is  the  threat  of  atomic  retalia- 
tion against  Great  Britain,  Noi-way,  and  Denmark. 
Another  is  the  angry  admonitions  issued  to 
Sweden  and  Finland  on  how  they  must  behave  if 
they  expect  to  avoid  Soviet  enmity.  A  third  has 
been  the  denunciation  by  the  Soviets  and  satellites 
of  the  theory  of  "many  roads  to  socialism."  More 
and  more  we  are  told  that  there  is  only  one  road, 
that  there  is  no  such  thing  as  "national  conunu- 
nism,"  and  that  all  communism  must  be  "under  the 
great  leadership  of  the  Soviet  Union."  And 
finally,  we  have  the  increasingly  repressive  meas- 
ures in  Hmigary  and  indeed  in  all  Soviet-occupied 
countries.  Yugoslavia,  the  father  of  "national 
communism,"  again  appears  to  be  on  the  verge  of 
excommunication  as  a  heretic. 

Gomulka  in  Poland  is  pursuing  a  very  delicate 
balancing  act  which  may  illustrate  his  aim  to  offset 
experimental  measures  by  the  right  amount  of 
Communist  orthodoxy.  Poland's  economic  situa- 
tion is  unfavorable,  and  the  Polish  Govermnent  is 
trying  to  alleviate  it  by  negotiations  with  several 
Western  countries. 

President  Eisenhower  has  stated  the  position  of 
the  United  States :  ^ 

We  honor  the  a.«pirations  of  those  nations  which,  now 
captive,  long  for  freedom.  We  seek  neither  their  mili- 
tary alliance  nor  any  artificial  imitation  of  our  society. 
And  they  can  know  the  warmth  of  the  welcome  that 
awaits  them  when,  as  must  be,  they  join  again  the  ranks 
of  freedom. 

We  honor,  no  less  in  this  diviiled  world  than  in  a  less 
tormented  time,  the  people  of  Russia.  We  do  not  dread — 
rather  do  we  welcome — their  progress  in  education  and 
industry.  We  wish  them  success  in  their  demands  for 
more  intellectual  freedom,  greater  security  before  their 
own  laws,  fuller  enjoyment  of  the  rewards  of  their  own 
toil.  For  as  such  things  may  come  to  pass,  the  more  cer- 
tain will  be  the  coming  of  that  day  when  our  peoples  may 
freely  meet  in  friendship. 

Any  discussion  of  Soviet-occupied  territory 
must  give  special  attention  to  Germany.  In  the 
Eastern  Zone,  17  million  Germans  are  still  held  in 
imwilling  bondage  by  the  Soviet  Army  and  a  pup- 


'/6id.,  Feb.  11,  1957,  p.  212. 


649 


pet  regime,  manipulated  from  Moscow.  Like  the 
Hungarians,  these  Germans  have  had  bitter  ex- 
perience with  Soviet  tanks  and  weapons.  They 
and  their  compatriots  in  the  Federal  Eepublic 
want  a  free,  reunited  Germany  based  on  free 
elections. 

For  years  the  United  States  has  urged  that  this 
opportvmity  be  given  them.  The  United  States, 
together  with  the  other  nations  directly  concerned, 
will  maintain  its  eti'orts  to  advance  the  cause  of 
German  reunification.  It  is  our  belief  that  this 
is  one  of  the  cornerstones  on  which  the  peace  in 
Europe  must  be  built. 

Unresolved  Issues  in  Middle  East 

Another  area  where  there  is  cause  for  grave 
concern  is  the  Middle  East.  Although  consider- 
able progi-ess  has  been  made  through  the  United 
Nations  in  removing  the  dangers  to  world  peace 
which  resulted  from  the  military  action  of  last 
fall,  less  headway  has  been  made  in  tackluag  the 
basic  causes  which  led  to  the  outbreak  of  hos- 
tilities. 

The  two  unresolved  issues  which  led  to  the  ex- 
plosion last  October  and  November  were  the  Arab- 
Israel  issue  and  the  problem  of  the  Suez  Canal. 

The  history  of  the  Arab-Israel  problem  in  the 
7  years  between  1949  and  1956  is  a  son-y  record  of 
disregard  of  United  Nations  resolutions  and  of 
violations  on  both  sides  of  the  Armistice  Agree- 
ment. The  Arabs  felt  angry  and  betrayed,  par- 
ticularly because  some  900,000  of  their  fellow 
Arabs  had  been  deprived  of  their  homes  and  prop- 
erty and  were  leading  a  miserable  existence  as 
refugees  huddled  in  camps  around  the  border  of 
the  new  state  of  Israel.  The  Israelis,  on  the  other 
hand,  felt  frustrated  and  desperate  because  they 
were  not  able  to  achieve  recognition  of  their  vei-y 
existence  from  their  neighbors  or  to  establish  the 
kind  of  trade  and  intercourse  with  the  neighboring 
states  which  could  alone  guarantee  them  a  secure 
future. 

The  events  of  last  October  and  November  pi-o- 
duced  a  determination  on  the  part  of  the  United 
Nations  members  to  come  to  grips  with  the  basic 
issues  which  prevented  a  solution  of  this  problem. 
This  feeling  undoubtedly  came  somewhat  from  a 
sense  of  not  having  fully  recognized  the  potential 
danger  to  world  peace  in  this  explosive  situation 
and  not  having  insisted  more  firmly  upon  com- 
pliance with  U.N.  resolutions. 


Similarly  the  problem  of  the  Suez  Canal  had 
been  brought  to  the  United  Nations  in  October 
after  a  discouraging  history  of  provocation  and 
counterprovocation  which  had  dimmed  the  pros- 
pects of  finding  a  solution.  Under  the  aegis  of  the 
United  Nations,  the  Security  Council  succeeded  on 
October  13  in  agreeing  upon  six  principles,  which 
the  British,  French,  and  Egyptians,  as  the  parties 
most  directly  concerned,  worked  out  as  the  basis 
of  an  equitable  solution.^  The  events  of  Novem- 
ber disrupted  this  attempt  at  orderly  progress  as 
well,  but  at  present  the  situation  has  been  restored 
to  a  point  where  we  think  this  problem,  too,  can 
again  be  approached  through  the  preferable  chan- 
nel of  negotiation. 

In  the  course  of  the  months  immediately  follow- 
ing the  upheaval  of  October-November,  it  became 
evident  that  still  another  problem  exists  in  re- 
gard to  the  area  as  a  whole.  The  irresponsible 
and  reckless  behavior  of  the  Soviet  Union  in 
threatening  unilateral  intervention  in  this  dispute 
for  the  sake  of  achieving  supposed  political  ad- 
vantages made  it  quite  clear  that,  unless  some  kind 
of  a  protective  shield  could  be  thrown  around  the 
area  as  a  whole,  the  disruptive  and  subversive  ac- 
tivities of  the  Soviet  Union  might  vitiate  attempts 
to  progress  toward  stability  and  tranquillity  in  the 
area. 

Since  the  United  Nations  was  not  equipped  to 
deal  with  this  last  problem,  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment formulated  a  doctrine  for  the  Middle 
East,  which  was  proposed  to  Congress  by  the 
President  on  January  5  of  this  year.^  Its  objec- 
tive is  to  provide  economic  and  military  assistance 
to  those  countries  in  the  area  desiring  to  cooperate 
with  us  in  resisting  Soviet  encroachments,  and  thus 
to  help  develop  the  economic  stability  and  internal 
security  plus  adequate  national  self-defense  which 
could  lead  to  a  greater  degi'ee  of  self-confidence 
and  feeling  of  security  on  the  part  of  the  states  in 
the  area. 

The  United  States  Government  placed  the  Sov- 
iet Union  and  the  world  on  notice  that  we  would 
use  our  military  power  to  deter  or  defeat  overt 
aggression  against  any  of  the  states  in  the  area 
that  desired  our  help.  This  program  is  being 
launched  by  a  U.S.  mission  xmder  the  able  direc- 
tion of  Ambassador  Richards,  former  Congress- 
man from  South  Carolina  and  chairman  of  the 


•  For  text,  see  ibid.,  Oct.  22,  1950,  p.  616. 
'  Ibiil.,  Jan.  21,  10.^7,  p.  83. 


650 


Department   of   State   Bulletin 


House.  Foreign  Affairs  Committee,  who  is  now 
visiting  the  countries  in  the  area."  He  is  making 
good  progi'ess  in  encouraging  the  stability  and 
tranquillity  which  we  believe  are  essential  to  guar- 
antee peace. 

In  a  further  effort  to  protect  the  area  of  the  Mid- 
dle East  agamst  possible  attack,  the  United 
States  recently  announced  its  willingness  to  par- 
ticipate actively  in  the  work  of  the  Military  Com- 
mittee of  the  five-nation  Baghdad  Pact.'  This 
action  was  taken  mider  the  authority  of  the  joint 
resolution  approved  on  March  9.* 

Collective  Defense  in  the  Far  East 

Our  experience  in  the  Far  East  has  given  us  fur- 
ther confidence  in  collective  security  as  an  effective 
deterrent  against  aggression  and  war.  Under  the 
spur  of  outright  aggi'ession  by  the  Chinese  Com- 
munists, supported  by  the  Soviet  Union,  collective- 
defense  machinery  in  tliat  area  has  developed 
rapidly  and  effectively. 

The  recent  conference  of  the  Southeast  Asia 
Treaty  Organization  Council  in  Canberra  was  in 
a  sense  the  coming  of  age  of  collective  defense  in 
the  Far  East.*  The  eight  nations  gathered  there 
were  in  unanimous  agreement  that  their  banding 
together  to  resist  Commimist  aggression  had 
proved  effective  as  a  deterrent  and  as  a  positive 
force  for  peace  and  security  in  the  area.  On  the 
positive  side,  for  example,  the  Council  noted  the 
national  development  of  new  Asian  states,  such  as 
the  Republic  of  Viet-Nam  and  the  approach  of 
their  objectives. 

As  Secretary  Dulles  reported,  the  growing 
strength,  unity,  and  demonstrated  will  to  resist 
has  made  it  seem  inexpedient  to  the  Chinese  Com- 
munists to  continue  to  use  methods  of  force  to  gain 
their  objectives. 

Wliile  we  find  room  for  hope  from  the  success  of 
Seato  and  our  other  collective-security  arrange- 
ments such  as  Anzus  (with  which  we  are  allied  to 
Australia  and  New  Zealand)  and  our  bilateral 
treaties  with  the  Eepublic  of  Korea,  Japan,  the 
Republic  of  China,  and  the  Philippines,  there  cer- 
tainly is  no  room  for  complacency.  Chinese  Com- 
munist support  for  Soviet  action  in  Hungary  and 
their  continued  defiance  of  the  United  Nations 


'  /6M.,  Mar.  25,  1957,  p.  481. 
'Hid.,  Apr.  8,  1957,  p.  561. 
'  For  text,  see  ibid..  Mar.  25,  1957,  p.  481. 
°  For  text  of  final  communique  and  statements  by  Sec- 
retary Dulles,  see  ibid.,  Apr.  1,  1957,  p.  527. 


carry  serious  implications  for  the  free  nations  of 
Asia.  The  threat  of  overt  aggression  continues  to 
cast  a  shadow  in  the  Far  East,  and  the  free  nations 
have  no  choice  except  to  maintain  their  military 
strength,  individually  and  collectively. 

There  is  no  question  that  the  Communists  con- 
tinue to  regard  control  of  all  Asia  as  one  of  their 
foremost  goals  on  the  road  to  woi'ld  conquest,  and 
they  continue  to  push  ahead  on  all  fronts  with  a 
combination  of  subversion,  offers  of  trade  and  aid, 
cultural  exchange,  and  threats. 

As  always,  they  cut  the  garment  to  fit  the  cloth. 
"While  continuing  their  military  buildup  in  North 
Korea  in  violation  of  their  armistice  pledges,  they 
advance  toward  Japan  with  smiling  countenance 
and  outstretched  hand,  knowing  Japan's  urgent 
need  to  expand  its  trade  and  sources  of  supply. 
'Wliile  strengthening  the  military  forces  of  the 
Viet  Minh  in  North  Viet-Nam  and  supporting  the 
Pathet  Lao  defiance  of  the  Royal  Government  of 
Laos,  they  offer  aid  and  technical  assistance  to 
neighboring  Cambodia.  "While  threatening  re- 
peatedly to  take  Formosa  by  force  if  necessary, 
they  smugly  talk  of  peace  and  friendship. 

Our  national  security  depends  upon  our  remain- 
ing alert  to  all  of  these  tactics,  wherever  they 
appear,  and  above  all  in  remaining  miited  and 
strong.  "We  assist  or  plan  to  assist  those  nations 
of  Asia  who  wish  such  help  in  strengthening  their 
own  resources  and  stability  so  that  they  can  ward 
off  the  thrust  of  commimism  and  add  to  the  total 
deterrent  force  of  the  free  world. 

It  is  plain  that  the  nations  of  Asia  and  Africa 
are  going  through  a  period  of  revolutionary 
change.  The  aspiration  for  economic  develop- 
ment and  a  better  life  is  widespread  and  power- 
ful. Although  many  elements  will  affect  the  fu- 
tm-e  of  these  nations,  the  extent  to  which  their 
desire  for  economic  development  seems  on  the 
way  to  fulfillment  will  be  one  of  the  determining 
factois  of  their  stability  and  continued  freedom. 

There  can  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  a  useful 
employment  of  American  resources  in  further- 
ing our  national  interest  is  to  promote  economic 
growth  among  nations  needing  it.  I  might  point 
to  India  as  a  prominent  example  and  one  whose 
race  against  Red  China  for  economic  development 
has  important  implications  for  us. 

"We  can  provide  an  incentive  for  sound  devel- 
opment if  we  will  increase  the  continuity  and 
flexibility  of  whatever  funds  are  made  available. 


April  22,   1957 


651 


If  it  is  possible  to  be  more  selective  in  the  proj- 
ects we  support,  and  steadier  in  supporting  the 
best  ones,  we  can  cause  the  applicants  for  aid  to 
try  to  devise  tlie  best  projects  possible.  In  addi- 
tion, we  can  assist  recipients  in  developing  better 
projects  and  in  encouraging  private  investment, 
if  we  will  render  technical  assistance  not  only 
in  the  carrying  out  of  programs  but  in  the  de- 
signing of  them. 

"We  fully  realize  that  the  Congress  is  taking 
a  hard  look  at  foreign  aid  this  spring.  This  is 
a  good  thing,  and  we  hope  that  the  studies  now 
in  progress  will  improve  our  policies  on  aid.  The 
recent  report  by  the  President's  committee  under 
Benjamin  Fairless^"  gave  strong  support  to  the 
view  that  our  general  programs  of  foreign  as- 
sistance are  necessary  and  useful. 

Inter-American  System,  a  Bulwark  of  Freedom 

In  our  own  Western  Hemisphere,  which  is  vital 
to  our  security  and  well-being,  the  American  Re- 
publics aflford  the  rest  of  the  world  a  model  ex- 
ample of  international  cooperation.  The  regional 
strength  and  fellowship  of  the  Organization  of 
American  States,  which  consists  of  the  United 
States  and  the  20  neighboring  Republics,  is  not 
only  a  hemisphere  but  a  global  force.  The  sup- 
port given  by  the  American  peoples  and  their 
governments  to  the  free  world  is,  in  hard  fact,  an 
inalienable  and  indispensable  bulwark  of  freedom. 

The  Oas  is  the  framework  of  our  inter- Ameri- 
can system.  Through  it,  and  within  the  larger 
frame  of  the  United  Nations,  the  American  Re- 
publics seek  to  promote  their  common  interests. 
In  the  words  of  the  Declaration  of  Panama,  issued 
jointly  by  the  Presidents  of  the  American  Repub- 
lics at  their  historic  meeting  last  July,  it  is  the 
purpose  of  the  American  peoples  "to  create  a 
civilization  that  will  give  tangible  meaning  to 
the  concept  of  human  liberty." "  One  of  the 
immediate  consequences  of  the  Panama  meeting 
was  creation  of  the  Inter-American  Committee 
of  Presidential  Representatives,  which  is  imder- 
taking  to  study  methods  of  combating  poverty, 
disease,  and  ignorance  throughout  the  hemi- 
sphere and  to  make  recommendations  to  the  Oas 

'°  Report  to  the  President  by  the  President's  Citisen 
Advisers  on  the  Mutual  Security  Program,  March  1,  1957. 
Copies  may  be  obtained  from  the  Superintendent  of  Doc- 
uments, U.  S.  Government  Printing  Office,  Washington  25, 
D.  C,  at  50  cents  ijer  copy. 

"  BuixETiN  of  Aug.  6,  1956,  p.  220. 


in  economic,  financial,  social,  and  technical  fields. 

Geography,  history,  and  economics  have  made 
the  individually  independent  peoples  of  this  hem- 
isphere collectively  interdependent.  Our  21  Re- 
publics have  a  total  population  of  upwards  of  380 
millions  in  a  total  area  of  approximately  11  mil- 
lion square  miles.  Latin  America,  it  may  be 
noted,  has  the  world's  most  rapidly  increasing 
population  growth :  2.5  percent  annually  as  com- 
pared with  the  global  average  rate  of  1  percent. 

Obviously,  our  economic  relationship  with  this 
region,  so  enormous  both  in  area  and  in  popula- 
tion, is  necessarily  a  prime  factor  in  our  economy, 
as  it  is  in  theirs.  About  one-fifth  of  our  total 
exports  go  to  Latin  America,  and  we  obtain  from 
Latin  America  about  one-fifth  of  our  total  im- 
ports. We  supply  the  Latin  American  Republics 
with  approximately  47  percent  of  their  imports 
and  take  43  percent  of  their  exports.  In  other 
words,  around  44  percent  of  Latin  America's  total 
trade  is  with  us.  United  States  private  enter- 
prise currently  proves  its  faith  in  Latin  America's 
future  by  direct  investment  of  approximately  $7 
billion  there.  The  eifects  of  this  great  influx  of 
private  capital  are  reflected  in  the  overall  picture 
of  hemisphere  development — in  lugher  living 
standards,  improved  conditions  of  public  health 
and  public  education,  diversified  agriculture,  in- 
creased industrialization,  and  in  ever-broaden- 
ing horizons  of  opportunity. 

Role  of  the  United  Nations 

Recent  months  have  given  dramatic  evidence 
of  the  value  of  the  United  Nations  as  a  mecha- 
nism for  fostering  the  rule  of  law  in  relations 
among  nations.  We  have  witnessed  the  great 
influence  for  peace  which  can  be  exerted  when 
states  heed  and  support  the  opinions  of  the  United 
Nations,  particularly  when  there  is  an  overwhelm- 
ing consensus  in  favor  of  constructive  action.  It 
is  the  policy  of  this  Government  to  strengthen 
the  legitimate  role  of  the  United  Nations  in  ad- 
vancing world  peace  with  justice. 

The  recent  emergency  sessions  of  the  General 
Assembly  and  the  regular  Eleventh  Session  have 
revealed  new  dimensions  and  new  resources 
within  the  United  Nations.  In  the  Middle  East  a 
cease-fire  and  withdrawal  of  foi'ces  from  the  area 
of  hostility  were  achieved.  An  unprecedented 
step  was  taken  in  the  creation  and  deployment 
of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force. 

The  speedy  and  efficient  cleai-ance  of  the  Suez 


652 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Canal,  now  virtually  completed,  was  effected  by 
the  United  Nations  under  contract  with  a  private 
consortium.  This  vital  task,  an  essential  step  in 
restoring  some  measure  of  economic  and  political 
stability  in  the  Middle  East,  could  not  have  been 
accomplished,  under  the  conditions  existing,  with- 
out the  intercession  of  the  United  Nations. 

The  office  of  the  Secretary-General  has  played  a 
powerful  part  in  the  handling  of  the  Middle  East 
crises.  Mr.  Hammarskjold  was  given  broad  re- 
sponsibility to  act  in  behalf  of  the  Assembly  in 
bringing  the  Unef  into  being,  in  arranging  for 
clearance  of  the  canal,  and  in  negotiating  with  the 
several  parties  to  the  dispute. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  inability  of  the  United 
Nations  to  secure  compliance  with  its  urgent  reso- 
lution, and  in  particular  to  secure  the  withdrawal 
of  Soviet  forces  from  Hungary,  is  a  source  of  deep 
disappointment  among  many  peoples  of  the  world. 
The  blame  for  this  failure  lies  squarely  at  the  door 
of  the  Soviet  Union,  which  cruelly  massacred 
thousands  of  Hungarians  who  sought  freedom 
from  Soviet  tyranny.  Nevertheless,  the  United 
Nations  has  succeeded  in  focusing  and  maintain- 
ing the  pressure  of  world  opinion  on  these  Soviet 
outrages.  Its  resolutions  were  a  cogent  reminder 
to  all  lovers  of  freedom  of  the  callous  threat  which 
Soviet  communism  represents  in  the  world  today. 
The  General  Assembly  climaxed  its  deliberations 
at  the  Eleventh  Session  with  a  specific  condemna- 
tion of  the  U.S.S.R. — a  condemnation  which  re- 
flected the  revulsion  of  European,  Latin  Ameri- 
can, African,  and  Asian  states,  as  well  as  our  own, 
with  the  inhumane  actions  of  Soviet  communism. 

The  critical  political  and  security  issues  with 
which  the  United  Nations  has  been  concerned,  and 
their  attendant  publicity,  tend  to  overshadow  the 
steady  advance  that  is  being  made  through  the 
organization  on  problems  of  vast  concern  for 
peoples  throughout  the  world.  Important  prog- 
ress, for  example,  is  being  made  in  establishing  an 
International  Atomic  Energy  Agency  and  bring- 
ing it  into  association  with  the  United  Nations  as 
a  new  specialized  agency.  The  statute  for  this 
agency  was  unanimously  approved  by  the  United 
Nations  last  fall  and  has  just  recently  been  sent  by 
President  Eisenhower  to  the  Senate  for  its 
concurrence.  ^^ 

New  proposals  on  disarmament  were  advanced 
in  the  Eleventh  General  Assembly  by  both  the 
Soviet  Union  and  the  United  States.     The  Dis- 


'  Ihid..  Apr.  15, 1957,  p.  615. 


armament  Subcoimnittee  is  now  meeting  in  Lon- 
don in  a  determined  effort  to  find  common  ground 
on  which  the  beginnings  of  effective  safeguarded 
disarmament  and  reduction  of  armed  forces  can  be 
built.  Our  Government  has  some  optimism  that 
the  first  steps  toward  agreement  may  be  taken  in 
such  critical  fields  as  inspection,  reduction  of 
forces,  registration  and  international  observation 
of  future  nuclear  testing,  and  bringing  the  nuclear 
threat  under  control. 

I  do  not  think  it  too  much  to  say  that,  in  the 
difficult  and  continuing  task  of  maintaining  peace 
in  the  world  and  striving  toward  the  weU-being 
and  security  of  mankind,  the  United  Nations  is 
playing  an  indispensable  role.  It  is  a  vital  mech- 
anism for  advancing  the  common  interests  of  the 
free  world. 

I  have  outlined  some  of  the  major  forces  at 
work  in  the  world  today,  as  well  as  the  funda- 
mental elements  of  our  policy.  I  have  also  tried 
to  give  a  brief  picture  of  the  important  problems 
in  the  various  regions  of  the  world  as  we  see 
them.  In  conclusion  I  should  lake  to  summarize 
a  few  of  the  major  aspects  of  U.S.  policies. 

A  fundamental  aim  of  our  foreign  policy  is  to 
promote  the  well-being  and  security  of  the  Amer- 
ican people.  Safeguarding  the  peace  through 
development  of  our  own  strength  and  through 
collective  security  is  a  principal  obligation  in  the 
world  today.  We  must  maintain  the  capacity  to 
respond  to  any  overt  attack  by  the  Communist 
powers.  We  must  be  prepared  to  respond  with 
certainty,  and  we  must  retain  flexibility  in  our 
choice  of  instruments  if  we  are  attacked.  At  the 
same  time  we  must  seek  to  reduce  the  risk  of  con- 
flicts and  to  promote  a  retraction  of  Soviet  power. 
We  should  continue  to  blunt  those  forces  hostile 
to  the  free  world  and  work  to  bring  the  strong 
forces  of  nationalism  into  cooperation  with  the 
free  world. 

It  is  obvious  that  this  is  not  a  program  for  a 
single  year,  or  even  for  a  decade.  We  are  living 
in  what  President  Eisenhower  once  termed  "not 
a  moment  but  an  age  of  danger."  And  we  must 
remember  that  our  resources  are  not  endless,  our 
power  not  infinite.  We  must  use  our  strength  to 
make  the  changing  forces  proceed  in  an  orderly 
way  and  in  directions  compatible  with  our  na- 
tional interests.  This  is  the  purpose  of  your  Gov- 
ernment. It  is  the  task  of  all  of  us  to  make  the 
best  effort  of  which  we  are  capable.  In  this  way 
we  can  truly  build  for  peace. 


April  22,    ?957 


653 


U.S.  Lifts  Restrictions  on  Travel 
to  Four  Middle  East  Countries 

Press  release  181  dated  April  1 

The  Department  of  State  on  April  1  lifted  re- 
strictions placed  on  travel  of  U.S.  citizens  to 
Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan,  and  Israel.  These  restric- 
tions were  instituted  on  October  31  and  Novem- 
ber 2,  1956,^  in  view  of  the  outbreak  of  hostilities 
in  the  Middle  East. 

Authorization  has  also  been  granted  for  return 
of  evacuated  U.S.  official  personnel  and  their  de- 
pendents to  posts  in  the  four  countries. 

Holders  of  passports  which  bear  endorsements 
invalidating  them  for  travel  in  Egypt,  Syria,  Jor- 
dan, and  Israel  or  authorizing  travel  in  one  or 
more  of  these  countries  for  a  limited  period  may 
present  them  in  person  or  by  mail  to  the  Passport 
Office  of  the  Department  of  State  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  or  to  the  passport  agencies  at  Boston,  New 
York,  Chicago,  New  Orleans,  Los  Angeles,  or  San 
Francisco  to  have  these  endorsements  voided. 
Persons  abroad  may  present  their  passports  to 
American  Foreign  Service  offices. 


Murder  of  U.S.  Technicians 
in  Iran 

Press  release  178  dated  March  28 

The  Department  of  State  has  learned  with  great 
sorrow  and  concern  of  the  murder  in  Iran  of  Kevin 
Carroll,  an  official  of  the  International  Coopera- 
tion Administration,  and  Brewster  Wilson,  of  the 
Near  East  Foundation,  and  the  presumed  abduc- 
tion of  Mrs.  Carroll,  apparently  by  bandits. 

The  Iranian  Government,  through  the  Iranian 
Ambassador  at  Washington,  Ali  iVmini,  and 
through  the  U.S.  Embassy  at  Tehran,  has  ex- 
pressed the  deep  regrets  of  His  Majesty  the  Shah, 
the  Prime  Minister,  and  the  Government  of  Iran 
and  has  given  firm  assurances  that  every  effort 
is  being  made  to  apprehend  the  bandits  and  to 
secure  the  release  of  Mrs.  Carroll. 

The  Iranian  Government  has  ordered  full  mo- 
bilization of  police  facilities,  including  aircraft, 
and  has  dispatched  Maj.  Gen.  Ali  Qoli  Golpira, 
Chief  of  the  Iranian  Gendarmerie,  to  Zahedan  to 
direct  the  pursuit.  Facilities  and  personnel  of 
American  official  missions  in  Iran  have  likewise 


'  BuiXETiN  of  Nov.  12,  1956,  p.  756. 
654 


been  made  available  to  cooperate  with  the  Iranian 
Government. 

Secretary  Dulles  and  Ica  Director  John  B.  Hol- 
lister  have  written  to  the  families  of  Mr.  Carroll 
and  Mr.  Wilson  to  express  their  condolences.  The 
Department  of  State  is  keeping  in  close  touch 
with  the  family  of  Mrs.  Carroll  concerning  de- 
velopments as  the  search  goes  on. 

Kevin  Carroll  and  Brewster  Wilson  died  while 
serving  the  best  interests  of  their  Government  and 
their  country.  The  Department  of  State  pays 
tribute  to  their  distinguished  service,  while 
mourning  the  tragic  sacrifice  it  has  exacted  from 
them  and  their  families. 


U.S.  Reaffirms  Continuation 
of  Aid  to  Iran 

Press  release  1S5  dated  April  2 

The  Department  of  State  on  April  2  reaffirmed 
that  there  has  been  no  suspension  of  technical  and 
economic  assistance  to  Iran  following  the  recent 
tragic  deaths  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kevin  Carroll  and 
Brewster  Wilson.  Steps  have  been  taken  to  re- 
strict the  travel  of  personnel  in  the  area  where 
the  tragedy  occurred.  This  was  an  administra- 
tive action  to  protect  the  safety  of  members,  both 
Iranian  and  American,  of  the  U.S.  Operations 
Mission  in  that  particular  area. 

The  Department  has  expressed  its  appreciation 
for  the  great  efforts  of  His  Majesty  the  Shah,  the 
Prime  Minister,  and  the  Government  of  Iran  to 
locate  and  free  Mrs.  Carroll  before  her  death  was 
confirmed,  and  for  their  continuing  efforts  to  ap- 
prehend and  punish  the  bandit  murderers. 


Current  Developments  in  Hungary 

Pross  release  l>s,S  dated  April  .'> 

In  a  joint  declaration  with  the  Soviet  Govern- 
ment at  Moscow  on  March  28  the  Kadar  regime 
lias  again  denied  the  competence  of  the  United 
Nations  in  the  problem  of  Hungary.  It  has  again 
falsified  the  record  by  alleging  that  the  Hungarian 
uprising  of  October-November  was  a  Fascist 
counterrevolution  unleashed  by  the  United  States. 

But  the  record  is  clear.  The  uprising  was 
spontaneous.  It  was  supported  by  the  entire  na- 
tion. It  was  crushed  only  by  the  intervention  of 
Soviet  armed  forces.     In  these  circumstances,  the 

Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


continued  presence  of  Soviet  forces  in  Hungary 
and  the  systematic  repression  of  the  Hungarian 
people  constitute  an  open  confession  by  the  Kadar 
regime  that  it  does  not  have  the  confidence  of  the 
people  and  cannot  exist  without  the  protection  of 
Soviet  troops. 

The  Kadar  regime  has  vengefully  sought  to 
identify,  seize,  and  punish  those  wlio  took  any  part 
in  the  uprising  of  October-November.  It  has 
carried  out  arrests  of  Hungarian  citizens  on  a 
mass  scale.  It  has  reinstituted  by  decree  the 
cruel  practice  of  banishment.  It  has  ordered  all 
residents  of  Hungary  to  report  to  the  police  for 
a  check  of  identity  cards.  It  has  made  clear  in 
public  statements  that  Soviet  troops  will  remain 
in  Hungary  indefuiitely  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
tecting the  regime  and  intimidating  the  Hun- 
garian people. 

These  events  can  only  be  regarded  as  further 
steps  toward  the  complete  suppression  of  all  hu- 
man rights  and  liberties  in  Hungaiy.  They 
mark  a  reversion  to  some  of  the  worst  practices 
of  the  Stalinist  terror  in  that  country  and  stand 
in  ironic  contrast  to  the  celebration  by  Commun- 
ists on  April  4  of  the  "liberation"'  of  Hungary  by 
Soviet  armed  forces  in  1945. 

We  believe  that  these  developments  will  be  of 
concern  to  the  Special  Committee  established  by 
the  United  Nations  General  Assembly  on  January 
10  to  investigate  the  problem  of  Hungary.^  The 
Conunittee  will  report  its  findings  to  the  General 
Assembly,  which  remains  seized  of  the  problem 
of  Himgary. 


Escapee  Program  Marks 
Fifth  Anniversary 

Press  release  170  dated  March  22 

The  United  States  Escapee  Program  marked  its 
5th  amiiversary  on  March  22. 

Now  located  in  the  Office  of  Refugee  and  Mi- 
gration Affairs,  Department  of  State,  headed  by 
Robert  S.  McCoUum,  the  Escapee  Program  has 
returned  to  the  Department,  where  it  first  oper- 
ated after  its  creation  in  1952.  It  was  established 
under  the  Mutual  Security  Act  and  has  been  con- 
tinued by  annual  appropriations.  The  program 
was  transferred  in  1956  f I'om  the  International  Co- 
operation Administration  to  the  newly  created  Of- 

'  BirLLETiN  of  .Ian.  28,  1957,  p.  138. 


fice  of  Refugee  and  Migration  Affairs  in  the  Bu- 
reau of  Security  and  Consular  Affairs.^ 

Mr.  McCollum,  now  on  a  survey  of  the  escapee 
situation  in  Europe  and  the  Near  East,  pointed 
out  in  a  departure  statement  on  Mai'ch  15  that 
a  highlight  of  the  Escapee  Program's  achievements 
came  with  the  care,  maintenance,  transportation, 
and  resettlement  assistance  it  provided  during  the 
recent  outpouring  of  escapees  as  a  result  of  the 
Hungarian  revolt. 

Assistance  by  the  Escapee  Program  supplements 
programs  of  local  governments  of  asylum  and  of 
international  and  voluntary  organizations  engaged 
in  refugee  service.  Resettlement  of  escapees 
aided  by  the  program  may  be  in  any  country  where 
anti-Communist  refugees  are  welcome  to  reestab- 
lish themselves  as  self-sufficient  citizens  of  the 
free  world. 

Of  approximately  255,000  escapees  from  Iron 
Curtain  countries — including  Hungarians — 160,- 
000  have  had  some  of  the  services  of  the  Escapee 
Program.  These  services  range  from  welcoming 
kits  containing  items  for  personal  comfort,  clean- 
liness, and  convenience  for  those  newly  arrived  in 
the  free  world,  on  through  further  care,  mainte- 
nance, and  transportation,  to  full  reestablishment, 
in  many  cases,  in  countries  of  destination. 

The  Escapee  Program  has  played  a  major  role 
in  resettling  about  half  the  nearly  88,000  escapees 
who  have  gone  to  the  United  States,  Canada,  Aus- 
tralia, and  to  certain  countries  in  South  America 
and  participated  with  other  organizations  in  as- 
sisting the  other  half.  The  progi-am  has  also  had 
part  in  the  resettlement  of  54,000  in  Western  Eu- 
rope. Some  113,000  have  not  been  permanently 
resettled  in  any  one  spot.  They  are  m  temjjorary 
locations  pending  final  destination. 

Of  the  Office  of  Refugee  and  Migration  Af- 
fairs, Mr.  McCollum  has  said :  "I  hope  in  this  area 
we  may  bring  into  focus  for  constructive  consid- 
eration and  action  the  many  aspects  of  America's 
interests  in  escapees,  refugees,  and  general  migra- 
tion problems. 

"The  United  States  must  continue  to  exert  lead- 
ership in  the  humanitarian  as  well  as  the  economic 
and  military  fields.  To  justify  our  position  and 
reputation  in  the  free  world,  we  must  not  fail  to 
recognize  that  men  and  women  everywhere  are 
entitled  to  live  in  freedom,  with  dignity  and  with 
opportunities  to  improve  their  stations  in  life." 

'  Bulletin  of  Apr.  16, 1956,  p.  651. 


April  22,    1957 


655 


He  asserted  that  the  worldwide  problem  of  refu- 
gees cannot  be  dealt  with  adequately  by  short- 
term  planning,  adding  that  "as  long  as  oppressive 
dictatorships  exist,  as  long  as  basic  individual 
freedoms  are  denied,  there  will  be  people  who  flee 
to  seek  better  lives  and,  thereby,  create  new  refugee 
problems. 

"Pleased  as  we  may  be  about  our  country's  part 
in  accepting  Hungarian  escapees,  we  must  combat 
any  tendency  to  talk  in  terms  of  Hungarians  only," 
Mr.  McCollum  cautioned.  "The  whole  picture  de- 
serves constant  emphasis.  What  of  the  millions 
of  refugees  from  other  countries?" 

Pointing  out  that  the  United  States  has  played 
leading  roles  in  refugee  problems  from  1938  on,  he 
stated  that  "Congress  is  now  facing  the  continuing 
challenge  of  further  action."  Citing  President 
Eisenhower's  recent  recommendation  to  Congress 
for  "permanent  legislation  so  that  administrative 
authorities  are  in  a  position  to  act  promptly  .  .  . 
in  facing  [escapee]  emergencies  which  may  arise 
in  the  future,"  ^  Mr.  McCollum  said : 

"Our  record  of  the  past  joins  the  issue  of  today. 
We  have  performed  with  credit.  There  can  be 
no  letting  down.  We  must  keep  trying  to  alleviate 
the  plight  of  the  longtime  refugee.  We  are  bend- 
ing every  effort,  with  available  legislation,  to  help 
in  resettlement  and  integration.  This  continues 
a  world  challenge  and  a  challenge  to  the  United 
States  to  continue  its  leadership.  Most  of  all  we 
must  value  a  long-range  policy,  flexible  to  meet 
any  contingency,  at  the  same  time  affording  con- 
tinuity of  planning." 


U.S.  Delegations  to 
International  Conferences 

Intergovernmental  Committee  for  European  Migra- 
tion 

The  Department  of  State  announced  on  March 
28  (press  release  177)  that  Scott  McLeod,  Ad- 
ministrator of  the  Bureau  of  Security  and  Con- 
sular Affairs,  will  head  a  14-man  U.S.  delegation 
to  the  meeting  of  the  sixth  session  of  the  Council 
of  the  Intergovernmental  Committee  for  Euro- 

'  Ibid.,  Feb.  18,  1957,  p.  247. 


pean  Migration  (Icem)  to  be  held  at  Geneva, 
Switzerland,  April  8-13,  1957.  The  Council 
meeting  will  be  preceded  by  a  week's  meeting  of 
the  9-member  Executive  Committee,  convening 
on  March  28. 

Francis  E.  Walter  and  Kenneth  B.  Keating, 
U.  S.  House  of  Representatives,  will  serve  as  al- 
ternate delegates  to  Mr.  McLeod. 

Public  members  who  will  serve  as  advisers  are : 
Harold  J.  Gallagher,  New  York  City,  attorney; 
Mrs.  Edwin  I.  Hilson,  New  York  City;  Judge 
Charles  Rosenbaum,  Denver,  Colo.,  attorney; 
Nick  I.  Stepanovich,  East  Chicago,  Ind.,  attor- 
ney;  and  Maj.  Frederick  SuUens,  editor,  Jackson, 
Miss.,  Daily  News. 

Other  advisers  to  the  Council  meeting  are: 
Robert  S.  McCollum,  Deputy  Administrator, 
Office  of  Refugee  and  Migration  Affairs,  Depart- 
ment of  State;  Walter  M.  Besterman,  legal  as- 
sistant. House  Judiciary  Committee;  William  F. 
Heimlich,  consultant.  Senate  Judiciary  Commit- 
tee ;  and  Pierce  J.  Gerety,  consultant.  Department 
of  State. 

George  L.  Warren,  Adviser  on  Refugees  and 
Migration,  Department  of  State,  will  serve  as 
acting  U.S.  representative  to  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee meeting  and  as  principal  adviser  to  Mr. 
McLeod  at  the  Coimcil  meeting.  Elmer  M.  Falk, 
Office  of  International  Administration,  Depart- 
ment of  State,  will  also  act  as  adviser  at  both 
meetings. 

Icem,  with  funds  supplied  by  27  member  gov- 
ernments, is  continuing  the  extensive  program 
undertaken  in  1956  of  transporting  Hungarian 
refugees  from  Austria  to  countries  of  temporary 
or  permanent  asylum. 

On  the  initiative  of  the  United  States,  Icem 
was  established  in  1951  to  help  relocate  Europe's 
surplus  manpower  and  refugees.  The  principal 
places  of  relocation  providing  new  homelands 
and  jobs  are  in  Australia,  Canada,  and  various 
South  American  countries. 

Agenda  items  for  the  forthcoming  meetings 
include  a  report  by  the  director  of  Icem  on  the 
work  undertaken  in  1956,  a  revised  plan  of  opera- 
tions, and  budget  and  planning  of  expenditures 
for  1957.  Another  item  on  the  agenda  is  the 
problem  of  moving  Hungarian  refugees  from 
Yugoslavia  and  Austria. 


656 


Department   of  Sfafe   Bulletin 


Advantages  to  the  United  States  of  Membership 
in  Proposed  Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation 


MESSAGE  OF  THE  PRESIDENT  TO  THE  CONGRESS' 


To  THE  COXGEESS  OF  THE  UnITED  StATES  : 

The  Secretary  of  Commerce  is  submitting  for 
consideration  by  the  Congress  legislation  to  au- 
thorize United  States  membership  in  the  Organi- 
zation for  Trade  Cooperation.- 

I  urge  its  favorable  consideration. 

The  advantages  to  the  United  States  of  mem- 
bership in  the  Organization  for  Trade  Coopera- 
tion are  compelling.  It  would  open  the  way  to 
major  benefits  for  American  trade  by  providing 
day  to  day  review  and  consultation  on  administra- 
tion of  our  trade  agreements.  It  would  provide 
machinery  for  closer  supervision  and  protection 
of  the  assurances  contained  in  those  agreements 
against  discriminatory  treatment  of  American 
exports,  and  thus  increase  the  benefits  we  receive 
from  those  agreements.  It  would  enable  us  more 
effectively  to  encourage  the  opening  of  new  op- 
portunities for  our  exports  to  compete  in  the 
Avorld  market  on  their  commercial  merit. 

Foreign  trade  is  a  major  economic  activity  in 
the  United  States.  In  1956  our  merchandise  ex- 
ports, excluding  goods  shipped  under  military  as- 
sistance programs,  amounted  to  over  17  billion 
dollars.  They  constituted  a  greater  proportion  of 
our  gross  national  product  than  the  value  of  all 
non-farm  residential  construction  last  year.  In 
the  field  of  agriculture  alone  exports  provide  the 
market  for  the  product  of  about  40  million  acres 
of  land. 


'  White  House  press  release  dated  Apr.  3 ;  transmitted 
on  Apr.  3  (H.  Doe.  14C,  8.5th  Cong.,  1st  sess.). 

^  For  text  of  OTC  agreement,  see  Bulletin  of  Apr.  4, 
1955,  p.  579. 


Because  exports  take  only  part  of  the  produc- 
tion of  most  of  our  industries  and  farms,  and  be- 
cause they  move  through  so  many  stages  of  proc- 
essing and  handling  on  their  way  to  foreign 
markets,  we  frequently  overlook  their  importance. 
But  they  are  vital  to  the  welfare  of  our  agricul- 
ture, labor  and  industry. 

America's  foreign  trade  has  grown  rapidly 
under  our  Reciprocal  Trade  Agreements  Program. 
This  program  has  been  in  effect  for  more  than 
20  years,  but  since  1946  its  principal  vehicle  has 
been  a  multilateral  agreement  known  as  the  Gen- 
eral Agreement  on  Tariffs  and  Trade,  signed  by 
all  the  major  trading  nations  of  the  world. 

That  agreement  gives  to  the  United  States  im- 
portant tariff  and  other  concessions,  but  some  of 
the  benefits  of  these  concessions  to  our  export 
trade  have  been  offset  by  such  measures  as  quotas, 
licenses,  and  exchange  restrictions.  These  meas- 
ures have  imder  various  circumstances  had  the 
effect  of  discriminating  against  United  States  ex- 
ports, and  limiting  the  benefits  of  tariff  conces- 
sions which  we  received  under  the  General 
Agreement. 

The  General  Agreement  provides  for  the 
orderly  elimination  of  this  discrimination  against 
our  trade,  but,  because  of  inadequate  machinery 
for  administration,  these  provisions  have  not 
been  fully  effective. 

The  Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation,  by 
making  possible  more  business-like  administra- 
tion of  those  provisions  of  the  General  Agree- 
ment, will  help  to  make  our  trade  agreements 
more  fully  effective  and  assist  us  in  expanding 


April  22,   1957 


657 


our  markets  abroad  for  United  States  products. 
At  the  preseiit  time,  administration  of  the  Gen- 
eral Agreement  is  limited  by  the  fact  that  the 
signatories  meet  only  intermittently. 

In  my  Message  of  April  14,  1955,^  I  reviewed 
the  evolution  of  the  General  Agreement  and  the 
developments  whicli  led  to  the  proposal  for  an 
Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation.  That 
Message  was  followed  by  exhaustive  hearings  be- 
fore the  Committee  on  Ways  and  Means  of  the 
House  of  Kepresentatives  *  and  in  April  1956 
that  Committee  approved  a  bill  to  authorize 
United  States  membership  in  the  proposed 
Organization. 

In  reporting  last  year's  biU  the  Committee  on 
Ways  and  Means  inserted  a  number  of  construc- 
tive amendments  to  assure  that  participation  by 
the  United  States  in  the  Organization  for  Trade 
Cooperation  would  relate  solely  to  matters  per- 
taining to  international  trade  and  that  safe- 
guards for  domestic  producers  contained  in  our 
present  trade  legislation  would  be  maintained 
unimpaired.  These  amendments  have  been 
strengthened  and  included  in  this  year's  bill. 

The  proposal  being  submitted  by  the  Secretary 
of  Commerce  contains  two  new  features  not 
found  in  the  bill  approved  by  the  Committee  on 
Ways  and  Means  last  year.  These  are  designed 
to  provide  further  safeguards  to  insure  that 
United  States  participation  in  the  proposed  Or- 
ganization will  be  responsive  to  the  problems  and 
needs  of  American  agriculture,  labor  and  in- 
dustry. The  first  is  a  provision  to  create  an  ad- 
visory committee  consisting  of  representatives  of 
American  labor,  industry,  agriculture  and  the 
public  to  advise  and  consult  with  the  United 
States  chief  representative  on  matters  coming  be- 
fore the  Organization.  The  second  is  a  provision 
under  which  the  United  States  chief  representa- 
tive would  make  an  annual  report  to  the  Presi- 
dent for  transmittal  to  the  Congress  concerning 


'  lUd.,  Apr.  25,  1955,  p.  678. 

'  For  statements  by  Secretary  Dulles  and  Secretary 
o(  Commerce  Sinclair  Weeks,  see  ibid.,  Mar.  19,  195C, 
p.  472. 


the  effect  of  the  activities  of  the  Organization  for 
Trade  Cooperation  on  American  labor,  industry 
and  agriculture. 

In  addition,  the  proposal  contains  provisions 
further  clarifying  the  substantive  safeguards  al- 
ready endorsed  by  the  Committee  on  Ways  and 
Means  by  explicitly  stating  that  its  enactment 
will  not  authorize,  directly  or  indirectly,  any  fur- 
ther tariff  reduction  or  other  tariff  concession  by 
the  United  States  not  elsewhere  authorized  by 
the  Congress. 

The  recent  development  of  proposals  for  a  com- 
mon market  and  free  trade  area  place  Western 
Europe  on  the  threshold  of  a  great  new  move- 
ment toward  economic  integration.  The  Otc 
will  help  to  assure  that  this  movement  will  de- 
velop in  ways  beneficial  to  our  trade  and  that  of 
other  free  countries,  avoiding  the  danger  that 
regional  trade  arrangement  will  lead  to  new  bar- 
riers and  discriminations  against  our  exports. 

To  achieve  our  objectives,  it  is  essential  that  the 
United  States  chief  representative  to  the  Organ- 
ization for  Trade  Cooperation  be  a  person  of 
wide  experience  in  practical  business  matters,  and 
that  the  members  of  the  Advisory  Committee 
likewise  have  had  practical  experience  in  their 
respective  fields.  I  intend  to  appoint  the  Secre- 
tary of  Commerce  as  Chairman  of  the  Advisory 
Committee. 

Tlie  foreign  trade  policies  of  the  United  States 
are  based  upon  our  reciprocal  trade  legislation 
and  the  agreements  that  have  been  negotiated 
under  it.  Until  we  establish  the  best  possible 
machinery  for  administration  of  these  agree- 
ments, we  are  needlessly  failing  to  obtain  their 
maximum  possible  benefits  for  American  labor, 
industry,  and  agriculture.  With  membership  in 
tlie  proposed  Otc  we  will  be  in  the  strongest 
possible  position  to  achieve  the  full  benefits  that 
these  agreements  afford. 

I  recommend  the  early  enactment  of  this 
proposal. 

DwiGHT  D.  ElSENH0\VER 

TirE  White  House, 
April  3, 1957. 


658 


Department  of  Sfafe  Bulletin 


Principles  of  U.S.  Foreign  Economic  Policy 


Statement  hy  Thorsten  Y.  Kalijari'l 
Assistant  Secretary  for  Economic  Affairs  ^ 


I  am  appearing  today  in  response  to  the  com- 
mittee's request  for  the  Department  of  State  to 
present  its  views  on  aspects  of  our  foreign  eco- 
nomic policy  which  serve  to  build  a  world  of  free 
peoples.  Other  officials  of  the  Department  have 
previously  appeared  to  discuss  the  Soviet  eco- 
nomic system. 

My  statement  will  describe  for  you  how  the 
United  States,  through  its  economic  policies,  is 
contributing  to  a  strong  community  of  free- world 
nations  based  upon  the  system  of  free  private 
enterprise,  a  free  flow  of  capital  and  exchange  of 
industrial  and  other  techniques,  and  a  mutually 
profitable  and  expanding  trade  among  the  na- 
tions of  the  free  world.  There  is  a  marlied  con- 
trast between  the  Soviet  system  and  ours  which 
will  be  developed  in  this  statement.  Our  major 
free-world  partners,  such  as  the  United  King- 
dom, are  of  course  also  vitally  interested  in  a 
strong  free  world  and  are  working  to  this  end. 
However,  I  wisli  today  to  limit  myself  primarily 
to  our  own  economic  policies. 

First,  to  contrast  these  systems  in  general.  As 
has  been  pointed  out  in  earlier  testimony,  the  eco- 
nomic diplomacy  of  the  U.S.S.E.  has  as  its  aim 
furtherance  of  Soviet-brand  communism.  Its 
immediate  objectives  are  to  weaken  the  cohesion 
of  the  free  world,  to  intensify  neutralism,  and  to 
encourage  countries  to  look  to  the  Soviets  for  aid 
and  leadership.  Its  long-range  objective  is  to 
subvert  and  communize  any  nation  which  appears 
to  be  a  likely  political  target.    Its  dream  of  an 

'  Made  before  the  Subcommittee  on  International  Or- 
ganizations and  Movements  of  the  House  Committee  on 
Foreign  Affairs  on  Apr.  3  (press  release  187). 


ideal  world  is  a  politico-economic  system  planned 
and  controlled  from  the  Kremlin. 

The  aim  of  the  United  States  in  the  conduct 
of  our  foreign  economic  policy  has  been  to  work 
not  for  enslavement  of  other  j^eoples  but  for  their 
freedom.  Our  immediate  aims  are  to  work  with 
free  peoples  everywhere  in  helping  to  improve 
standards  of  living  and  to  provide  people  with 
greater  opportunities  to  develop  their  abilities 
and  enrich  their  contributions  to  human  life. 
Our  long-range  objective  is  to  help  make  it  pos- 
sible for  people  throughout  the  world  to  choose 
the  course  of  freedom  independent  of  foreign 
domination  or  ideological  slavery.  Our  aim  is  a 
world  community  of  free  and  prosperous  nations 
bound  together  by  peaceful  ties  of  trade,  of  mu- 
tual helpfulness,  and  of  common  ideals  of  human 
dignity.  Thus  conceived,  the  foreign  economic 
policy  of  the  United  States  has  as  its  aim  the 
"building  of  a  world  of  free  peoples." 

Let  us  turn  to  three  major  aspects  of  our 
foreign  economic  policy  that  contribute  to  this 
overall  aim,  namely:  (1)  the  encouragement  of 
free  competitive  enterprise  abroad;  (2)  the  en- 
couragement of  the  flow  of  capital  and  technical 
assistance  abroad;  and  (3)  the  promotion  of  an 
expanding  world  trade. 

Encouraging  Free  Competitive  Enterprise  Abroad 

First  let  us  consider  our  policy  of  encouraging 
competitive  enterprise  in  the  free  world. 

As  the  committee  is  aware,  there  is  no  place 
for  free  enterprise  in  the  Soviet  economy.  The 
monolithic  Soviet  state  owns  all  the  land,  all  the 


kptW  22,  7957 


659 


factories,  and  all  the  mines.  Economic  decisions 
are  made  by  the  Government,  taking  into  account 
first  the  requirements  of  the  Soviet  state  and  giv- 
ing only  secondary  consideration  to  the  needs  of 
the  individual.  Government  ministries  and  agen- 
cies have  absolute  control  over  the  entire  economy. 
Both  managers  and  worlvers  are  subject  to  the 
fullest  kind  of  regimentation.  Coercion  is  one  of 
the  principal  means  employed  to  obtain  maxi- 
mum effort  from  tlie  Soviet  worker. 

Before  proceeding  to  a  description  of  the  free- 
enterprise  system,  it  is  useful  to  point  out  that 
our  economy  has  not  developed  in  the  way  which 
Karl  Marx  envisaged  as  the  inevitable  course  for 
a  capitalist  society.  He  did  not  conceive  of  the 
kind  of  evolutionary  development  which  has 
taken  place.  The  violent  explosions  and  up- 
heavals which  he  prophesied  have  not  occurred. 
The  free-enterprise  system  was  supposed  to  be 
predatory  but  instead  has  provided  a  higher 
standard  of  living  for  all  members  of  our  so- 
ciety than  at  any  time  in  the  history  of  mankind. 

In  contrast  with  the  Soviet  economic  system, 
the  free  competitive  enterprise  system  is  a  reflec- 
tion of  the  basic  philosophy  of  democratic  gov- 
ernment. The  foundation  of  such  a  system  is  the 
sanctity  of  private  property,  whether  it  be  a  fac- 
tory or  a  farm.  Competitive  enterprise  in  a 
democracy  is  thoroughly  responsive  to  the  needs 
and  interests  of  all  citizens.  It  is  a  vigorous  and 
dynamic  system  which  stimulates  changes  and 
progress.  This  system  encourages  initiative,  in- 
ventiveness, and  greater  productivity  by  the  in- 
dividual through  affording  him  better  opportuni- 
ties to  utilize  his  talents  and  to  improve  his  per- 
sonal status  and  well-being.  Personal  motivation 
to  do  a  good  job  is  inherent  in  the  free  com- 
petitive enterprise  system  because  both  the  em- 
ployer and  the  employee  know  their  compensa- 
tion is  determined  by  the  play  of  economic  forces, 
not  by  arbitrary  decisions  of  the  state.  The  re- 
sult is  a  maximum  of  production  from  a  given 
set  of  resources  and  a  high  standard  of  living. 

The  essential  characteristics  of  this  system 
which  produce  these  results  are  the  following: 
first,  ingenuity  and  risk-taking  by  management, 
which  results  in  the  development  of  new  indus- 
tries, the  introduction  of  new  products,  and  the 
use  of  improved  methods  of  production;  second, 
competition  in  the  market  place,  which  serves  as 
a  major  stimulus  to  efficient  production,  lower 


costs,  and  lower  prices;  and,  third,  protection  of 
workers'  rights  through  their  participation  in 
free  independent  labor  unions. 

Let  me  now  mention  some  of  the  significant 
activities  within  tlie  free  nations  of  the  world 
which  serve  to  promote  a  system  of  competitive 
enterprise  and  which  it  is  the  policy  of  the  United 
States  to  encourage.  Of  considerable  significance 
are  the  European  Coal  and  Steel  Commimity  and 
the  proposed  European  Common  Market,  both 
of  which  have  as  their  principal  economic  goal 
the  elimination  of  both  public  and  private  bar- 
riers to  trade  among  the  six  member  countries  as 
a  means  of  stimulating  more  efficient  production 
and  improving  standards  of  living.  Worthy  of 
mention  is  the  fact  that  several  Western  European 
countries,  within  the  framework  of  the  Organiza- 
tion for  European  Economic  Cooperation,  have 
established  national  programs  to  improve  indus- 
trial efficiency  and  increase  productivity.  A  num- 
ber of  these  same  countries  have  enacted  anticartel 
legislation  designed  to  remove  private  restraints 
on  production  and  trade.  Particularly  note- 
worthy is  recent  legislation  adopted  by  the  United 
Kingdom  which  promises  to  be  one  of  the  most 
effective  anticartel  laws  yet  enacted  in  Western 
Europe.  Also  of  importance  are  the  efforts  being 
undei'taken  to  develop  free  labor  unions  and  con- 
structive management-labor  relations. 

It  should  be  emphasized  that  in  our  encourage- 
ment of  free  enterprise  abroad  the  United  States 
fidly  recognizes  the  riglit  of  other  countries  to 
determine  their  own  forms  of  economic  organiza- 
tion. Wlaat  we  want  is  for  other  peoples  to  have 
confidence  in  their  innate  capacities  for  economic 
progress  through  free  institutions  of  their  own. 

The  problem  of  encouraging  competitive  free 
enterprise  in  liighly  developed  economies  must  of 
necessity  differ  substantially  from  the  problem  of 
encouraging  it  in  countries  with  less  developed 
economies.  Productivity  in  these  latter  countries 
is  generally  very  low.  As  a  rule,  it  is  inhibited 
by  a  shortage  of  administrative  and  managerial 
skills,  by  a  shortage  of  capital  for  investment,  and 
by  a  complex  of  public  and  private  attitudes  to- 
ward economic  life  which  sometimes  results  in 
restrictive,  high-cost  production.  One  of  the  ma- 
jor problems,  therefore,  is  producing  changes  in 
basic  attitudes  which  will  in  time  lead  to  changes 
in  economic  and  business  practices.  A  number 
of  the  less  developed  countries  have  attempted 


660 


Departmenf  of  Sfafe  Bulletin 


to  meet  their  problems  by  socialist  devices,  that  is, 
government  ownership  or  close  control  of  basic 
industries  or  portions  of  them.  This  is  not  nec- 
essarily a  manifestation  of  an  ideology  approach- 
ing commmiism.  These  governments  apparently 
have  determmed  that  such  action  is  necessitated 
by  the  economic  facts  of  life  with  which  they  are 
confronted  and  that  only  thus  can  economic  de- 
velopment be  guided  and  achieved.  It  is  impor- 
tant for  us  to  understand  these  motivations  in 
order  to  work  effectively  with  these  countries. 

Expanding  the  Flow  of  Capital 

Let  us  next  take  up  the  second  main  aspect  of 
our  foreign  economic  policy  which  contributes  to 
the  objective  of  building  a  world  of  free  peoples, 
namely,  the  encouragement  of  the  flow  of  capital 
and  tecluiical  assistance  abroad.  The  need  for 
expanding  the  flow  of  capital  to  the  free  nations 
will  be  considered  first. 

As  the  conunittee  knows,  developing  economies 
need  capital.  Literally  many  countries,  particu- 
larly the  less  developed  ones,  are  capital  starved. 
Recognizing  this  fact  late  in  1955,  the  U.S.S.R. 
began  to  exploit  this  situation  by  making  attrac- 
tive offers  of  credits  to  these  countries.  Substan- 
tial credits  have  now  been  granted  to  a  number 
of  carefully  selected  "political  targets"  outside 
the  Soviet  bloc. 

The  United  States  also  has  been  aware  of  the 
needs  of  other  free  nations  for  capital  and,  as  a 
matter  of  fact,  was  doing  something  to  meet  these 
needs  long  before  the  Soviets.  Thus,  the  United 
States  has  undertaken  many  measures  to  encour- 
age private  investment  abroad  on  a  basis  which 
contributes  to  efficient  growth  of  the  industries 
of  otlier  free  countries.  "We  are  negotiatmg 
"friendship,  comnierce  and  navigation"  treaties  to 
establish  an  environment  favorable  to  interna- 
tional investment  and  tax  treaties  for  the  avoid- 
ance of  double  taxation;  we  are  offering  govern- 
ment guaranties  to  private  investors  against  the 
hazards  of  inconvertibility,  expropriation,  and 
war ;  we  continue  to  provide  a  variety  of  informa- 
tion services  to  facilitate  private  foreign  invest- 
ment. We  have  taken  the  initiative  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  International  Finance  Corpora- 
tion, which  has  been  organized  as  an  affiliate  of 
the  International  Bank.  The  purpose  of  the  Cor- 
poration is  to  encourage  the  growth  of  productive 
private  enterprise,  especially  in  the  less  developed 


countries.  To  do  this,  the  Corporation  will  in- 
vest in  private  undertakings  in  association  with 
private  investors  and  will  revolve  its  investments 
by  selling  them  to  other  private  investors. 

At  this  stage,  however,  private-enterprise  capi- 
tal can  do  only  a  part  of  the  job.  In  the  newly 
emerged  countries  of  Asia  and  Africa  the  primary 
need  is  for  basic  development  projects:  power, 
communications,  irrigation,  and  transportation — ■ 
fields  to  which  private  capital  is  not  likely  to  be 
attracted  in  sufficient  quantities.  Public  funds 
are  therefore  necessary.  This  Government  con- 
tinues to  invest  public  funds  through  the  Exim- 
BANK  in  meritorious  development  projects  abroad 
for  which  private  funds  are  not  available.  We 
give  full  support  to  the  development  lending  of 
the  International  Bank.  Through  the  mutual 
security  program  the  United  States  is  providing 
commodities  and  services  to  help  friendly  coun- 
tries maintain  adequate  defense  establishments. 
In  addition,  we  are  providing  capital  for  devel- 
opment assistance  in  the  form  of  loans  repayable 
in  local  currency  and,  where  necessary,  as  grants 
to  those  countries  whose  economic  strength  cannot 
be  built  up  with  adequate  speed  wholly  by  the 
normal  processes  of  trade  and  investment. 

Our  surplus  foods  and  fibers  are  being  used  to 
relieve  distress  abroad  arising  from  famine  or 
other  urgent  difficulties.  We  are  also  lending 
back  to  the  nations  buying  our  surplus  agricul- 
tural commodities  a  substantial  portion  of  the 
proceeds  of  the  sales  for  the  purpose  of  investment 
in  economic  development  projects. 

Technical  Assistance 

In  addition  to  encouraging  the  flow  of  capital 
abroad,  we  must  also  give  technical  assistance  to 
the  nations  of  the  free  world.  This  is  particu- 
larly true  of  the  underdeveloped  countries,  which 
are  in  great  need  of  know-how  and  managerial 
skills. 

Teclmical  assistance  is  a  relatively  new  field  for 
the  Soviets,  but  they  are  expanding  it  rapidly  in 
anticipation  of  a  future  payoff  in  political  bene- 
fits. In  this  field  also  the  Soviets  are  concentrat- 
ing their  efforts  in  the  less  developed  countries. 
At  this  time  the  Soviets  probably  hope  to  reduce 
or  eliminate  our  influence  in  certain  areas  of  the 
free  world  and  at  the  same  time  build  up  a  reser- 
voir of  good  will  for  the  U.S.S.R. 

Our  teclmical-assistance  activities  are  a  very 


April  22,    7957 


661 


important  complement  to  the  economic  aid  pro- 
gram. Big  dividends  have  accrued  from  the 
relatively  small  investment  in  technical  assistance. 
Through  bilateral  arrangements  vrith  our  free 
partners  the  United  States  has  established  agri- 
cultural, health,  education,  and  other  types  of 
projects  in  virtually  every  free  nation  m  the 
world.  The  United  States  also  participates  in 
multilateral  programs  of  sharing  teclmical  skills. 
Among  the  most  important  of  these  is  the  United 
Nations  Expanded  Program  of  Teclmical  Assist- 
ance. Experts  have  been  recruited  from  77  coun- 
tries to  help  provide  technical  education  in  vari- 
ous forms. 

In  addition,  the  United  States  has  supported  the 
establislmient  of  an  International  Atomic  Energy 
Agency  to  make  nuclear  technology  widely  avail- 
able in  all  its  peaceful  aspects  and  to  allocate 
fissionable  materials  for  benign  uses.  We  are 
providing  technical  assistance  in  nuclear  science, 
and  we  have  given  financial  support  for  the  in- 
stallation abroad  of  reactors  suitable  for  research 
in  tlie  peaceful  uses  of  atomic  energy.  American 
industry  is  also  playing  an  important  role  in  the 
technical-assistance  program  by  sharing  its  latest 
techniques  and  processes  with  other  free 
countries. 

Promoting  World  Trade 

Now  let  us  turn  to  the  third  main  aspect  of  our 
foreign  economic  policy  which  contributes  to  the 
aim  of  building  a  world  of  free  peoples — the  pro- 
motion of  world  trade.  In  no  place  is  there 
a  sharper  contrast  between  the  policies  and  prac- 
tices of  the  U.S.S.R.  and  the  United  States  than 
in  the  trade  field.  This  contrast  is,  in  a  sense,  a 
reflection  of  the  two  economic  systems. 

There  is,  of  course,  no  place  for  the  private 
trader  in  the  foreign  trade  of  the  Soviet  Union. 
All  Soviet  foreign  trade  is  completely  regimented 
and  carried  on  through  a  state  trading  apparatus. 
As  a  result,  in  this  field  as  in  every  otlier  field  of 
Soviet  foreign  economic  policy,  political  motives 
are  predominant  in  tliat  the  Soviet  leaders  select 
countries  to  trade  with  wliich  they  feel  they  can 
influence  by  economic  deals.  For  example,  bulk 
purchases  from  free-world  countries  are  often 
timed  for  maximum  political  effect.  In  their  ef- 
forts to  expand  trade  with  the  free  world,  the 
Soviets  have  depended  primarily  on  bilateral 
trade  agreements  and  specific  barter  deals. 


By  way  of  contrast,  the  nature  of  our  com- 
petitive enterprise  system  determines  in  large 
part  the  manner  in  which  we  conduct  our  foreign 
trade.  Most  of  our  foreign  trade  is  carried  on 
by  private  traders.  Their  decisions  are  based 
largely  on  considerations  of  the  market  place,  not 
on  political  motivations. 

As  a  matter  of  governmental  trade  policy  the 
United  States  has  sought  to  achieve  an  expanding 
world  trade  through  international  cooperation  as 
a  stimulant  to  our  own  economic  growth  and 
security  as  well  as  that  of  other  free  nations.  Its 
objective  is  to  minimize  government  controls 
over  trade  so  that  the  influence  of  the  market 
place  may  have  its  maximum  impact. 

The  United  States  is  doing  this  in  recognition 
of  the  basic  mutual  benefits  which  flow  from 
trade  among  coimtries.  Through  the  process  of 
international  specialization,  the  countries  of  the 
free  world  are  interdependent  for  sources  of  ma- 
terials and  goods  and  for  markets  for  the  goods 
which  they  produce.  Through  international 
trade,  countries  in  effect  increase  their  produc- 
tivity by  marketing  those  things  which  they  pro- 
duce in  surplus  and  buying  those  things  which 
they  cannot  produce  efficiently.  A  country  may 
be  able  to  achieve  a  considerable  amount  of  self- 
sufficiency  through  severe  restrictions  to  trade, 
but  no  country  is  so  blessed  with  resources  that 
it  could  do  so  without  sacrificing  a  degree  of  eco- 
nomic well-being  and  economic  development. 

In  addition,  with  ample  opportunities  for  trad- 
ing witli  tlie  United  States  and  with  each  other, 
the  countries  of  the  free  world  can  better  resist 
the  pressures,  both  from  tlieir  own  commercial  in- 
terests and  increasingly  from  the  Soviet  Union, 
to  become  dependent  on  trade  with  the  countries 
of  the  Communist  bloc.  This  issue  is  particu- 
larly crucial  in  the  underdeveloped  areas  of  the 
free  world,  which  are  feeling  tlie  brunt  of  the 
Soviet  economic  offensive.  Some  of  these  coun- 
tries in  Asia,  Africa,  and  the  Middle  East  now 
have  very  substantial  trade  with  the  Soviet  bloc. 

As  a  means  of  developing  mutually  beneficial 
trade,  the  United  States  pioneered  in  promoting 
cooperative  action  in  the  trade  field  when  it 
adopted  the  reciprocal  trade  agreements  program 
in  1934.  By  1945  the  United  States  had  signed 
bilateral  trade  agreements  with  29  countries. 
Bilateralism  in  trade  relations  gave  way  to  multi- 
lateralism after  World  War  II  because  experi- 


662 


Deparfmenf  of  Stale  Bulletin 


ence  had  shown  that  the  complex  problems  of 
international  trade  could  not  be  dealt  with  ef- 
fectively on  a  bilateral  basis.  The  product  of 
this  experience  was  the  General  Agreement  on 
Tariffs  and  Trade,  to  which  there  are  35  sig- 
natories, including  the  major  trading  nations  of 
the  free  world. 

By  the  establishment  of  accepted  principles  of 
trade  policy  and  procedures  for  resolving  trade 
disputes,  a  measure  of  stability  in  world  trade  lias 
been  created  which  has  contributed  significantly 
to  its  overall  expansion. 

In  conclusion,  I  think  it  is  clear  that  the  vari- 
ous aspects  of  our  foi'eign  economic  policy  which 


have  been  discussed  here  will  help  the  nations  of 
the  free  world  the  better  to  resist  the  Communist 
challenge.  However,  it  is  important  to  stress  the 
fact  that  this  Government  has  a  deep-seated  and 
enduring  interest  in  the  economic  growtli  and  de- 
velopment of  other  free  nations,  quite  apart  from 
the  important  political  problem  of  resisting  the 
spread  of  communism.  In  other  words,  we  are 
seeking  to  better  the  economic  status  of  the  people 
of  all  free  nations,  not  just  to  be  in  opposition  to 
something  but  because  we  sincerely  believe  it  is  a 
positive  good.  If  we  are  successful  in  these  ef- 
forts, I  believe  that  this  nation  will  have  made  a 
significant  contribution  to  the  building  of  a  world 
of  free  peoples. 


Limitations  on  Travel  of  American  Citizens  Abroad  and  on  Cultural  Exchanges 


STATEMENT  BY  DEPUTY  UNDER  SECRETARY 
MURPHY' 

It  is  a  privilege  to  have  this  opportunity  to  ap- 
pear before  you  and  to  review  with  you  the  ques- 
tion of  the  limitations  imposed  by  the  Depax'tment 
of  State  on  the  travel  of  American  citizens  abroad 
and  certain  related  matters  bearing  on  the  ex- 
change of  persons  between  the  United  States  and 
other  countries. 

Also  at  your  express  wish,  Mr.  Chairman,  I 
shall  review  the  question  of  the  ban  on  travel  to 
Communist  China  of  American  newsmen  and  ad- 
dress myself  to  the  policy  aspects  of  limitations 
on  overseas  travel  of  Americans  and  on  cultural 
exchanges  generally. 

There  is  an  accumulation  of  tradition  as  to  ex- 
actly what  a  passport  is  and  what  rights  citizens 
bearing  passports  have.  The  basic  passport  law 
dates  back  to  1856,  although  passports  have  been 
issued  by  the  Secretary  of  State  since  the  found- 
ing of  the  country.  In  fact,  Congress  enacted 
legislation  in  1803  and  in  1815  which  specifically 


'  Made  before  the  Senate  Foreign  Relations  Committee 
on  Apr.  2  (press  release  182). 


took  cognizance  of  the  fact  that  the  Secretary 
issued  passports  under  his  general  authority  to 
conduct  foreign  relations. 

In  1856  the  Congress  also  recognized  that  the 
President  was  i-esponsible  for  the  protection  of 
American  citizens  abroad.  This  responsibility 
was  later  specifically  assigned  to  the  President  by 
an  act  of  Congress  on  July  27,  1868,  by  which 
the  President  was  authorized  to  take  measures 
"not  amounting  to  acts  of  war"  to  insure  the  re- 
lease of  any  American  citizen  "mijustly  deprived 
of  his  liberty  by  or  under  the  authority  of  any 
foreign  government." 

Although  the  Congress  recognizes  the  Presi- 
dent's obligation  to  protect  American  citizens 
abroad  and  to  secure  their  release  when  unjustly 
held  by  foreign  governments.  Congress  has  tradi- 
tionally recognized  the  Secretary  of  State's  au- 
thority to  issue  passports.  This  was  most  recently 
reflected  by  an  act  of  Congress  of  July  3,  1926. 
This  act  states  that  the  Secretary  or  his  designated 
representative  may  grant  and  issue  passports 
"under  such  rules  as  the  President  shall  designate 
and  prescribe  for  and  on  behalf  of  the  United 
States." 


April  22,    1957 


663 


Discretionary  Control  Over  Issuance  and  Validation 
of  Passports 

The  Secretary  of  State  historically  has  decided 
which  citizens  should  receive  passports  and  for 
what  countries  their  passports  should  be  vali- 
dated. =^  Under  section  51.135  of  the  Department 
of  State  Regulations,  as  amended  January  10, 
1956,  passports  are  denied  to  members  of  the  Com- 
munist Party  and  to  certain  other  citizens  who 
support  the  Communist  movement.  In  addition, 
section  51.136  proscribes  the  issuance  of  passports 
to  certain  other  individuals.  This  regulation 
states : 

In  order  to  promote  and  safeguard  the  interests  of  the 
United  States,  passport  facilities,  except  for  direct  and 
immediate  return  to  the  United  States,  will  be  refused 
to  a  person  when  it  appears  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
Secretary  of  State  that  the  person's  activities  abroad 
would:  (1)  violate  the  laws  of  the  United  States;  (2)  be 
prejudicial  to  the  orderly  conduct  of  foreign  relations; 
or  (3)  otherwise  be  prejudicial  to  the  interests  of  the 
United  States. 

In  addition  to  his  discretionary  control  over 
which  individual  citizens  are  issued  passports,  the 
Secretary  of  State  may  also  decide  which  coun- 
tries they  may  visit.  This  takes  the  form  of  a  vali- 
dation stamp  in  each  passport,  stating  which  coun- 
tries may  or  may  not  be  visited.  Policy  decisions 
as  to  which  countries  are  intended  in  the  ban  are 
continually  reviewed  in  the  light  of  current  de- 
velopments. During  wartime,  passports  are  vali- 
dated for  relatively  few  coimtries  and  close  check 
is  kept  on  which  areas  are  safe  for  American 
travel.  During  World  War  II,  for  example, 
American  passports  were  only  good  for  6  months 
and  were  taken  up  at  the  frontiers  when  citizens 
returned  to  the  United  States. 

Generally  speaking,  the  United  States  will  not 
validate  passports  for  travel  to  countries  with 
which  we  do  not  have  diplomatic  relations. 
Americans  traveling  to  such  countries  cannot  be 
extended  the  usual  protection  offered  American 
citizens  and  property  abroad  by  our  embassies 
and  consulates  abroad.  At  the  present  time,  the 
following  inscription  is  printed  in  every  United 
States  passport : 

This  passport  is  not  valid  for  travel  to  the  following 
areas  under  control  of  authorities  with  which  the  United 
States  does  not  have  diplomatic  relations:  Albania,  Bul- 
garia, and  those  portions  of  China,  Korea  and  Vietnam 
under  Communist  control. 


"  For  text  of  passport  regulations,  see  22  Code  of  Federal 
Uegulations  51.135  through  51.143. 


In  addition  to  not  validating  passports  for  coun- 
tries with  which  we  have  no  diplomatic  relations, 
the  Secretary  of  State  may,  from  time  to  time,  de- 
cide that  the  safety  of  American  citizens  cannot 
be  fully  protected  in  certain  countries.  Tliis  is 
one  of  the  reasons  for  the  present  ban  on  travel  to 
Hmigary  ^  and  the  recent  ban  on  travel  to  the  four 
nations  in  the  Middle  East — Israel,  Egypt,  Jor- 
dan, and  Syria.  The  Secretai-y  of  State,  while 
considering  it  advisable  not  to  validate  passports 
for  Hungary,  for  example,  nevertheless  retains 
the  right  to  except  certain  groups,  whose  travel  to 
those  areas  would  be  in  the  interests  of  the  United 
States.  Groups  often  excepted  in  such  cases  are 
Eed  Cross  and  relief  workers,  priests  and  mis- 
sionaries, and  the  press. 

When  the  Secretary  believes  that  the  current 
situation  in  any  particular  country  is  stable  once 
more,  he  then  may  lift  the  ban  on  travel  there 
either  for  particular  groups  or  for  all  citizens. 
Yesterday,  as  the  most  recent  case  in  point,  the 
situation  in  the  Middle  East  was  considered  to 
have  stabilized  sufficiently  for  the  four-country 
ban  to  be  removed.* 

One  reason  for  not  allowing  citizens  to  travel  to 
certain  countries,  in  addition  to  the  safety  of  the 
individuals  involved,  is  the  psychological  pres- 
sure which  can  be  brought  to  bear  on  a  country  by 
not  allowing  Americans  to  enter  it.  For  example, 
the  United  States  cut  off  travel  to  Czechoslovakia 
after  United  States  newpaperman  William  Oatis 
was  imprisoned.  The  unfavorable  publicity  re- 
ceived by  the  Czechs  abroad  and  their  desire  to 
have  American  newsmen  and  tourists  visit  Czech- 
oslovakia undoubtedly  contributed  to  the  release 
of  Mr.  Oatis.^  Such  pressure  would  have  been  im- 
possible had  the  Secretary  not  had  the  authority  to 
stop  travel  to  Czechoslovakia. 

Ban  on  Travel  to  Communist  China 

As  a  specific  case  history,  the  committee  may 
wish  to  have  a  brief  analysis  of  the  policy  reasons 
why  Americans  are  not  permitted  to  travel  to 
Communist  China,  beyond  the  reasons  that  we 

''  For  text  of  U.S.  note  to  Hungary  concerning  reinstitu- 
tiou  of  passport  validation  requirements,  see  Bulletin  of 
Feb.  13,  1956,  p.  246. 

'  See  p.  654. 

"For  Department  statement  on  prohibition  of  travel 
to  Czechoslovakia,  see  Bulletin  of  .June  11,  1051,  p.  932 ; 
for  Department  announcement  on  release  of  William  N. 
Oatis,  see  ibid.,  June  1,  1953,  p.  785. 


664 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


have  no  diplomatic  relations  with  it.  Public  at- 
tention has  been  focused  on  the  refusal  to  author- 
ize travel  by  newsmen,  but  I  sliould  make  it  clear 
that  this  applies  to  all  other  citizens  as  well. 

Many  other  categories  of  travelers — mission- 
aries, scholars,  educators,  public  officials,  relatives 
of  imprisoned  Americans — have  been  refused 
passports  to  Communist  China.  Let  me  put  it  this 
way :  the  special  advantages  or  disadvantages  of 
allowing  any  one  group  to  travel  there  were  not 
the  governing  factor.  The  decision,  and  the  rea- 
sons behind  it,  applied  equally  to  all  Americans. 

And  let  me  make  one  other  point  clear  before 
giving  those  reasons:  the  skill  and  impartiality 
of  American  correspondents  were  never  a  point 
at  issue.  The  vital  importance  of  a  full  flow  of 
information  about  conditions  in  mainland  China 
has  been  recognized  throughout. 

The  reasons,  stemming  from  fundamental 
United  States  foreign  policy,  may  be  summarized 
as  follows: 

(1)  A  state  of  unresolved  conflict  exists  be- 
tween the  United  States  and  the  United  Nations 
on  the  one  hand  and  Communist  Cliina  on  the 
other.  The  armistice,  signed  in  1953,  was  to  con- 
tinue until  a  political  settlement  was  reached.  No 
such  settlement  has  ever  taken  place,  owing  to 
the  refusal  of  the  Chinese  Communists  to  consider 
any  terms  acceptable  to  the  United  Nations.  The 
national  emergency,  proclaimed  by  the  President 
at  the  time  of  the  original  Communist  attack  in 
Korea,  is  still  in  effect.  All  trade  and  financial 
transaction  with  Communist  China  are  prohibited 
by  United  States  laws  and  regulations.  In  time 
of  war,  travel  in  enemy  territory  is  denied  to 
United  States  citizens.  In  tiie  present  state  of  na- 
tional emergency,  travel  to  Commvmist  China  is 
similarly  denied. 

(2)  The  Communist  Chinese  threat  against  the 
Republic  of  China,  with  whom  the  United  States 
has  a  treaty  of  mutual  defense,  remains  clear  and 
present.  The  Chinese  Communist  buildup  on  the 
mainland  opposite  Formosa  continues.  They  have 
specifically  refused  to  enter  into  any  agreement 
renouncing  the  use  of  force  in  the  Formosa  area. 
Under  such  conditions  the  United  States  believes 
that  mainland  travel  by  its  citizens  is  unwise. 

(3)  Since,  as  I  have  said,  the  United  States  does 
not  recognize  the  Chinese  Commmiist  regime, 
normal  diplomatic  and  consular  protection  for 
United  States  travelers  there  cannot  be  extended. 
This  situation  is  highlighted  by  the  fact  that  the 


Chinese  Communists  have  taken,  and  are  still 
holding,  political  hostages.  Here  is  strong  evi- 
dence of  the  need  for  such  protection.  Even  if 
the  citizen  applying  for  a  passport  would  waive 
his  right  to  such  protection,  the  Government  must 
extend  it  to  the  limit  of  its  capabilities. 

(4)  The  Chinese  Communist  regime,  which 
came  to  power  by  armed  insurrection,  has  consoli- 
dated that  power  by  a  series  of  lawless  acts.  These 
include  invasion  of  North  Korea  and  attack  on 
United  Nations  forces  there,  and  illegal  imprison- 
ment of  American  citizens  without  trial.  It  also 
includes  flagrant  violation  of  the  Korean  Armi- 
stice Agreement  by  the  introduction  of  new 
weapons  and  aircraft  in  North  Korea,  and,  as  we 
have  seen,  it  includes  the  continuing  buildup  of 
forces  on  the  mainland  opposite  Formosa.  In  all 
these  instances,  the  opinion  of  the  rest  of  the 
world  has  been  cynically  disregarded.  Now  Com- 
munist China  seems  to  feel  the  need  for  respecta- 
bility and  acceptance  into  the  family  of  nations. 
One  of  the  requisites  of  such  respectability  is  the 
establishment  of  trade  relations  and  cultural  ex- 
changes with  the  United  States.  The  prerequi- 
site thus  is  a  relaxation  of  United  States  travel 
restrictions. 

A  Form  of  Blackmail 

The  wish  of  the  Chinese  Communists  for  greater 
respectability  has  been  confirmed  in  the  series  of 
meetings  at  Geneva  between  United  States  Am- 
bassador U.  Alexis  Johnson  and  Communist 
Chinese  Ambassador  Wang  Ping-nan,  which  be- 
gan on  August  1, 1955.  It  was  there  that  the  Chi- 
nese Communists  agreed  that  all  American  citi- 
zens in  their  counti'y  so  desiring  should  be  allowed 
to  return  to  the  United  States  and  undertook  to 
facilitate  that  return.  Despite  this  unequivocal 
commitment  of  September  10,  1955,  eight  United 
States  citizens  are  still  held  prisoners.*'  Ambassa- 
dor Johnson  has  taken  the  firm  position  that  the 
cultural  exchanges  and  visits  by  newspapermen 
now  desired  by  the  Chinese  Communists  could  not 
be  considered  while  United  States  citizens  were 
still  held  prisoner.  To  do  so  might  well  destroy 
their  last  chance  for  freedom  and  would  most 
certainly  be  giving  in  to  a  form  of  blackmail. 

It  is  also  necessary,  of  course,  to  consider  the 
effect    upon    our    friends    and     allies    should 

°  For  background,  see  ibid.,  Feb.  18, 1957,  p.  261.  Two  of 
the  imprisoned  Americans,  the  Rev.  Fulgence  Gross  and 
Paul  Mackinsen,  were  released  in  March  1957. 


April  22,    1957 


665 


the  United  States  yield  under  such  pressure.  Con- 
fidence in  our  determination  to  resist  the  aggres- 
sive designs  of  communism  would  be  weakened. 
The  position  of  leadership  which  we  have  ac- 
cepted would  be  seriously  undermined.  It  would 
be  most  difficult  for  us  to  urge  others,  many  of 
whom  must  depend  in  part  on  our  strength,  to 
stand  unafraid  and  unflinching  before  the  Com- 
munist threat.  It  is  well  known  that  this  threat 
often  takes  the  form  of  economic  and  cultural 
penetration. 

As  Secretary  Dulles  has  recently  said  in  his 
press  conference,^  this  whole  question  of  the  visits 
by  newspapermen  to  mainland  China  is  under  con- 
tinuing review.  If  a  formula  can  be  found  to  per- 
mit their  coverage  of  conditions  there  without 
affecting  American  lives  and  indulging  in  a  form 
of  appeasement  by  yielding  to  blackmail,  we 
would  all  be  greatly  relieved. 

Cultural  Exchanges  With  Communist  Countries 

Now  in  this  kindred  matter  of  cultural  ex- 
changes with  other  Communist  countries,  and  the 
limitations  thereon,  I  would  like  to  make  certain 
points  clear :  first  of  all,  we  have  no  exchanges  of 
any  kind  with  countries  which  we  do  not  recog- 
nize— Bulgaria,  East  Germany,  Albania,  North 
Viet-Nam,  and  North  Korea,  as  well  as  Com- 
munist China. 

At  the  present  time,  such  exchanges,  either 
official  or  private,  are  suspended  with  Hungary. 
American  passports  are  not  valid  for  travel  to 
Hungary  except,  as  we  have  seen,  for  certain 
special  categories. 

For  some  time  now,  the  Department  has  taken 
no  initiative  in  the  matter  of  officially  sponsored 
exchanges  with  the  U.S.S.R.  There  lias  been  con- 
siderable exchange  activity,  however,  with  Poland 
and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  with  Czechoslovakia  and 
Eumania.  At  the  present  time  a  Polish  coal  dele- 
gation is  in  this  country,  as  well  as  their  mission 
on  economic  aid.  An  unofficial  United  States 
housing  delegation  expects  to  go  to  Poland  in 
June  in  reciprocity  for  a  Polish  visit  to  the  United 
States  last  November.  Three  Rumanian  observers, 
you  will  remember,  covered  our  election  last  No- 
vember, and  it  is  hoped  that  some  kind  of  re- 
ciprocal visit  to  Rumania  by  American  political 
experts  and  scholars  will  take  place  shortly. 

The  refusal  of  Communist  countries  to  abide  by 

'  Ibid.,  Mar.  25, 1957,  p.  482. 


our  visa  requirements  and  allow  their  nationals  to 
be  fingerprinted  has  severely  limited  exchanges  in 
the  cultural  field.  Obviously,  we  cannot  regard  a 
troupe  of  entertainers  as  Government  officials. 
So  a  kind  of  impasse  exists.  Unless  the  finger- 
printing requirement  for  nonofficial  visas  is  legally 
removed,  it  is  to  be  expected  that  the  Soviet  bloc 
will  continue  to  use  it  as  an  excuse  for  propaganda 
to  the  effect  that  we  have  erected  our  own  Iron 
Curtain.  And  it  further  gives  them  the  op- 
portunity to  deny  visits  of  American  cultural 
groups  because  of  our  seeming  failure  to  apply 
reciprocity. 

Exchange  Program  With  Free-World  Countries 

This  small  trickle  of  exchanges  with  certain  of 
the  Communist  countries,  is,  we  hope,  temporary. 
The  Secretary  of  State  is  currently  studying  this 
problem  with  a  possible  expansion  in  mind.  We 
believe  in  the  kind  of  miderstanding  and  good  will 
that  exchanges  of  people  in  many  professions  and 
walks  of  life  engender.  Our  own  International 
Educational  Exchange  Program  with  the  world 
outside  the  Iron  and  Bamboo  Curtains  is  a  flour- 
ishing and  successful  one  which  we  feel  has  in- 
creased American  miderstanding  of  our  allies  and 
of  other  countries  of  the  free  world  and,  we  have 
every  reason  to  believe,  helped  tell  the  American 
story  abroad. 

A  current  example  of  how  this  free- world  pro- 
gram works  is  the  sharp  increase  in  planned  ex- 
changes with  Africa.  The  trend  toward  inde- 
pendent status  for  colonial  areas  and  trust  terri- 
tories, as  they  become  ready  for  the  responsibilities 
of  self-government,  has  been  a  continuing  one. 
The  contemplated  increase  in  our  program  for 
fiscal  year  1958  is  particularly  oriented  toward  the 
development  of  African  educational  facilities  and 
toward  an  expansion  of  the  leader  progi'am  and 
the  specialist  program  there.  For  example,  the 
number  of  exchange  gi-ants  contemplated  for  the 
newly  independent  nation  of  Ghana  will  bo  in- 
creased, it  is  hoped,  from  13  to  40. 

If  any  argument  were  needed,  over  and  above 
the  compelling  one  of  increased  two-way  under- 
standing, it  could  be  pointed  out  that  there  has 
been  a  marked  interest  on  the  part  of  the  Com- 
munists in  these  newly  emergent  coinitries  and 
that  it  has  taken  the  form  of  providing  educa- 
tional facilities  for  African  leaders  and  potential 
leaders.    And  their  interest  in  other  countries  re- 


666 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


mains  constant  as  well.  Vice  President  Nixon,  foi' 
example,  on  his  return  from  his  recent  African 
tour  emphasized  to  us  the  importance  attacliing 
to  exchanges  with  African  countries  as  well  as 
other  efforts  in  the  cultural  and  economic  fields. 
If  we  believe,  as  we  all  do,  that  our  way  of  life  is 
the  true  one  and  the  Communist  way  is  the  false, 
it  seems  to  me  that  a  thriving  exchange  program, 
which  conveys  the  story  of  the  American  way  and 
the  way  of  the  free  world,  is  a  rnust  in  the  continu- 
ing battle  for  the  minds  of  men. 


STATEMENT  BY  ROBERT  F.  CARTWRIGHT^ 

We  are  happy  to  appear  before  your  subcom- 
mittee this  morning  in  response  to  the  request 
made  in  the  chairman's  letter  dated  March  22, 
1957,  to  furnish  whatever  information  we  can  re- 
garding current  State  Department  issuance  policy, 
procedure,  regulations,  and  practices. 

The  Department  of  State  representatives  pres- 
ent have  been  made  available  to  assist  the  sub- 
committee in  its  study.  We  hope  to  be  able  to 
furnish  answers  to  your  questions.  In  the  event 
there  is  any  information  which  is  not  immediately 
at  hand,  we  shall  be  glad  to  furnish  it  later  for 
the  record,  consistent  with  the  committee's 
wishes. 

It  may  be  helj^ful  at  this  point  if  some  general 
statements  might  be  made  to  demonstrate  the  De- 
partment's position  in  relation  to  its  responsibili- 
ties in  the  passport  field.  With  that  in  mind  I 
would  like  to  quote  for  the  record  at  this  time  cer- 
tain portions  of  the  statement  made  by  Deputy 
Under  Secretary  Eobert  D.  Murphy,  before  the 
Senate  Foreign  Eelations  Committee  on  April  2, 
1957.  Copies  of  Mr.  Murphy's  statement  are  avail- 
able for  the  record  if  the  committee  wishes  them, 
but  I  would  like  to  quote  here  certain  paragraphs 
which  I  feel  deal  directly  with  the  immediate  in- 
terests of  this  subcommittee. 


'Made  before  the  Subcommittee  on  Constitutional 
Rights  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  the  Judiciary  on  Apr. 
4  (press  release  190).  Mr.  Cartwright  was  Acting  Ad- 
ministrator of  the  Bureau  of  Security  and  Consular  Af- 
fairs. 


[At  this  iwint,  Mr.  Cartwright  read  from  Mr.  Mur- 
phy's statement,  the  third  through  the  eleventh  para- 
graphs.] 

In  addition  to  the  bases  for  denial  of  passports 
cited  in  the  quoted  portions  of  Mr.  Murphy's  state- 
ment, the  passport  regulations  of  the  Department 
of  State  provide  that  persons  denied  passports  be 
advised  in  writing  of  the  tentative  refusal  and 
of  the  reasons  on  which  it  is  based,  as  specifically 
as,  in  the  judgment  of  the  Department  of  State, 
security  considerations  permit.  Upon  request  and 
before  refusal  becomes  final,  the  applicant  is  en- 
titled to  present  his  case  and  all  relevant  informa- 
tion to  the  Passport  Office  on  an  informal  basis. 
At  this  time  he  is  entitled  to  appear  in  person  be- 
fore a  hearing  officer  and  to  be  represented  by 
counsel.  Upon  request  he  will  confirm  his  oral 
statements  in  an  affidavit  for  the  record.  There- 
after the  Passport  Office  must  review  the  record 
and  after  consultation  with  other  interested  of- 
fices will  advise  the  applicant  of  the  decision.  If 
the  decision  is  adverse,  the  applicant  must  be  ad- 
vised in  writing  and  the  letter  must  contain  the 
reasons  on  which  the  decision  is  based  as  specifi- 
cally as  the  Department  of  State  security  limi- 
tations permit.  The  letter  shall  also  advise  the 
applicant  of  his  right  to  appeal  the  decision. 

The  administrative  body  handling  appeals  of 
this  type  is  composed  of  not  less  than  three  officers 
of  the  Department  of  State,  designated  by  the 
Secretary  of  State.  The  Board  [of  Passport  Ap- 
peals] is  required  to  adopt  and  has  adopted  and 
publicized  its  rules  of  procedure,  including  recog- 
nition of  the  applicant's  right  to  a  hearing,  right 
to  representation  by  counsel,  and  providing  for  the 
applicant's  opportunity  to  inspect  the  transcript 
of  his  testimony.  Likewise,  other  witnesses  must 
have  the  right  to  inspect  their  testimony  if  they 
wish. 

The  Board  has  the  duty  of  advising  the  Secre- 
tary of  State  of  the  action  it  finds  necessary  and 
proper  to  the  disposition  of  the  case,  and  to  this 
end  the  Board  may  call  for  further  clarification 
of  the  record,  additional  investigation,  or  other 
action  consistent  with  its  duties. 

Copies  of  the  passport  regulations  of  the  De- 
partment of  State  are  available  for  the  com- 
mittee. 


April  22,   J  957 


667 


TREATY   INFORMATION 


Educational  Exchange  Agreement 
With  Paraguay 

Press  release  191  dated  April  4 

The  Governments  of  Paraguay  and  the  United 
States  on  April  4  signed  an  agreement  putting 
into  operation  a  program  of  educational  exchanges 
authorized  by  the  Fulbright  Act.  The  signing 
took  place  at  Asuncion  with  Raul  Sapena  Pastor, 
Paraguayan  Minister  of  Foreign  Affairs,  repre- 
senting his  Government  and  Ambassador  Arthur 
A.  Ageton  representing  the  Government  of  the 
United  States. 

The  agi-eenient  provides  for  the  expenditure, 
over  a  period  of  3  years,  of  Paraguayan  currency 
equivalent  to  $150,000  received  from  the  sale  of 
surplus  agricultural  products  in  Paraguay  to  fi- 
nance exchanges  of  persons  between  the  two  coun- 
tries to  study,  do  research,  teach,  or  engage  in 
other  educational  activities.  The  purpose  of  the 
program  is  to  further  the  mutual  understanding 
between  the  peoples  of  Paraguay  and  the  United 
States  by  means  of  these  exchanges. 

Under  the  terms  of  the  agreement  a  Commission 
for  Educational  Exchange  Between  the  United 
States  of  America  and  the  Republic  of  Paraguay 
will  be  established  in  the  latter  country  to  facil- 
itate the  administration  of  the  program.  The 
Commission's  board  of  directors  will  consist  of 
eight  members  with  equal  representation  as  to 
Paraguayan  and  U.S.  citizens  in  addition  to  the 
U.S.  Ambassador,  who  will  serve  as  honorary 
chairman.  All  recipients  of  awards  under  the 
program  authorized  by  the  Fulbright  Act  are 
selected  by  the  Board  of  Foreign  Scholarships, 
whose  members  are  appointed  by  the  President  of 
the  United  States.  The  Board  maintains  a  sec- 
retariat in  the  Department  of  State. 

With  the  signing  of  this  agreement,  Paraguay 
becomes  the  37th  country  to  participate  in  the 
educational  exchange  program  initiated  10  years 
ago  under  authority  of  tl>e  Fulbright  Act.  Edu- 
cational exchanges  between  Paraguay  and  the 
United  States  have  been  carried  out  for  a  number 
of  years  under  the  Act  for  Cooperation  Between 
the  American  Republics,  the  Smith-Mundt  Act, 


and  other  legislation.  This  agreement  will  con- 
siderably augment  the  present  number  of  ex- 
changes. 

After  the  members  of  the  Commission  have  been 
appointed  and  a  program  has  been  formulated, 
information  about  specific  opportunities  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  exchange  activities  will  be  re- 
leased. 


Brazilian  Copyright  Proclamation 


DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press  release  183  dated  April  2 

A  copyright  proclamation  issued  on  April  2 
by  President  Eisenhower  in  conjunction  with  an 
exchange  of  diplomatic  notes  between  the  United 
States  and  Brazil  served  to  establish  a  supple- 
mentary copyright  arrangement  between  the 
United  States  and  Brazil.  The  notes  were  ex- 
changed between  C.  Douglas  Dillon,  Deputy 
Under  Secretary  of  State  for  Economic  Affairs, 
and  Ernani  do  Amaral  Peixoto,  Brazilian  Am- 
bassador to  the  United  States.  This  arrange- 
ment reaffirms  the  continued  existence  of  recipro- 
cal copyright  relations,  based  upon  the  Buenos 
Aires  Convention  on  Literary  and  Artistic  Copy- 
right of  1910,^  and  for  the  first  time  provides  for 
the  protection  in  the  United  States  of  works  of 
Brazilian  nationals  in  musical  recordings. 

The  United  States  and  Brazil  have  enjoyed 
reciprocal  copyright  relations  since  1915  on  the 
basis  of  the  Buenos  Aires  Convention  of  1910. 
However,  a  decision  of  the  United  States  Court 
of  Appeals  in  New  York  held  that  the  1910 
convention  did  not  entitle  Brazilian  nationals  to 
protection  imder  the  United  States  copyright  law 
for  their  recorded  musical  works.  In  that  case, 
the  owners  of  the  Brazilian  copyright  in  the 
popular  song  "Tico-Tico"  attempted,  without  suc- 
cess, to  bring  an  infringement  action  against 
various  United  States  music  publishers  and 
broadcasters  for  unauthorized  performance  of  the 
musical  composition  by  means  of  phonograph 
recoixls. 

The  April  2  action,  affording  Brazilian  and 
United  States  nationals  complete  reciprocal  pro- 
tection for  their  literary  and  artistic  works,  will 
bo  of  significant  importance  in  encouraging  and 

'38  Stat.  1785. 


668 


Departmenf  of  Stale  Bulletin 


assisting  the  increasing  exchange  of  Brazilian  and 
United  States  works,  particularly  in  the  musical 
field. 


PROCLAMATION  3175 ' 

Whereas  section  1  of  title  17  of  tlie  United  States 
Code,  entitled  "Copyrights",  as  codified  and  enacted  into 
positive  law  by  the  act  of  Congress  approved  July  30, 
1947,  Gl  Stat.  652,  provides  in  part  as  follows : 

Any  person  entitled  thereto,  upon  counjlylng  with  the  provi- 
sions of  this  title,  shall  have  the  exclusive  right : 

(e)  To  perform  the  copyrighted  work  publicly  for  profit  if  It 
be  a  musical  composition ;  .  .  .  Provided,  That  the  provisions 
of  this  title,  so  far  as  they  secure  copyright  controlling  the 
parts  of  Instruments  serviug  to  reproduce  mechanically  the 
musical  work,  shall  include  only  compositions  published  and 
copyrighted  after  July  1,  1909,  and  shall  not  include  the  works 
of  a  foreign  author  or  composer  unless  the  foreign  state  or  nation 
of  which  such  author  or  composer  is  a  citizen  or  subject  grants, 
either  by  treaty,  convention,  agreement,  or  law,  to  citizens  of 
the  United  States  similar  rights. 

and 

Whereas  section  9  of  the  said  title  17  provides  in 
part  that  the  copyright  secured  by  such  title  shall  ex- 
tend to  the  work  of  an  author  or  proprietor  who  is  a 
citizen  or  subject  of  a  foreign  state  or  nation; 

(b)  When  the  foreign  state  or  nation  of  which  such  author 
or  proprietor  Is  a  citizen  or  subject  grants,  either  by  treaty, 
convention,  agreement,  or  law,  to  citizens  of  the  United  States 
the  benefit  of  copyriglit  on  substantially  the  same  basis  as  to  its 
own  citizens,  or  copyright  protection,  substantially  equal  to  the 
protection  secured  to  such  foreign  author  under  this  title  or  by 
treaty ;  or  when  such  foreign  state  or  nation  Is  a  party  to  an 
international  agreement  which  provides  for  reciprocity  In  the 
granting  of  copyright,  by  the  terms  of  which  agreement  the 
United  States  may,  at  its  pleasure,  become  a  party  thereto. 

and 
Whereas  section  9  of  the  said  title  17  further  provides : 

The  existence  of  the  reciprocal  conditions  aforesaid  shall  be 
determined  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  by  proclama- 
tion made  fiom  time  to  time,  as  the  purposes  of  this  title  may 
require  .  .  . 

and 

Whereas  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
America  and  the  Government  of  the  United  States  of 
Brazil  are  parties  to  the  Convention  on  Literary  and 
Artistic  Copyright,  signed  at  Buenos  Aires  on  August  11, 
1910 ;  and 

Whereas  satisfactory  official  assurances  have  been  re- 
ceived that  under  provisions  of  Brazilian  law  and  by  the 
terms  of  the  above-mentioned  Convention  of  Buenos  Aires 
citizens  of  the  United  States  of  America  are  entitled  to 
obtain  copyright  in  the  United  States  of  Brazil  for  their 
works  on  substantially  the  same  basis  as  citizens  of  the 
United  States  of  Brazil,  including  rights  similar  to  those 
provided  by  section  1  (e)  of  title  17  of  the  United  States 
Code: 

Now,  therefore,  I,  DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower,  President 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  do  declare  and  proclaim : 


=  22  Fed.  Reg.  2305. 


That  there  exist  with  respect  to  the  United  States  of 
Brazil  the  reciprocal  conditions  specified  in  sections  1  (e) 
and  9  (b)  of  the  said  title  17  and  that  citizens  of  tlie 
United  States  of  Brazil  are  entitled  to  all  the  benefits  of 
the  said  title  17 : 

Provided,  that  the  provisions  of  section  1  (e)  of  the 
said  title  17,  so  far  as  they  secure  copyright  controlling 
parts  of  instruments  serving  to  reproduce  mechanically 
the  musical  work,  shall  apply  only  to  compositions  pub- 
lished and  copyrighted  after  the  date  of  this  proclama- 
tion which  have  not  been  reproduced  in  the  United  States 
prior  to  the  date  hereof  on  any  contrivance  by  means  of 
which  the  work  may  be  mechanically  performed. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand 
and  caused  the  Seal  of  the  United  States  of  America  to 
be  affixed. 

Done  at  the  City  of  Washington  this  second  day  of 

April  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  nineteen  hundi'ed 

[SE.VL]     and  fifty-seven,  and  of  the  Independence  of  the 

United  States  of  America  the  one  hundred  and 

eighty-first. 

By  the  President : 

John  Foster  Duixes, 
Secretary  of  State. 


Current  Actions 


MULTILATERAL 

Atomic  Energy 

Statute    of    the    International    Atomic    Energy    Agency. 
Done  at  New  York  October  20,  195G.' 
Ratification  deposited:    Guatemala,  March  29,  1957. 

Copyright 

Universal  copyright  convention.     Done  at  Geneva   Sep- 
tember 6,  1952.     Entered  into  force  September  16,  1955. 
TIAS  3324. 
Ratification  deposited:    Cuba,  March  18,  1957. 

Protocol  1  concerning  application  of  the  convention  to 
the  works  of  stateless  persons  and  refugees.     Done  at 
Geneva   September  6,   1952.     Entered  into  force   Sep- 
tember IG,  1955.     TIAS  3324. 
Ratification  deposited:    Cuba,   March  18,   1957. 

Protocol  2  concerning  application  of  the  convention  to 
the    works    of    certain    international    organizations. 
Done    at    Geneva    September    6,    1952.     Entered    into 
force  September  16,  1955.     TIAS  3324. 
Ratification  deposited:    Cuba,  March  18,  1957. 

Finance 

Memorandum  of  understanding  regarding  German  as- 
sets in  Italy.  Signed  at  Rome  March  29,  1957.  En- 
tered into  force  March  29,  1957. 

Signatures:     France,    Italy,     United    Kingdom,    and 
United  States. 

'  Not  in  force. 


AprW  22,   1957 


669 


Fisheries 

Protocol  amending  the  international  convention  for  the 
northwest  Atlantic  fisheries  of  February  8,  1949  (TIAS 
2089).     Done  at  Washington  June  25,  1950.' 
Ratification    deposited:    Canada,   March    27,    1957; 
United  Kingdom,  April  2,  1957. 

War 

Geneva  convention  relative  to  treatment  of  prisoners  of 

war; 
Geneva    convention    for    amelioration    of    condition    of 

wounded  and  sick  in  armed  forces  in  the  field ; 
Geneva    convention    for    amelioration    of    condition    of 
wounded,   sick  and   shipwrecked   members  of   armed 
forces  at  sea  ; 
Geneva  convention  relative  to  protection  of  civilian  per- 
sons in  time  of  war. 

Dated  at  Geneva  August  12,  1949.     Entered  into  force 
October    21,    1950;    for    the    United    States    Febru- 
ary   2,    1956.     TIAS    3364,    3362,    3363,    and    3365, 
respectively. 
Ratification  deposited:    Iran,  February  20,  1957. 

Wheat 

International    wheat    agreement,    1956.     Open    for    sig- 
nature at  Washington  through  May  18,  1956.     Entered 
into  force  July  16,  1956,  for  parts  1,  3,  4,  and  5,  and 
August  1,  1956,  for  part  2.     TIAS  3709. 
Acceptance  deposited:  Netherlands,  March  27,  1957. 


BILATERAL 


DEPARTMENT  AND  FOREIGN  SERVICE 


Resignations 

Horace  A.  Hildreth  as  Ambassador  to  Pakistan,  effec- 
tive about  May  1.  (For  text  of  Mr.  Hildretli's  letter  to 
the  President  and  the  President's  reply,  see  White  House 
press  release  dated  April  1.) 


Designations 

Robert  E.  Ward,  Jr.,  as  Director,  Ofl5ce  of  Munitions 
Control,  effective  December  2,  1956. 


PUBLICATIONS 


Brazil 

Agreement  providing  for  reciprocal  copyright  protection 
of  literary,  artistic,  and  scientific  works.  Effected 
by  exchange  of  notes  at  Washington  April  2,  1957.  En- 
tered into  force  April  2,  1957. 

Italy 

Agreement  amending  the  agricultural  commodities  agree- 
ment of  October  30,  1956,  as  amended  (TIAS  3702, 
3760,  and  3762) .  Effected  by  exchange  of  notes  at  Rome 
March  26,  1957.     Entered  into  force  March  26,  1957. 

Memorandum  of  understanding  regarding  war  damage 
claims.  Signed  at  Rome  March  29,  1957.  Enters  into 
force  upon  notification  by  each  Government  to  the  other 
that  the  formalities  required  by  their  respective  laws 
have  been  complied  with. 

Portugal 

Agreement  extending  the  agreement  for  use  of  facilities 
in  the  Azores  of  September  6,  1951  (TIAS  3087).  Ef- 
fected by  exchange  of  notes  at  Lisbon  December  31, 
1956,  and  February  2, 1957. 

Spain 

Agreement  relating  to  the  loan  of  certain  naval  vessels 
or  small  craft  by  the  United  States  to  Spain,  and  an- 
nex. Effected  by  exchange  of  notes  at  Madrid  March 
9,  1957.     Entered  into  force  March  9,  1957. 

Tunisia 

Economic  and  technical  assistance  agreement.  Effected 
by  exchange  of  notes  at  Tunis  March  26,  1957.  En- 
tered into  force  March  26,  1957. 


*  Not  in  force. 


Recent  Releases 

For  sale  ly  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Oov- 
ernment  Printing  Office,  Washington  25,  D.  G.  Address 
requests  direct  to  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  ex- 
cept in  the  case  of  free  publications,  which  may  be  ob- 
tained from  the  Department  of  State. 

The  National  Interest  and  Foreign  Lan^ages.  Pub. 
6389.  Interuatioual  Organization  and  Conference  Series 
IV,  UNESCO  30.    133  pp.    650. 

A  discussion  outline  and  work  paper  sponsored  by  the 
U.S.  National  Commission  for  UNESCO  for  the  purpose 
of  discussing  whether  or  not  the  national  interest  would 
be  served  by  increased  study  of  modern  foreign  languages 
in  the  United  States. 

The  Price  of  Peace.  Pub.  6415.  General  Foreign  Policy 
Series  114.     9  pp.     Limited  distribution. 

Text  of  the  second  inaugural  address  of  President  Eisen- 
hower, January  21,  1957. 

The  American  Agricultural  Attache.  Pub.  6422.  Depart- 
ment and  Foreign  Service  Series  61.     23  pp.     150. 

A  pamphlet  describing  the  duties  and  responsibilities 
of  the  American  agricultural  attach^. 

The  Situation  in  the  Middle  East.  Pub.  6461.  Near  and 
Middle  Eastern  Series  23.     14  pp.     Limited  distribution. 

A  pamphlet  containing  the  text  of  a  radio  and  television 
address  to  the  American  people  made  by  President  Eisen- 
hower on  February  20,  1957. 


670 


Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


April  22,  1957 


Ind 


ex 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  930 


Africa.    The  Emergence  of  Africa  (Nixon)     .    .    .      635 

American     Republics.     Building     for     Peace 

(Murphy)        647 

Asia.     Building  for  Peace   (Murphy) (547 

Brazil.  Brazilian  Copyright  Proclamation  (Eisen- 
hower)         668 

China.     Secretary    Dulles'     News    Conference    of 

April  2       641 

Congress,  The 

Advantages  to  the  United  States  of  Membership  in 
Proposed  Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation 
(Eisenhower) 657 

Limitations  on  Travel  of  American  Citizens  Abroad 
and  on  Cultural  Exchanges  (Murphy,  Cart- 
wright)  663 

Principles  of  U.S.  Foreign  Economic  Policy  (Kali- 

jarvi) 659 

Department  and  Foreign  Service 

Designations    (Ward) 670 

Resignations   (Hildreth) 670 

Economic  Affairs 

Advantages  to  the  United  States  of  Membership  in 
Proposed   Organization   for    Trade    Cooperation 

(Eisenhower) 657 

Brazilian  Copyright  Proclamation  (Eisenhower)    .      668 
Limitations  on  Travel  of  American  Citizens  Abroad 
and    on    Cultural    Exchanges     (Murphy,    Cart- 
wright)  663 

Principles  of  U.S.  Foreign  Economic  Policy  (Kali- 

jarvi) 659 

M.  Ren6  Mayer  To  Visit  Washington 640 

U.S.  Lifts  Restrictions  on  Travel  to  Four  Middle 

East  Countries 654 

Educational  Exchange 

Educational  Exchange  Agreement  With  Paraguay  .       66S 
Limitations  on  Travel  of  American  Citizens  Abroad 
and    on    Cultural    Exchanges     (Murphy,    Cart- 
wright)  663 


Check  List  of  Department  of  State 
Press  Releases:  April  1-7 

Releases  may  be  obtained  from  the  News  Division, 
Department  of  State,  Washington  25,  D.C. 

Releases  issued  prior  to  April  1  which  appear  in 
this  issue  of  the  Bulletin  are  Nos.  170  of  March 
22  and  177  and  178  of  March  2S. 
No.      Date  Subject 

180  4/1     Visit  of  Ren6  Mayer. 

181  4/1     Travel  restrictions  to  Middle  East  lifted. 

182  4/2    Murphy  :  travel  of  Americans  abroad. 

183  4/2     Brazilian  copyright  proclamation. 

184  4/2     Dulles :  news  conference. 

185  4/2     Technical  and  economic  aid  to  Iran. 

186  4/3     Murphy :  "Building  for  Peace." 

187  4/3    Kalijarvi :  foreign  economic  policy. 

188  4/3    Current  developments  in  Hungary. 
tl89    4/3     U.S.-Netherlands   air   transport  agree- 
ment. 

190  4/4    Cartwright :  passport  policy. 

191  4/4     U.S.-Paraguay     educational     exchange 

agreement. 
tl92    4/5    U.S.-Canadian  negotiations  on  potato 

tariffs. 
tl93    4/5    Joint  communique  on  U.S.-Afghan  talks. 


tHeld  for  a  later  issue  of  the  Bxtlletin. 


Egypt.  Secretary  Dulles'  News  Conference  of 
April  2 641 

Europe 

Building  for  Peace  (Murphy) 647 

M.  Ren6  Mayer  To  Visit  Washington 640 

Hungary.     Current  Developments  in  Hungary     .     .      654 

International  Organizations  and  Conferences.  In- 
tergovernmental Committee  for  European  Migra- 
tion (delegation) 656 

Iran 

Murder  of  U.S.  Technicians  in  Iran 654 

U.S.  Reaffirms  Continuation  of  Aid  to  Iran     .     .     .       654 

Israel.      Secretary    Dulles'    News    Conference    of 

April  2 641 

Middle  East 

Building  for  Peace  (Murphy) 647 

U.S.  Lilts  Restrictions  on  Travel  to  Four  Middle 

East  Countries 654 

Mutual  Security 

Building  for  Peace   (Murphy) 647 

U.S.  Reaffirms  Continuation  of  Aid  to  Iran     .     .     .      654 

North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization.  Eighth  Anni- 
versary of  NATO   (Eisenhower) 640 

Pakistan.    Resignations  (Hildreth) 670 

Paraguay.  Educational  Exchange  Agreement  With 
Paraguay 668 

Poland.     Secretary   Dulles'   News   Conference   of 

April  2 641 

Presidential  Documents 

Advantages  to  the  United  States  of  Membership  in 

Proposed  Organization  for  Trade  Cooperation     .      657 

Brazilian   Copyright  Proclamation 668 

Eighth  Anniversary  of  NATO         640 

Protection  of  Nationals 

Limitations  on  Travel  of  American  Citizens  Abroad 
and  on  Cultural  Exchanges  (Murphy,  Cart- 
wright)  663 

Murder  of  U.S.  Technicians  in  Iran 654 

U.S.  Reaffirms  Continuation  of  Aid  to  Iran     .     .     .      654 

Publications.    Recent  Releases 670 

Refugees 

Escapee  Program  Marks  Fifth  Anniversary     .     .     .      655 
Intergovernmental  Committee  for  European  Migra- 
tion (delegation) 656 

Treaty  Information 

Brazilian  Copyright  Proclamation  (Eisenhower)     .  668 

Current  Actions 669 

Educational  Exchange  Agreement  With  Paraguay  .  668 

U.S.S.R.      Principles    of    U.S.    Foreign    Economic 

Policy  (Kalijarvi) 659 

United  Nations.    Building  for  Peace  (Murphy)     .      647 

Name  Index 

Carroll,  Kevin 654 

C'artwright,  Robert  F 667 

Dulles,  Secretary 641 

Eisenhower,  President 640,657,669 

Hildreth,  Horace  A 670 

Kalijarvi,  Thorsten  V 659 

Mayer,   Ren6 640 

McCollum,    Robert    S 655 

Murphy,  Robert 647, 663 

Nixon,   Richard  M 635 

Ward,  Robert  E.,  Jr 670 

Wilson,  Brewster 654 


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NATO — Its  Development  and  Significance 


The  growth  and  accomplislmients  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Organization  from  the  signing  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  on 
April  4,  1949,  to  the  ijresent  time  are  described  in  this  61-page 
pamphlet,  a  recent  publication  of  the  Department  of  State. 

The  topics  discussed  include : 

America's  Interest  in  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Origin  of  the  North  Atlantic  Treaty 
Purposes  and  Activities  of  Nato 
Organization  of  Nato 
U.S.  Contributions  to  Nato 
Nato  Accomplislmients 
The  Future  of  Nato 

Two  appendixes  carry  the  text  of  the  Eeport  of  the  Committee 
of  Three  on  Non-Military  Cooperation  in  Nato  and  the  text  of 
the  North  Atlantic  Treaty. 

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THE    DEPARTMENT  OF   STATE 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  931 


AprU  29,  1957 


i 


■M 


'IV  prrnpD 


PROPOSALS     FOR     SUBSTANTIVE     CHANGES     IN 
MUTUAL  SECURITY  LEGISLATION    •   Statement 

by  Secretary  Dulles 675 

REPORT  TO  THE  FOUNDER  ON  FOREIGN  AFFAIRS 

9    by  Assistant  Secretary  Robertson 682 

THE    UNITED    NATIONS    AND    RESPONSIBILITIES 

FOR   THE   FUTURE    •     by  Assistant  Secretary  Wilcox   .      688 

UNITED  NATIONS   COMMISSION  ON  THE  STATUS 

OF  WOMEN   •   Statements  by  Mrs.  Lorena  B.  Hahn  ...      704 

MUNITIONS    CONTROL    AND    THE    ELECTRONICS 

INDUSTRY    •     by  Leonard  H.  Pomeroy 697 


ED  STATES 
OREIGN  POLICY 


For  index  see  inside  back  cover 


THE    DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 


Vol.  XXXVI,  No.  931  •  Publication  6486 
April  29,  1957 


For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents 

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bo  reprinted.  Citation  of  the  Department 
or  ST4TE  Bulletin  as  the  source  will  be 
appreciated. 


The  Department  of  State  BULLETIN, 
a   weekly  publication   issued  by   the 
Public  Services  Division,  provides  the 
public    and    interested    agencies    of 
the  Government  with  information  on 
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relations    and    on    the    work    of    the 
Department  of  State  and  the  Foreign 
Service.     The  BULLETIN  includes  se- 
lected press  releases  on  foreign  policy, 
issued  by  the  White  House  and  the 
Department,  and  statements  and  ad- 
dresses  made  by  the  President  and  by 
the    Secretary    of    State    and    other 
officers  of  the  Department,  as  well  as 
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tions of  the  Department.     Informa- 
tion is  included  concerning   treaties 
and     international     agreements      to 
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become  a  party  and  treaties  of  gen- 
eral internatioruil  interest. 

Publications  of  the  Department, 
United  Nations  documents,  and  legis- 
lative material  in  the  field  of  inter- 
national relations  are  listed  currently. 


Proposals  for  Substantive  Changes 
in  Mutual  Security  Legislation 


/Statement  by  Secretary  Dulles  ^ 


I  am  glad  to  respond  to  your  comroittee's  re- 
quest that  I  discuss  with  you  certain  aspects  of 
the  mutual  security  program. 

Before  dealing  with  specific  issues  I  should  like 
to  consider  the  basic  purposes  which,  I  believe, 
the  legislation  is  designed  to  serve.  These  pur- 
poses provide  the  best  guidelines  for  determining 
the  form  which  the  legislation  should  take. 

Supporting  Considerations 


The  security  and  prosperity  of  the  United  States 
are  bound  up  with  the  continued  security  and 
pi'osperity  of  other  free  nations.  Trends  in  inter- 
national political  affairs,  economic  life,  and  most 
of  all  in  military  technology  link  our  fate  ever 
more  closely  with  that  of  other  members  of  the 
free-world  community. 

Our  national  policy  must  reflect  this  funda- 
mental fact.  Unless  it  does  so,  we  shall  face  a  peril 
the  like  of  which  we  have  never  known. 

The  measures  which  we  have  been  taking  to 
avoid  that  peril  are  many;  they  are  interlocking 
and  mutually  reinforcing.  Perhaps  because  of  this 
fact  these  measures  have  become  somewhat  con- 
fusing. 

Congress  can  be  expected  to  sustain  a  continuing 
program  for  creating  security,  strength,  and  op- 
portimity  abroad  only  if  this  is  responsive  to  basic 
sentiments  of  the  American  people.    Legislation 


'  Made  before  the  Senate  Special  Committee  To  Study 
the  Foreign  Aid  Program  on  Apr.  S  (press  release  194). 


as  vital  as  this  is  to  the  welfare  of  the  American 
people  should  be  in  a  form  which  will  enable  them 
to  imderstand  it  and  to  sponsor  it  with  conviction. 

II. 

Of  all  the  purposes  served  by  government,  the 
first  is  to  provide  its  citizens  with  security.  That 
is  one  aspect,  a  major  aspect,  of  our  international 
policy.  We  seek  to  create  as  between  the  free 
nations  a  common  defense  which  will  give  greater 
security  than  could  be  obtained  by  any  one  alone. 

The  concept  of  "common  defense"'  is  not  new  to 
our  people.  Our  Nation  was  founded  primarily 
to  create  a  common  defense,  and  our  Constitution 
specifies  that  as  one  of  its  major  purposes.  The 
same  considerations  which  in  1787  led  our  States  to 
accept  the  necessity  for  a  common  defense,  today 
require  the  nations  of  the  free  world  to  seek  a  com- 
mon defense. 

International  communism  today  controls  man- 
power which  is  about  five  times  as  large  as  that 
of  the  United  States.  It  has  great  capacity  to 
create  the  most  modern  instruments  of  mass  de- 
struction. It  controls  territories  which  provide 
staging  areas  for  attack  far  more  diversified  and 
of  much  greater  total  strategic  value  than  do  ter- 
ritories under  the  sovereignty  of  the  United  States. 

Under  these  circumstances  it  would  be  folly  not 
to  strive  for  a  common  defense  with  other  free  na- 
tions. That  folly  would  permit  ever  more  man- 
power, ever  more  natural  resources,  and  ever  more 
strategic  areas  to  fall  imder  the  domination  of 
those  who  are  bitterly  hostile  to  us  and  our  free 
institutions. 


April  29,    1957 


675 


We  have  many  treaties  and  congi-essional  reso- 
lutions whicli  proclaim  that  it  would  be  dangerous 
to  the  peace  and  safety  of  the  United  States  if 
other  free  nations  succumbed  to  the  aggression  of 
international  communism.  "We  have  collective  de- 
fense treaties  with  42  other  nations,  and  the  recent 
Middle  East  resolution  authorizes  a  further  exten- 
sion of  the  area  of  common  defense. 

Upon  these  political  foundations,  we  erect  mili- 
tary defenses.  Others  contribute  much  to  those 
defenses.  But  we,  too,  must  contribute  if  the 
totality  is  to  be  adequate.  For  many  nations  can- 
not support  the  military  establishments  which,  in 
the  common  interest,  should  be  on  their  soil. 

The  collective  defense  which  the  United  States 
shares  with  other  nations  benefits  them,  but  it 
equally  benefits  us.  In  this  connection,  I  recall  the 
testimony  of  the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of 
Staff: 

.  .  .  the  military  aid  program  is  part  and  parcel  of  the 
U.S.  Defense  Department  program.  The  expenditares 
abroad  in  support  of  our  alliances  do  not  differ  in  purpose, 
scope,  or  objective  from  our  own  military  expenditures. 

It  is  the  considered  judgment  of  the  President 
and  his  military  advisers  that  the  system  of  com- 
mon defense,  for  which  our  military  assistance  is 
essential,  is  also  the  most  effective  way  to  provide 
for  United  States  defense.  To  weaken  that  sys- 
tem by  cutting  our  contribution  to  it  would  not 
involve  a  saving  to  the  United  States.  On  the 
contrary,  it  would  require  a  far  more  costly  de- 
fense program  here  at  home.  Even  then,  we 
would  be  less  secure. 

Our  Nation  accepts  military  burdens,  not  as  an 
expression  of  our  national  aspirations  but  as  an 
elemental  necessity.  I  do  not  doubt  that  the 
American  people  will  continue  to  support  the  de- 
fense aspects  of  mutual  security  because  of  that 
necessity. 

III. 

Programs  of  military  defense  alone,  however, 
cannot  assure  that  the  free  world  will  be  main- 
tained intact.  There  is  also  a  threat  to  future 
independence  and  freedom  where  moderate  lead- 
ers despair  of  being  able  to  lift  their  nation  out 
of  hopeless  poverty  and  stagnation. 

As  President  Eisenhower  said  in  his  second 
inaugural  address :  ^ 

In  too  much  of  the  earth  there  is  want,  discord,  danger. 
New  forces  and  new  nations  stir  and  strive  across  the 


"  Bulletin  of  Feb.  11,  1957,  p.  211. 


earth,  with  power  to  bring,  by  their  fate,  great  good  or 
great  evil  to  the  free  world's  future.  From  the  deserts  of 
North  Africa  to  the  islands  of  the  South  Pacific,  one-third 
of  all  mankind  has  entered  upon  an  historic  struggle  for 
a  new  freedom :  freedom  from  grinding  poverty.  Across 
all  continents  nearly  a  billion  people  seek,  sometimes  al- 
most in  desperation,  for  the  skills  and  knowledge  and  as- 
sistance by  which  they  may  satisfy,  from  their  own  re- 
sources, the  material  wants  common  to  all  mankind. 

It  is  in  our  direct  self-interest  that  these  new 
nations  should  succeed  in  the  historic  struggle  of 
which  the  President  spoke. 

Our  concern  also  stems  from  the  historic  con- 
ception of  the  American  people  as  to  the  role  of 
their  nation  in  the  world.  The  American  people 
believe  in  a  moral  law  and  that  men  and  nations 
are  bound  by  that  law.  As  George  Washington 
said  in  his  Farewell  Address,  "religion  and  moral- 
ity are  indispensable  supports''  of  our  free  gov- 
ernment. And  of  moral  and  religious  precepts, 
one  of  the  most  basic  is  the  concept  of  the  brother- 
hood of  man.  That  is  why  our  people  have  never 
even  tried  to  make  their  nation  into  an  oasis  of 
prosperity  in  a  world  desert  of  human  misery. 

Another  aspect  of  our  faith  is  belief  in  the  dig- 
nity and  worth  of  the  human  individual  every- 
where. All  men,  our  Declaration  of  Independence 
said,  are  endowed  with  inalienable  rights  to  life, 
liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness. 

That  is  why  we  hate  a  system  which  treats  men 
as  mere  bits  of  matter  to  be  made  into  the  grinding 
cogs  of  some  superstate  machine.  That  is  why 
we  crave  liberty  for  all  men  everywhere ;  and  we 
want  to  protect  liberty  where  it  is  and  to  see  it 
restored  where  it  is  lost. 

Our  founders  did  not  see  their  experiment  as  a 
purely  selfish  enterprise.  They  had  the  courage 
to  launch  their  principles  into  the  world.  What 
they  did  became  known  throughout  the  world  as 
"The  Great  American  Experiment."  Abraham 
Lincoln  said  of  our  Declaration  of  Independence 
that  it  meant 

.  .  .  liberty  not  alone  to  the  people  of  this  country  but 
hope  to  all  the  world  for  all  future  time.  It  was  that 
which  gave  promise  that  in  due  time  the  weights  would 
be  lifted  from  the  shoulders  of  all  men. 

Because  we  still  retain  that  sense  of  mission  we 
are  eager  that  other  lands  and  other  people  should 
know  the  blessings  of  liberty. 

IV. 

We  can,  I  think,  see  that  what  is  now  called  the 
mutual  security  program  is  the  expression,  under 


676 


Department  of  State  Bvlletin 


modern  conditions,  of  two  needs:  (1)  our  need 
for  a  common  defense  with  other  free  nations 
willing  to  share  with  us  the  burdens  and  benefits 
of  that  relationship;  and  (2)  the  need  to  manifest 
realistically  the  faith  with  which  our  Nation  has 
been  imbued  from  its  beginning,  a  faith  which  has 
made  our  Nation  great  in  the  best  sense  of  that 
often-abused  word. 

And  let  me  add  that  to  suppress  or  to  belittle 
the  manifestation  of  that  faith  would  serve  us  ill. 
No  society  can  long  survive  without  a  faith  which 
is  dynamic  and  creative  and  which  reaches  out  to 
others.  If  the  day  ever  comes  when  our  Nation 
is  not  responsive  to  the  lifegiving  qualities  that 
are  reflected  in  the  developmental  aspects  of  our 
program,  then  that  will  mark  the  beginning  of 
our  end. 

Applications 

I. 

I  turn  now  to  the  question  of  what  substantive 
changes  should  be  made  in  the  form  of  the  legisla- 
tion to  make  it  more  responsive  to  the  sentiments 
which  support  its  dual  purpose. 

It  seems  to  us  that  confusion  has  come  at  least 
in  part  from  lumping  together,  as  "defense  sup- 
port," all  kinds  of  economic  assistance  given  to 
countries  whose  military  programs  we  are  sup- 
porting. Such  confusion  can  be,  and  should  be, 
ended. 

Our  support  to  these  countries  takes  three  prin- 
cipal forms:  (1)  aid  in  terms  of  actual  military 
goods,  so-called  "end  items";  (2)  support  of  the 
economies  to  the  extent  required  to  enable  these 
countries  to  carry  the  economic  burden  of  armed 
forces  which  we  and  they  agi-ee  are  necessary  for 
the  common  defense;  and  then  (3)  the  economic 
development  progi'ams,  including  technical  assist- 
ance, which  we  might  be  engaged  in  irrespective  of 
our  military  ties. 

It  is  our  view  that  the  so-called  defense  sup- 
port should  hereafter  comprise  only  the  assist- 
ance required  to  meet  so  much  of  the  economic  bur- 
den of  militar3'  defense  as  the  country  cannot  it- 
self afford.  Appropriations  for  military  assist- 
ance and  for  this  redefined  category  of  defense 
support  would  then  be  authorized  on  a  continuing 
basis  and  hereafter  appropriated  annually  to  the 
President  in  appropriations  for  the  Department 
of  Defense. 

"We  believe  that  this  way  of  treating  military  as- 


sistance, which  also  is  recommended  by  many  of 
the  recent  studies  on  the  subject,  would  avoid  a 
wide  degree  of  misunderstanding  abroad  and  at 
home  by  making  apparent  the  degree  in  which  we 
wish  our  aid  to  serve  military  defense. 

II. 

I  turn  now  to  the  economic  development  aspect 
of  the  program. 

We  believe  that  all  economic  development,  in- 
cluding that  which  goes  to  countries  with  which 
we  have  common  defense,  should  be  considered  to- 
gether. We  also  believe  that  more  emphasis 
should  be  placed  on  long-term  development 
assistance. 

It  is  true  that  our  economic  aid  cannot  be  more 
than  a  marginal  addition  to  any  country's  de- 
velopment efforts.  This  addition  can,  however,  be 
significant  and  even  detennining.  It  can  break 
foreign-exchange  bottlenecks,  and  it  can  be  a  key 
factor  in  stimulating  a  country  to  a  more  effective 
development  program  of  its  own.  If  our  develop- 
ment aid  is  to  have  this  effect,  however,  we  must  do 
two  things:  (1)  break  away  from  the  cycle  of  an- 
nual authorizations  and  appropriations;  and 
(2)  eliminate  advance  allocations  by  countries. 

Economic  development  is  a  continuing  process, 
not  an  annual  event.  Present  annual  appropria- 
tions have  resulted  in  procedures  which  do  not 
allow  either  us  or  the  receiving  countries  to  make 
the  most  efficient  use  of  the  resources  which  we  are 
providing. 

The  best  way  to  achieve  this  greater  efficiency  is, 
we  believe,  the  establishment  of  an  economic  de- 
velopment fund  to  provide  assistance  through 
loans  on  terms  more  favorable  than  are  possible 
through  existing  institutions.  To  be  effective, 
such  a  fund  would  need  continuing  authority  and 
a  capital  authorization  sufficient  for  sevex-al  years, 
to  be  renewed  when  needed. 

Such  a  fund  could  extend  aid  for  specific  pro- 
grams or  i^rojects  submitted  by  applicant  coun- 
tries. Each  request  for  a  loan  from  the  fund 
should  meet  certain  criteria,  including  a  showing 
(1)  that  financing  cannot  be  obtained  from  other 
sources;  (2)  that  the  project  is  technically  feas- 
ible; (3)  that  it  gives  reasonable  promise  of  direct 
or  indirect  contribution  to  a  nation's  increased 
productivity. 

The  fund  could  usefully  join  with  such  institu- 
tions as  the  World  Bank  or  the  Export-Import 
Bank  in  financing  particular  projects.     Its  aid 


Apr\\  29,   J  957 


677 


might  thus  enable  tliese  banks  to  expand  their 
operations  by  assisting  projects  which  conld  not 
qualify  in  their  entirety  for  loans  which  these 
institutions  are  authorized  to  make.  In  order  not 
to  displace  other  sources  of  credit,  loans  from  the 
development  fund  should  be  repayable  on  a  basis 
subordinate  to  the  claims  of  the  World  Bank,  the 
Export-Import  Bank,  and  private  lending  agen- 
cies. 

To  make  development  aid  most  effective  and 
economical,  we  must  provide  it  in  a  businesslike 
way.  I  believe  that  the  procedures  outlined  above 
win  have  that  effect. 

III. 

In  addition  to  need  for  foreign-aid  military 
programs  and  loans  for  economic  development, 
there  will  undoubtedly  be  some  need  for  foreign 
financial  aid  on  a  grant  basis. 

International  communism  is  waging  against  us 
what  is  sometimes  called  a  "cold  war."  It  can 
move,  without  budget  controls  or  parliamentary 
action,  to  take  advantage  of  opportunities  such  as 
those  created  by  its  own  subversive  efforts,  by  the 
infirmities  of  free  governments  not  yet  solidly 
based,  or  by  the  misfortunes  of  nature. 

It  is  therefore  necessary  that  our  Government 
also  have  limited  discretionary  funds  so  that  we, 
and  not  international  communism  alone,  will  be 
able  to  move  decisively  in  relation  to  such  situa- 
tions. Without  that,  we  would  be  conceding  to 
despotism  an  advantage  which  could  enable  it  to 
register  great  gains. 

Already  we  have  a  special  Presidential  fund 
provided  by  section  401  of  the  act  to  meet  emergen- 
cies and  contingencies.  A  fund  for  such  purposes 
should  be  continued. 

IV. 

Technical  assistance  is  a  tested  and  extremely 
effective  way  of  enabling  other  countries  to  de- 
velop their  own  resources.  It  is  our  thought  that 
technical  assistance,  both  direct  and  through  the 
United  Nations  technical  assistance  program, 
should  be  continued  on  much  the  present  basis. 

V. 

As  to  the  administration  of  the  revised  program, 
we  have  in  mind  that  military  end-item  aid  would 
continue  to  be  administered  by  the  Department 
of  Defense  and  that  each  of  the  types  of  economic 
aid  that  I  have  described  would  continue  to  be 


administered  by  the  International  Cooperation 
Administration. 

We  do  not  believe  that  it  would  be  wise  to  trans- 
fer the  administration  of  defense  support  to  the 
Defense  Department.  This  would  require  a  waste- 
ful duplication  within  the  Defense  Department  of 
Ica's  well-established  economic  organization.  And 
it  would  divide  between  two  agencies  the  respon- 
sibility for  administering  economic  programs 
which  must,  for  the  sake  of  efficiency  and  good 
management,  be  closely  coordinated. 

We  believe  that  the  International  Cooperation 
Administration  should  be  continued  and  that  it 
should  be  continued  as  it  now  is,  namely,  a  semi- 
autonomous  agency. 

We  believe  that  all  aspects  of  our  mutual  secu- 
rity progi'am  should  be  under  the  effective  foreign- 
policy  guidance  of  the  President  and  the  Secretary 
of  State.  This  can  be  done  by  the  exercise  by 
the  President  of  his  inherent  power  to  direct  the 
executive  branch  of  government.  To  achieve  this 
result  does  not  require  throwing  into  the  Depart- 
ment of  State  heavy  operating  responsibilities. 

VI. 

I  turn  now  to  the  question  of  the  order  of  mag- 
nitude of  our  programs. 

( 1 )  Assuming  that  the  international  climate  re- 
mains as  at  present,  I  would  estimate  that  grant- 
aid  expenditures  for  military  purposes  would  need 
to  continue  for  some  years  at  a  level  close  to  the 
present.  In  some  instances  the  size  of  the  local 
forces  that  mutual  security  helps  to  support  may, 
perhaps,  be  reduced  without  undue  political  and 
inilitai-y  risks.  That  would  suggest  declining 
costs  for  us.  On  the  other  hand,  it  may  be  neces- 
sary to  reorganize  and  equip  our  allies  with  more 
modern  types  of  weapons.  This  suggests  increas- 
ing costs.  Perhaps  these  two  factors  will  roughly 
balance  each  other. 

(2)  On  the  assumption  that  economic  develop- 
ment is  hereafter  made  through  loans  and  not 
through  grants,  this  would,  I  surmise,  require  a 
development  fund  able  to  make  loans  which,  not 
for  fiscal  year  1958  but  over  the  future,  might 
come  to  reach  $750  million  a  year.  The  procedures 
we  suggest  should  permit  substantial  savings  in 
terms  of  lesser  administrative  costs  and  an  ability 
to  accomplish  more  with  less  expenditure.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  needs  may  become  more  com- 
pelling. 


678 


Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


(3)  In  addition,  there  is  the  continuing  lim- 
ited requirement,  to  which  I  have  referred,  for 
grant  aid  to  meet  contingencies  and  imperative 
needs  which  cannot  realistically  be  met  by  loans. 
Also,  of  course,  there  are  the  technical  assistance 
programs  now  running  at  about  $150  million  a 
year. 

Vll. 

In  conclusion,  I  recall  the  report  of  the  For- 
eign Relations  Committee  of  last  June  in  relation 
to  the  mutual  security  program.  The  committee 
report  said : 

.  .  .  the  next  few  years  may  be  more  diflBcult  in  some 
respects  than  the  last  few.  The  problems  are  becoming 
subtler  and  more  complex.  The  Mutual  Security  Pro- 
gram must  be  adapted  to  meet  the  new  circumstances. 

We  believe  that  the  proposals  I  have  outlined 
this  morning  are  "adapted  to  meet  the  new  cir- 
cumstances." They  are  based  upon  the  high-qual- 
ity studies  you  have  commissioned  and  those  made 
by  and  for  the  executive  branch.  Many  of  these 
agree  to  a  remarkable  extent  not  only  on  the  value 
to  us  of  our  military  and  economic  aid  to  others 
but  also  on  changes  in  the  form  of  our  mutual  se- 
curity program  which  would  make  it  more  effec- 
tive in  promoting  our  national  interests. 

We  accept  responsibility  for  our  proposals  but 
do  not  claim  sole  credit  for  them.  We  regard 
them  as  being  derived  equally  from  the  work  of 
the  Congress  and  from  the  efforts  of  the  execu- 
tive branch.  We  belisve  that  their  broad  outline 
is  sound.  We  recognize  that  there  are  various 
ways  by  which  this  outline  can  be  carried  out. 
We  invite  and  welcome  your  comments  and  fur- 
ther consultation  on  the  best  means  to  develop 
these  proposals  into  the  most  effective  instrument 
of  national  policy. 


World  Trade  Week,  1957 


A     PROCLAMATION' 

Whb:eea8  exports  and  imports  are  important  to  our 
economic  strength  and  to  the  well-being  of  our  people; 
and 

Whereas  international  commerce  in  all  its  aspects — 
trade,  travel  and  investment — is  beneficial  to  the  com- 
munity of  nations  and  conducive  to  the  establishment  of 
a  just  and  lasting  peace  in  the  world ;  and 


'  No.  3177 ;  22  Fed.  Reg.  2401. 


Whereas  our  national  trade  policy,  which  seeks  to  pro- 
mote the  continued  growth  of  mutually  profitable  world 
trade,  contributes  both  to  our  prosperity  and  to  our 
national  security : 

Now,  THEREFORE,  I,  DwiGHT  D.  BiSENHOWEE,  President 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  do  hereby  proclaim  the 
week  beginning  May  19,  1957,  as  World  Trade  Week;  and 
I  request  the  appropriate  officials  of  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment and  of  the  several  States,  Territories,  possessions, 
and  municipalities  of  the  United  States  to  cooperate  in 
the  observance  of  that  week. 

I  also  urge  business,  labor,  agricultural,  educational, 
and  civic  groups,  as  well  as  the  people  of  the  United  States 
generally,  to  observe  World  Trade  Week  with  gatherings, 
discussions,  exhibits,  ceremonies,  and  other  activities 
designed  to  promote  a  greater  awareness  of  the  importance 
of  world  trade  to  our  domestic  economy  and  to  the 
strength  of  the  free  world. 

In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and 
caused  the  Seal  of  the  United  States  of  America  to  be 
affixed. 

Done  at  the  city  of  Washington  this  eighth  day  of 

April  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  nineteen  hundred 

[seal]     and  fifty-seven,  and  of  the  Independence  of  the 

United  States  of  America  the  one  hundred  and 

eighty-first. 

/(_)  c-«-s-^ /1-tXy  CAiC-u-  A<*c>^ 

By  the  President : 

John  Foster  Dulles 
Secretary  o/  State 


Anniversary  of  Fall  of  Bataan 

Following  are  the  texts  of  messages  exchanged 
on  April  9  hy  President  Eisenhoioer  and  President 
Carlos  P.  Garcia  of  the  Philippines. 

White  House  press  release  dated  April  9 

Message  From  President  Eisenhower 

On  behalf  of  the  people  of  the  United  States,  I 
send  Bataan  Day  greetings  to  our  friends  in  the 
Philippines.  Bataan  Day  is  a  solemn  day  for  both 
nations,  for  it  is  a  time  when  we  pause  to  remember 
the  price,  and  consider  the  meaning  of  freedom. 

To  try  to  recapture  in  words  the  deeds  of  the 
men  of  Bataan  is  not  possible.  By  their  action 
they  expressed  the  true  spirit  of  freedom  better 
than  words  could  ever  do.  That  spirit  is  what  we 
commemorate  today. 

We  also  commemorate  the  comradeship  which 
has  bound  our  two  nations  together  so  strongly 
in  the  past,  and  which  continues  to  be  so  vital  in 
the  anxious  present. 


April  29,    7957 


679 


The  dangers  which  now  confront  us  are  in  a 
sense  just  as  real  as  those  that  were  faced  on 
Bataan  fifteen  years  ago.  So  we  continue  to  draw 
upon  the  spirit  of  devotion,  of  comradeship  and 
of  courage  which  is  the  noble  legacy  of  Bataan. 
DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


Message  From  the  President  of  the  Philippines 

On  this  April  9  we  are  commemorating  the 
fifteenth  anniversary  of  the  Fall  of  Bataan.  On 
behalf  of  the  jjeople  of  the  Philippines  I  send 
our  best  wishes  to  you  and  to  the  people  of  the 
United  States. 

Bataan  will  always  stand  in  our  history  as  a 
symbol  of  a  heartrending  struggle  by  the  peoples 
of  two  nations  fighting  side  by  side  for  the  com- 
mon goal  of  liberty,  freedom,  and  democracy. 

We  are  pledged  that  the  spirit  of  Bataan  shall 
not  perish  and  that  those  gallant  American  and 
Filipino  heroes  wlio  died  for  democracy  shall  not 
have  died  in  vain. 

Today  our  two  peoples  are  fighting  the  mor^ 
subtle  enemy,  Communism,  which  is  trying  to 
subvert  tlie  ideals  we  fought  for  on  Bataan. 

The  Filipino  people  know  well  the  benefits  of 
liberty  and  freedom  and  will  continue  to  fight 
with  the  great  spirit  exemplified  on  Bataan  to 
preserve  those  ideals. 

Carlos  P.  Garcia 


U.S.  and  Saudi  Arabia  Confirm 
Agreement  on  Cooperation 

DEPARTMENT  ANNOUNCEMENT 

Press  release  195  dated  April  8 

During  the  recent  visit  of  King  Saud,  the  Presi- 
dent reached  agreement  with  him  on  the  need  for 
continued  cooperation  between  Saudi  Arabia  and 
the  United  States.^  Notes  confirming  this  agree- 
ment were  signed  by  the  Deputy  Under  Secretary 
of  State  and  the  Ambassador  of  Saudi  Arabia  on 
April  2,  1957.  Projects  to  be  implemented  under 
the  agreement  are  to  be  worked  out  jointly  in 
subsequent  technical  discussions  in  Saudi  Arabia. 


The  notes  also  provide  for  a  renewal  of  the 
Dhahran  Airfield  Agreement  of  June  18,  1951,^ 
for  5  years  from  this  date  [April  2]. 

Under  the  1951  arrangement  relating  to  the 
Dhahran  Airfield,  the  United  States  agreed  to 
assist  in  the  technical  operation  of  the  airport  at 
Dhahran,  to  train  certain  air  force  personnel,  and 
to  provide  a  military  advisory  group  for  the  army. 
The  new  agreement  represents  a  refinement  and 
expansion  of  those  previous  United  States  ar- 
rangements with  Saudi  Arabia.  The  United 
States  will  provide,  during  the  next  5  years,  the 
personnel,  training  equipment,  and  some  of  the 
construction  required  for  an  air-force  training 
program,  an  augmented  army  advisory  program, 
and  a  limited  program  for  the  training  of  naval 
personnel.  In  addition,  there  will  be  certaiii  ad- 
ditional construction  designed  to  improve  civil 
aviation  facilities  at  Dhaliran  Airfield  and  an 
improvement  of  the  port  of  Dammam. 

The  United  States  has  also  agreed  to  continue 
to  sell  military  equipment  in  accordance  with  the 
exchange  of  notes  between  the  Governments  of 
Saudi  Arabia  and  the  United  States  of  June  18, 
1951. 


EXCHANGE  OF  NOTES 

Press  release  lOG  dated  April  8 

Text  of  U.S.  Note 


April  2,  1957 


^  For  text  of  joint  couiinuniquo  issued  on  Feb.  8  follow- 
ing discussions  held  by  President  Eisenhower  and  King 
Saud,  see  Bulletin  of  Feb.  25,  1957,  p.  308. 


His  Excellency 

Sheikh  Abdull^vh  Al-Kiiattal, 
Ambassador  of  Saiuli  Arabia. 

Excellency:  I  have  the  honor  to  refer  to  the 
discussions  which  have  taken  place  between  His 
Majesty  King  Saud  and  President  Eisenhower 
and  representatives  of  our  two  Governments  be- 
tween January  30  and  February  8,  1957,  concern- 
ing the  relations  between  the  two  countries  and 
their  common  interest  in  promoting  and  consoli- 
dating their  cooperation.  The  Government  of  the 
United  States  is  now  pleased  to  confirm  its  under- 
standing of  the  general  agi'eement  reached  during 
these  discussions. 

1.  The  United  States  Government  acknowledges 
the  comments  of  His  Majesty  King  Saud  to  Pres- 
ident   P^isenhower    and    recognizes    that    Saudi 


'■lUd.,  July  23,  li)r>l,  p.  150. 


680 


Department  of  Sfafe   Bulletin 


Arabia  has  a  need  to  strengthen  its  armed  forces 
for  the  purposes  of  the  defense  of  the  Kingdom, 
including  the  defense  of  the  Dhahran  Airfield. 

2.  In  this  connection,  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment will,  within  its  constitutional  processes, 
continue  its  cooperation  with  the  Kingdom  of 
Saudi  Arabia  by  providing  military  equipment  on 
a  reimbursable  basis  in  accordance  with  the  ex- 
change of  notes  between  the  two  Governments  of 
June  18, 1951,  which  provides  that  the  equipment 
shall  be  used  to  "foster  international  peace  and 
security  within  the  framework  of  the  Charter  of 
the  United  Nations."  Equipment  to  be  provided 
will  be  in  accordance  with  understandings  reached 
during  the  foregoing  mentioned  discussions.  The 
two  Governments  further  agree  that  the  equip- 
ment to  be  pi'ovided  will  be  used  by  Saudi  Arabia 
for  the  purpose  of  defending  the  independence 
and  territorial  integrity  of  Saudi  Arabia  and  for 
the  maintenance  of  internal  security.  It  is  under- 
stood that  the  two  Governments  will  arrange  ap- 
propriate terms  of  payment  for  such  equipment. 

3.  The  United  States  Government  agrees  to  pro- 
vide at  no  cost  to  the  Saudi  Arabian  Government 
certain  additional  construction  at  Dhahran  Air- 
field designed  to  improve  civil  aviation  facilities. 
The  United  States  Government  agrees  also  to  pro- 
vide a  program  of  training  for  the  Saudi  Arabian 
Air  Force,  to  augment  the  present  advisory  train- 
ing program  for  the  Saudi  Arabian  Army  and  to 
train  Naval  persomiel.  Details  of  these  services 
will  be  as  agreed. 

4.  In  the  same  spirit  and  re-asserting  the  close 
cooperation  between  the  two  countries,  the  United 
States  Government  is  pleased  to  be  able  to  con- 
tinue the  use  of  the  facilities  granted  at  the 
Dhahran  Airfield  in  accordance  with  the  Agi-ee- 
ment  of  June  18,  1951  which  is  extended  for  a 
period  of  five  years  from  the  date  of  this  exchange. 

5.  To  facilitate  and  improve  the  implementa- 
tion of  the  Dhahran  Airfield  Agreement  and  re- 
lated agreements,  the  two  Governments  agree  to 
hold  further  discussions  in  Saudi  Arabia  looking 
toward  possible  additional  understandings. 

6.  The  United  States  Government,  in  consider- 


ing the  economic  needs  of  Saudi  Arabia,  is  pre- 
pared to  assist  in  mutually  agreed  projects.  In 
this  connection,  the  expansion  of  the  Dammam 
port  will  receive  primary  consideration.  It  also 
agrees  to  the  provision  of  some  engineering  and 
technical  assistance,  as  well  as  lending  its  good 
offices  to  assist  in  establishing  credit  arrangements 
for  economic  projects.  These  matters  will  be  dis- 
cussed between  the  competent  representatives  of 
the  two  Governments  and  confirmed  by  subse- 
quent understandings. 

7.  These  foregoing  measures  will  be  undertaken 
in  accordance  with  due  legislative  processes  of 
both  countries. 

If  the  foregoing  is  acceptable  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  Saudi  Arabia,  the  Government  of  the 
United  States  agrees  that  this  note  and  Your 
Excellency's  reply  concurring  in  its  content  will 
constitute  firm  agreement  between  the  two  Gov- 
ernments. 

Accept,  Excellency,  the  assurances  of  my  highest 
consideration. 

For  the  Secretary  of  State : 

KoBERT  Murphy 

Deputy  Under  Secretary  of  State 

Text  of  Saudi  Arabian  Note 

Washington  D.  C.  Ramadan  2,  1376H. 

Corresponding  to  April  2, 1967  A.  D. 

The  Honorable 
John  Foster  Dulles 
Secretary  of  State 

Excellency  :  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  Your 
Excellency  that  I  have  received  your  note  dated 
today,  the  text  of  which  is  as  follows : 

[Here  is  repeated  the  text  of  Deputy  Under  Secretary 
Murphy's  note  of  April  2,  1957.] 

I  have  been  authorized  to  inform  Your  Ex- 
cellency that  my  Government  accepts  the  contents 
of  Your  Excellency's  foregoing  note. 

Accept,  Excellency,  the  renewed  assurances  of 
my  highest  consideration. 

Abdullah  Al-Khayyal 
Ambassador  of  Saudi  Arabia 


April  29,   1957 


681 


Report  to  the  Founder  on  Foreign  Affairs 


hy  Walter  S.  Robertson 

Assistant  Secretary  for  Far  Eastern  Affairs  ^ 


There  was  in  Japan  in  the  past  a  tradition  hon- 
ored by  the  heads  of  government  which,  for  me, 
has  a  special  appeal.  The  practice  was  for  those 
responsible  for  the  government  of  the  country  to 
repair  periodically  to  their  sacred  shrines  and 
there  report  on  the  state  of  affairs  to  the  nation's 
illustrious  dead.  The  custom  was  thought  to  pro- 
vide continuity  in  the  conduct  of  government  and 
to  keep  fresh  in  the  minds  of  officials  a  sense  of 
what  the  nation  stood  for.  The  officials  of  our 
own  Government  might  well  benefit  from  a  sim- 
ilar practice.  Perhaps  it  should  be  a  duty  of  our 
officials  to  visit  periodically  one  of  the  great 
shrines  of  the  American  past — as  I  am  doing  to- 
day— to  be  reminded  of  the  spirit  in  which  the 
extraordinary  experiment  called  the  United  States 
was  conceived. 

Were  it  not  that  I  feel  so  deeply  the  force  of 
what  Thomas  Jefferson  stood  for,  were  it  not  that 
I  wished  particularly  to  speak  with  reference  to 
what  he  stood  for,  I  shoidd  not  have  felt  it  right 
for  me  to  accept  the  outstanding  honor  of  an  in- 
vitation to  talk  to  you  at  this  place  and  on  this 
day.  As  it  is,  perhaps,  you  will  consider  what  I 
shall  say  this  morning  as  a  report  respectfully  ad- 
dressed to  your  founder  as  well  as  to  you,  on  the 
situation  in  which,  as  I  see  it,  the  Nation  finds 
itself  in  the  world  today. 

I  might  begin  with  one  of  the  lesser  reasons  why 
I  feel  so  strongly  drawn  to  Mr.  Jefferson.  He 
also  did  time  in  the  Department  of  State.  He 
served,  of  course,  as  Secretary  of  State  under 
President  Washington.  I  like  to  recall  the  words 
with  which,  among  others,  the  President  overcame 
Jefferson's  very  great  reluctance  to  take  that  of- 

'  Address  made  at  tlie  University  of  Virginia,  Char- 
lottesville, Va.,  on  Founder's  Day,  Apr.  13  (press  release 
209  dated  Apr.  12). 


fice :  "Its  duties,"  the  President  wrote,  "will  prob- 
ably be  not  quite  so  arduous  and  complicated  in 
their  execution  as  you  may  have  been  led  at  the 
first  moment  to  imagine."  I  doubt  if  Washing- 
ton's record  of  never  having  told  an  untruth  was 
ever  in  greater  jeopardy  than  wlien  he  gave  that 
reassurance.  As  head  of  the  Department  of  State, 
Jefferson  had,  it  should  be  noted,  the  support  of  a 
truly  impressive  staff  consisting  of  five  copying 
clerks,  three  at  $500  a  year  and  two  at  $800.  Nev- 
ertheless, after  4  years  of  it  he  resigned  the  office. 
In  response  to  the  President's  further  appeal  for 
him  to  remain,  he  said  of  his  decision :  "In  this 
I  am  now  immovable  by  any  consideration  what- 
ever." 

It  is  not  hard  to  know  how  he  felt.  When  he 
had  accepted  appointment  as  Secretary  of  State, 
in  which  office  he  was  to  be  rewarded  with  calumny 
and  misrepresentation,  he  had  already  devoted  20 
years  to  public  service.  Looking  back  upon  it  at 
the  time,  he  wrote :  "Public  employment  contrib- 
utes neither  to  advantage  nor  to  happiness.  It  is 
but  honorable  exile  from  one's  family  and  affairs." 
Having  for  4  years  myself  been  a  daily  witness  of 
the  burdens  upon  the  Secretary  of  State,  I  believe 
I  can  understand  something  of  the  spiritual  and 
physical  exhaustion  with  which  Jefferson  put 
down  those  burdens. 

To  me,  it  is  above  all  as  a  revolutionary  tliat 
Jeffei-son  stands  out  as  a  man  of  everlasting  sig- 
nificance for  his  Nation  and  for  mankind.  True 
revolutionaries  are  not  common.  Few  men  have 
the  hardihood  of  soul  to  be  one.  Those  whom  we 
tend  to  think  of  as  revolutionaries — doctrinaire 
fanatics  of  stormy  character  whose  bigotry  reveals 
their  essential  inhumanity — are  not  revolution- 
aries in  the  true  sense  at  all,  but  quite  the  contrai-y. 
I  like  to  compare  with  those  types  tlie  picture  of 


682 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Jefferson  at  Philadelphia  on  July  4th,  1776. 
While  the  Congress  furiously  debated  his  immor- 
tal handiwork,  the  Declaration  of  Independence — 
one  of  the  most  portentous  events  in  the  history 
of  human  liberty — Jefferson  was  engaged  in  tak- 
ing periodic  readings  on  a  thermometer  he  had 
purchased  the  day  befoi-e  for  £3.15.  A  biographer 
notes  that  he  coolly  recorded :  "July  4th,  6 :00  AM, 
68°;  9:00  AM,  7214°;  1:00  PM,  76°;  9:00  PM, 
731/2°."  In  this  picture,  we  see  the  Jefferson  who, 
without  raising  his  voice,  was  to  work  a  quiet 
revolution  in  Virginia,  eliminating  the  special 
privileges  of  a  towering  and  entrenched  aristoc- 
racy— the  Jefferson  who,  in  1800,  was  to  destroy 
the  Federalists  with  their  Alien  and  Sedition  Acts 
and  their  violent  antipathy  to  democracy,  while 
residing  quietly  at  Monticello.  We  also  see  the 
Jefferson  who,  in  his  restless  and  ever-youthful 
passion  for  learning,  for  the  truth,  did  not  con- 
sider an  interest  in  the  workings  of  a  thermometer 
unworthy  to  be  indulged  at  a  turning  point  in 
human  history.  It  is  instructive  to  try  to  imagine 
a  Hitler  or  a  Stalin  similarly  engaged  while  their 
prospects  of  power  and  a  place  in  history  were  at 
stake. 

The  history  of  mankind  is  the  history  of  free- 
dom, Benedetto  Croce  declared.  The  issue — the 
perennial,  fundamental  issue  in  human  affairs — 
was  well  understood  by  Jefferson.  "Mankind  by 
their  constitution,"  he  wrote,  "are  naturally  di- 
vided into  two  parties,  one,  those  who  fear  and 
distrust  the  people  and  wish  to  draw  all  powers 
from  them  into  the  hands  of  the  higher  classes. 
And  two,  those  who  identify  themselves  with  the 
people,  have  confidence  in  them,  cherish  and  con- 
sider them  as  the  most  honest  and  safe  although 
not  the  most  wise  depository  of  public  interests." 

There  was  never  any  question  as  to  which  side 
Jefferson  was  on.  "Sometimes  it  is  said  that  man 
can  not  be  trusted  with  the  government  of  liim- 
self,"  he  declared  in  his  first  inaugural  address 
and  asked:  "Can  he,  then,  be  triLsted  with  the 
government  of  others  ?  Or  have  we  found  angels 
in  the  forms  of  kings  to  govern  him  ?"  Many  fine 
and  striking  sentiments  have  been  uttered  by  ora- 
tors on  democracy  and  the  rights  of  the  people. 
In  what  Jefferson  wrote  and  in  his  own  life  is 
revealed  a  depth  of  awareness  that  gives  the  words 
and  example  that  have  come  down  to  us  from  him 
a  force  that  is  very  nearly  unique.  I  give  you  as  a 
witness  of  the  honesty  and  understanding  on  which 
his  political  philosophy  rested  a  simple  observa- 


tion he  introduced  casually  in  a  letter — but  an 
observation  that  we  might  well  pray  could  sink 
deep  into  the  hearts  of  men  everywhere :  "I  have 
been  [unable]  to  conceive  how  any  rational  being 
could  propose  happiness  to  himself  from  the  exer- 
cise of  power  over  others." 

Jefferson,  Enemy  of  the  "System" 

Jefferson  was  the  enemy  of  what  we  might  call 
the  "System."  There  is  one  in  every  society  and  in 
every  age:  a  conspiracy  to  corner  power,  to  de- 
prive the  generality  of  men  of  their  birthright,  to 
withhold  information  and  deny  currency  to  any 
but  the  official  version  of  the  truth.  To  be  against 
such  a  system  is  the  hallmark  of  the  true  revolu- 
tionary. To  seek  to  replace  someone  else's  system 
with  a  system  of  one's  own  is  a  commonplace,  and 
most  of  those  who  claim  the  title  of  revolutionary 
have  only  this  object  in  mind.  To  seek  the  end  of 
all  special  systems  and  of  all  restrictions  upon  the 
freedom  of  men  to  speak  their  minds  and  decide 
their  fate  for  themselves  is  much  rarer  than  it 
might  seem.  This  was,  however,  Jefferson's 
honest  aim.  He  flayed  the  conspiracy  of  mon- 
archy that  then  seemed  to  threaten  the  future  of 
mankind  much  as  totalitarianism  does  today.  He 
flayed  the  conspiracy  of  special  interests — "stock- 
jobbers," he  called  them — who  regarded  the  anti- 
democratic oligarchy  of  contemporary  Britain  as 
a  model  system  of  government.  He  opposed  the 
conspiracy  against  the  exercise  of  freedom  rep- 
resented by  tradition,  by  the  tyranny  of  the  past, 
deriding  the  doctrine  that  maintained  that  "pre- 
ceding generations  held  the  earth  more  freely 
than  we  do;  had  a  right  to  impose  laws  on  us, 
unalterable  by  ourselves  and  that  we,  in  like  man- 
ner, can  make  laws  and  impose  burdens  on  future 
generations  which  they  will  have  no  right  to  alter; 
in  fine,  that  the  earth  belongs  to  the  dead  and  not 
to  the  living."  He  was  not  afraid,  either,  to  take 
on  what  he  saw  as  the  conspiracy  of  the  clergy 
when  they  attacked  his  candidacy  with  such  vi- 
ciousness  in  the  campaign  of  1800.  Today  we  may 
thank  the  clergy  for  having  done  so,  for  the  clash 
gave  us  one  of  the  most  memorable  declarations 
in  the  history  of  freedom,  the  one  enshrined  on 
Jefferson's  monument  in  Washington:  "I  have 
sworn  upon  the  altar  of  God  eternal  hostility 
against  every  form  of  tyranny  over  the  mind  of 
man." 

Jefferson  well  knew  the  significance  for  the 


April  29,   J  957 


683 


world  of  the  American  revolution  against  the  sys- 
tem that  then  prevailed  over  the  rest  of  mankind. 
"We  are  not,"  he  said,  "acting  for  ourselves  alone 
but  for  the  whole  human  race.  The  event  of  our 
experiment  is  to  see  whether  man  can  be  trusted 
with  self-government.  The  eyes  of  suffering  hu- 
manity are  fixed  on  us  with  anxiety  as  their  only 
hope.  ..." 

I  trust  it  is  not  vainglorious  to  suggest  that  the 
eyes  of  humanity  have  been  fixed  upon  us  ever 
since,  always  with  hope,  sometimes — let  us  ad- 
mit— in  disappointment,  depending  as  we  are 
faithful  or  not  to  our  early  example.  They  are 
fixed  upon  us  today.  The  issues  that  preoccupied 
the  minds  of  Jefferson  and  his  contemporaries 
were  never  more  vibrantly  alive  than  they  are 
today.  The  paradox  of  our  strife-torn  age  is 
that,  while  the  cause  of  freedom  has  made  un- 
exampled strides  aromid  the  world  and  is  the 
currency  of  men's  hopes  everywhere,  it  has  never 
stood  in  greater  peril.  Ours  has  been  an  age  of 
revolution  and  counterrevolution.  "\Ye  might  re- 
call that  Jefferson,  familiar  enough  with  the  phe- 
nomenon of  counterrevolution,  was  also  familiar 
with  the  term.  "A  perfect  counter-revolutioner" 
is  what  he  called  PTamilton  when  the  latter  put  on 
mourning  upon  the  death  of  King  Louis  XVI. 
But  counterrevolution  today,  uniting  the  abso- 
lutism of  the  darkest  past  with  the  techniques 
and  weapons  of  the  most  advanced  science,  has 
assumed  protean  forms  that  Jefferson  never 
dreamed  of. 

But  perhaps  I  am  overstating  the  case  in  sug- 
gesting that  he  never  dreamed  of  them.  Napoleon 
Bonaparte,  the  totalitarian  of  that  time,  was  only 
too  well  known  to  Jefferson,  and  what  he  wrote 
about  Bonaparte  might  well  serve  as  an  accurate 
indictment,  particular  by  particular,  of  the  totali- 
tarians  of  our  own  time.  "He  wanted  totally  the 
sense  of  right  and  wrong,"  said  Jeff'ei-son.  "If  he 
could  consider  the  millions  of  human  lives  which 
he  had  destroyed  or  caused  to  be  destroyed,  the 
desolations  of  countries  by  plunderings,  burnings, 
and  famine,  the  destitutions  of  lawful  rulers  of 
the  world  without  the  consent  of  their  constitu- 
ents .  .  .  ,  the  cutting  up  of  establislied  societies 
of  men  and  jumbling  tliem  discordantly  together 
again  at  his  caprice,  the  demolition  of  the  fairest 
hopes  of  mankind  for  tlie  recovery  of  their  rights 
and  amelioration  of  their  conditions,  and  all  the 
numberless  train  of  his  other  enormities ;  the  man, 


I  say,  who  could  consider  all  these  as  no  crime, 
must  have  been  a  moral  monster,  against  whom 
every  hand  should  have  been  lifted  to  slay  him." 

The  Conflict  With  Totalitarianism 

For  15  yeai-s  and  more,  now,  our  counti-y  with 
its  allies  has  been  combating  by  every  practical 
means  the  aggressive  purposes  of  successive  totali- 
tarianisms— first  the  totalitarianisms  of  fascism 
and  nazism,  and  now  the  crusading,  fanatical, 
worldwide  totalitarianism  of  international  com- 
munism. To  this  end  we  have  fought  all  aroimd 
the  globe  and  American  dead  lie  today  in  countries 
most  of  our  coimtrymen  scarcely  had  heard  of 
30  years  ago.  Over  a  much  gi-eater  area  still,  the 
products  of  American  industry  and  agricultiu*e 
have  been  poured  out  to  strengthen  other  peoples 
against  the  ambitions  of  foreign  absolutisms.  For 
absolutism  has  threatened  them  and,  in  its  most 
virulent  form,  continues  to  threaten  them  today 
with  every  kind  of  weajxjn,  from  conventional 
military  forces  to  cancerous  agencies  that  work 
from  within,  exploiting  a  weakness  of  tissue  to 
proliferate  and  infect  the  entire  body  of  the  nation. 

Our  success  in  combating  totalitarianism  has 
been  mixed. 

Since,  reluctantly,  we  accepted  the  responsibil- 
ity of  a  leading  world  power  at  the  start  of  World 
War  II,  aggressive  totalitarianism  has  been 
thwarted  in  its  aims  on  a  worldwide  front.  In 
1942  Hitler  can  have  had  little  doubt  that  Europe 
was  his  and  that  with  it  the  world  balance  of 
power  must  move  inevitably  in  his  favor;  the 
Japanese  imperialists  can  have  had  little  doubt 
that  East  Asia  and  the  Western  Pacific  were 
theirs.  In  1946  the  Soviet  Union  can  have  had 
little  doubt  that  the  Connnunist  parties  would 
arise  triumphant  in  a  wrecked,  despairing,  and 
disillusioned  Europe  and  that  the  revolts  then 
brewing  against  European  rule  would  turn  in- 
evitably, in  accordance  with  doctrine,  to  the  So- 
viet advantage.  All  these  expectations  were  dis- 
appointed. The  period  through  which  we  have 
been  i)assing  has  been  made  memorable  also  by 
the  granting  of  independence  by  the  colonial 
jiowers  to  a  dozen  or  more  countries  comprising 
over  lialf  a  billion  souls.  This  has  been  an  his- 
torically unparalleled  development. 

On  the  other  hand,  we  nmst  record  that  an 
equally  impressive  roster  of  states,  long  i)roud  of 
their  independence,  have  been  enslaved  by  the 


684 


Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


forces  of  international  communism.  If  it  is  pos- 
sible to  travel  from  Morocco  and  Tunisia  across 
the  Arab  East  through  Pakistan  and  India  to  the 
new  nations  of  Southeast  Asia  and  find  scarcely 
a  country  in  which  the  principle  of  self-rule  for 
which  we  fought  in  1776  has  not  made  signal  or 
sweeping  strides,  it  is  also  true  that  there  is  no- 
where between  Eastern  Germany  and  central  Ko- 
rea an  acre  of  land  where  the  principles  of  our 
revolution — of  revolution  itself — have  not  been 
ruthlessly  suppressed. 

The  end  of  the  contest  between  freedom  and 
absolutism  is,  moreover,  by  no  means  in  sight. 
Wliile  stretching  indefijiitely  ahead  of  us  in  time, 
it  seems  also  to  have  no  limits  in  extent.  The  free 
peoples  are  cliallenged  in  every  field.  The  con- 
test is  not  one  of  military  power  alone.  It  is  a 
contest  of  economic  strength.  It  is  a  contest  of 
technological  ability  and  of  education.  It  is  a 
contest  to  determine  which  way  of  life,  all  in  all, 
is  better  equipped  for  survival,  which  will  seem 
to  offer  the  greater  promise  to  the  vast  masses  of 
mankind  who  are  only  now  emerging  from  the 
passivity  of  a  tribal  or  tradition-bound  past  to 
the  dazzling  and  bewildering  promise  of  the  20th 
century. 

Misunderstandings  About  U.S.  Policy 

It  should  be  clear  to  us  that  in  the  conflict  with 
totalitarianism  we  are  not  trying  to  force  our  kind 
of  government  on  any  other  peoples.  Indeed,  it 
is  precisely  the  principle  that  no  nation  should 
try  to  force  its  kind  of  government  on  another 
that  we  are  striving  to  establish,  and  any  inliibi- 
tion  we  ask  others  to  accept  we  are  prepared  to 
accept  ourselves.  Our  goal  is  a  world  in  which 
no  state  will  be  able  to  impose  its  will  or  its 
ideology  on  any  other. 

Another  thing  we  are  not  seeking  is  any  special 
advantage  for  ourselves  or  our  friends.  We  as- 
pire to  no  colonies  or  territorial  expansion.  "If 
there  be  one  principle  more  deeply  rooted  than 
any  other  in  the  mind  of  every  American,"  Jef- 
ferson declared,  "it  is  that  we  should  have  nothing 
to  do  with  conquest."  Despite  our  having  had 
such  opportunities  for  aggrandizement  as  can 
seldom  have  confronted  a  nation,  we  have  been 
faithful  to  Jefferson's  precept.  Despite  the  un- 
conditional victories  we  have  won  with  our  allies 
in  two  world  wars,  the  territory  under  our  flag 
today   is  substantially   smaller  than  it  was   in 


1914 — and,  surely,  we  would  have  it  no  other  way. 

The  spectacle  of  a  great  power  which  has  sacri- 
ficed hundreds  of  thousands  of  its  young  men  and 
has  drawn  unsparingly  upon  its  resources  for  the 
relief  of  other  people's  needs,  while  seeking  no 
selfish  advantage,  has  been  regarded  with  scep- 
ticism. And  why  not?  To  untold  millions  of 
men  any  government  at  alli — their  own  and  cer- 
tainly any  foreign  government — has  always  been 
an  instrument  of  exaction  and  oppression.  The 
idea  that  a  mighty  world  power  could  genuinely 
consider  that  its  interests  were  parallel  with  tliose 
of  an  undernourished,  ill-clothed  village  in  Asia 
or  Africa  has  proved  entirely  too  novel  to  some 
of  those  who  have  suffered  under  alien  rule. 
Many  of  our  actions  have  been  misconstrued  as 
evidence  of  ulterior  motives.  It  is  not  easy  to 
give  up  a  habit  of  mind,  even  if  it  stands  in  the 
way  of  hope. 

The  Communists  are  quick  to  exploit  this  sus- 
picion of  our  motives.  Their  propaganda  cease- 
lessly portrays  the  entire  fabric  of  our  conduct 
as  one  vast,  diabolically  conceived  stratagem  of 
imperialism.  They  represent  our  aid  programs 
as  being  aimed  at  the  subversion  of  others.  They 
represent  that  the  bases  we  maintain  abroad,  at 
quite  an  appalling  cost  to  the  American  taxpayer, 
are  for  the  purposes  of  aggressive  war. 

We  have  to  expect  misunderstanding  fi'om 
others,  and  it  should  not  too  greatly  disturb  us. 
What  should  disturb  us,  however,  are  any  signs 
that  some  among  us  ourselves  may  misunderstand 
what  we  are  about.  One  encounters  sometimes 
the  point  of  view  that  any  device  that  would  give 
us  an  advantage  over  the  Communists  is  quite 
proper  for  us  to  employ,  however  morally  out- 
raged we  might  be  if  it  were  employed  against  us. 
When  I  encounter  such  individuals,  I  cannot  help 
wondering  if  they  picture  the  Almighty  as  one 
who  is  concerned  not  that  right  and  truth  and 
decency  shall  prevail  but  that  the  state  of  which 
they  happen  to  be  a  citizen  shall  triumph  over 
others. 

The  danger  in  any  protracted  contest  is  that  we 
are  apt  to  lose  sight  of  what  the  contest  is  about. 
We  are  apt  to  forget  the  issue  that  gave  rise  to 
it — in  this  case  the  defense  of  freedom  against 
oppression,  of  decency  against  immorality — and 
come  to  see  it  as  a  battle  of  the  we's  against  the 
they's  in  which  the  only  important  consideration 
is  that  the  we's  win. 


AprW  29,   J  957 


685 


A  few  months  ago  on  a  crucial  issue  in  the 
United  Nations  we  found  ourselves  on  the  opposite 
side  from  two  of  our  oldest  allies.  There  was 
considerable  outcry  in  a  number  of  organs  of  pub- 
lic opinion  in  the  United  States  which  held  that 
we  were  wrong  in  the  decision  we  had  made. 
That  the  situation  was  tragic  I  would  be  the  last 
to  deny,  but  to  say  that  what  we  did  was  wrong 
is  to  misconstrue  entirely  the  nature  of  the  con- 
flict that  has  so  largely  preoccupied  us  during  the 
past  decade.  We  have  not  fought  and  toiled  to 
establish  the  rule  of  any  particular  set  of  na- 
tions in  the  world;  we  have  done  so  to  establish 
the  rule  of  certain  principles  embodied  in  the 
charter  of  the  United  Nations  which  we  believe 
are  entitled  to  universal  respect.  Any  state  that 
honors  and  defends  these  principles — the  chief  of 
which  is  that  no  nation  should  attack  another — 
is  our  ally.  Any  state  violating  them,  even  under 
painful  provocation,  will  find  us  in  opposition 
concerning  these  issues  regardless  of  how  long 
and  how  close  our  association  has  been. 

If  we  uphold  those  principles  that  commend 
themselves  to  men  of  good  will,  we  shall  never  lack 
for  allies.  We  shall  have  a  banner  to  which  the 
overwhelming  majority  of  the  human  race  is  des- 
perately eager  to  repair.  If,  on  the  contrary,  we 
make  expediency  the  criterion  of  our  policy  and 
demand  that  others  accept  our  primacy,  we  shall 
have  taken  a  long  step  toward  fulfilling  the  role  in 
which  Communist  propagandists  ever  seek  to  por- 
tray us. 

The  problems  we  face,  the  tasks  we  must  per- 
form, are  complicated  and  formidable,  and  it  will 
be  the  next  generation  rather  than  this  one,  I  sus- 
pect, that  will  see  the  end  of  them — if  the  world 
does  not  blow  up  in  our  faces  in  the  meantime. 
We  shall  have  to  deal  with  a  Communist  bloc  that 
will  have  both  the  psychological  and  the  physical 
capability  of  launching,  without  warning,  an  at- 
tack of  tremendous  force  upon  any  part  of  the 
free  world.  At  the  same  time,  we  shall  be  having 
to  deal  with  a  Communist  bloc  quite  capable  of 
acting  indefinitely  as  a  paragon  of  peaceful  intent, 
challenging  us  to  throw  down  our  arms  and  lull- 
ing into  a  false  sense  of  security  the  peoples  who 
will  have  to  endure  painful  sacrifices  if  military 
establishments  are  to  be  maintained.  In  refusing 
to  leave  ourselves  militarily  defenseless  against 
Communist  attack  we  shall  have  to  reconcile  our- 
selves to  being  branded  by  the  credulous  and  the 


short  of  memory  as  warmongers  abroad  and  as 
spendthrifts  at  home. 

That  will  not  be  the  end  of  our  dilemma.  As 
Americans  we  shall  find  that  it  will  depend  upon 
us,  more  than  upon  anyone  else,  to  keep  alive  in 
the  world  the  spirit  of  revolution— the  spirit  that 
will  never  make  peace  with  authority  or  with  any 
form  of  tyramiy  over  men's  minds.  At  the  same 
time,  it  will  depend  upon  us  more  than  upon  any- 
one else  to  stem  the  forces  of  disorder  and  poten- 
tial chaos  in  the  free  world  that  the  Communists 
are  in  a  position  recklessly  to  abet.  We  shall  not 
be  able  to  look  on  with  indifference  while  the  insti- 
tutions that  hold  societies  together  go  down  before 
rising  seas  of  discontent. 

There  will  be  no  prospect  of  human  betterment 
or  the  enhancement  of  freedom  in  a  world  given 
over  to  turmoil.  It  is  not  the  revolutionary  spirit 
or  democracy  that  is  the  heir  of  chaos ;  it  is  totali- 
tarianism. We  shall  find  ourselves  inevitably 
linked  with  regimes  with  political  standards  dif- 
ferent from  our  own.  We  are  so  linked  today. 
Let  me  point  out,  however,  that  these  regimes  are 
apt  to  be  what  they  are  because  they  have  had 
scant  chance  to  be  otherwise ;  they  have  come  into 
being  under  the  threat  of  extinction.  They  are, 
however,  no  threat  to  the  independence  of  their 
neighbors.  That,  I  would  beg  you  to  bear  in 
mind,  is  an  important  distinction.  In  this  con- 
nection, we  might  take  heed  of  something  Jeffer- 
son said :  "There  is  a  snail-paced  gait  for  the  ad- 
vance of  new  ideas  upon  the  general  mind  under 
which  we  must  acquiesce.  .  .  .  you  must  give 
[the  people]  time  for  every  step  you  take." 

Freedom  vs.  Communism 

If — and  again  I  make  this  exception — the  world 
can  avoid  nuclear  war,  which  we  believe  the  inter- 
national Communists  are  now  scarcely  more  likely 
to  welcome  than  we  are,  then  it  should  be  possible 
to  distinguish  in  some  degree  the  kind  of  world  in 
which  the  example  of  freedom  and  the  precepts  of 
communism  will  contend  in  the  future.  The  arena 
is  likely  to  be  primarily  in  these  underdeveloped 
countries  I  touched  on  earlier  in  my  remarks, 
whose  inhabitants,  nmnbering  in  the  hundreds  of 
millions,  are  only  now  being  aroused  out  of  narrow 
traditional  patterns  of  existence  by  the  explosive 
impact  of  modern  ideas.  Jefferson  foresaw  the 
changes  that  were  bound  to  come  witli  the  spread 
of  the  light  of  knowledge — or,  as  he  identified  it, 


686 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


of  the  art  of  printing.  "As  yet,"'  he  wrote,  "that 
light  has  dawned  on  the  middling  classes  only  of 
the  men  in  Europe.  The  liings  and  the  rabble,  of 
equal  ignorance,  have  not  yet  received  its  rays; 
but  it  continues  to  spread,  and  while  printing  is 
pre.served  it  can  no  more  recede  than  the  sun  re- 
turn on  his  course." 

Throughout  the  underdeveloped  world — and 
this  includes  by  far  the  largest  part  of  it — the 
"middling  classes,"  as  Jefferson  called  them,  are 
growing  in  numbers  and  importance  as  a  result  of 
the  increasing  commerce  in  goods  and  ideas  with 
the  more  advanced  countries  of  Europe  and 
xVmerica.  Composed  of  those  who  are  neither 
conspicuously  possessed  of  property  nor  conspicu- 
ously dispossessed  of  it — professional  men,  tech- 
nologists, government  officials,  factory  managers, 
labor  leaders,  writers  and  publicists,  and  military 
officers — these  classes  are  gradually  displacing 
from  the  center  of  the  stage  "the  kings  and  the 
rabble"  of  which  Jefferson  spoke.  This  is  a  proc- 
ess that  has  been  taking  place  in  our  own  country, 
where  it  is  already  far  advanced.  The  extremes 
of  society  that  Jefferson  mistrusted — the  specially 
privileged  and  the  totally  disinherited — ^have  all 
but  disappeared  among  us,  absorbed  into  the 
growing  "middling  classes."  In  the  lands  which 
heretofore  have  lain  outside  the  scope  of  20th-cen- 
tury civilization,  these  "middling  classes"  will  be 
the  arbiters  of  the  future.  And  they  will  be  cast- 
ing about  for  an  answer  to  their  problems — cast- 
ing about  fairly  desperately  probably,  in  view  of 
the  condition  in  which  most  of  them  will  find  their 
countries.  I  have  little  doubt  that  what  we  shall 
have  to  say  to  them  will  be  far  more  meaningful 
and  far  more  promising  than  anything  emanating 
from  Moscow  or  Peiping,  provided  we  remember 
what  it  is  that  America  is  all  about.  It  is  because 
of  that  belief  that  I  have  devoted  so  much  of  my 
talk  to  your  founder.  It  is  in  the  direction  of  his 
ideas,  I  am  convinced,  that  the  most  powerfid 
current  of  mankind's  aspirations  lie. 

If  we  are  steeped  in  those  ideas,  we  shall  not 


mistake  ourselves.  We  shall  not  appear  before 
the  world  in  the  guise  of  any  system  or  any  au- 
thority. Sometimes  it  seems  that  bewildered  man- 
kind seeks  to  submit  itself  to  an  authority,  to  have 
a  dogma  handed  down  to  it,  but  in  the  end  men 
turn  against  those  who  make  slaves  or  children  of 
them  and  fight  for  the  opportunity  to  be  them- 
selves, to  find  their  own  solutions.  It  should  be 
our  purpose  to  help  bring  about  the  kind  of  world 
in  wliich  that  opportmiity  will  be  theirs. 

Events  in  East  Germany,  in  Poland,  in  Hun- 
gary have  shown  that  the  most  rigorous  oppres- 
sion, the  most  preclusive  totalitarian  indoctrina- 
tion cannot  still  the  hunger  for  freedom.  Indeed, 
it  is  the  youth  of  those  countries,  who  have  known 
nothing  but  Communist  rule,  who  are  in  the  van- 
guard of  rebellion.  Despite  savage  suppression 
the  latent  forces  for  change  throughout  the  Com- 
munist world  will  continue  to  grow.  In  the 
U.S.S  R.  itself  slowly  but  surely  the  role  of  the 
"middling  classes"  will  be  steadily  enlarged.  The 
tone  of  society  in  countries  now  enslaved  by  the 
international  Communists  will  be  set  less  and  less, 
I  think,  by  all-powerful  oligarchs  and  a  dehu- 
manized peasantry  and  proletariat  and  increas- 
ingly by  the  professional  men,  the  engineers,  the 
middle-ranking  government  workers,  artists  and 
writers,  and  a  better-educated  populace  who  will 
more  and  more  demand  a  portion  of  the  things 
that  make  life  worth  living. 

The  change  has  already  begun,  and  we  are  be- 
ginning to  see  the  effects  of  it.  The  Hungarian 
youth  brutally  slaughtered  by  Soviet  tanks  in 
the  streets  of  Budapest  have  not  died  in  vain. 
"The  light  that  has  been  shed  on  mankind  .  .  . 
continues  to  spread."  Perhaps  only  one  thing 
could  be  expected  to  set  it  back.  "We  exist,"  said 
Jefferson,  "and  are  quoted,  as  standing  proofs 
that  a  government,  so  modeled  as  to  rest  contin- 
ually on  the  will  of  the  whole  society,  is  a  prac- 
ticable government.  Were  we  to  break  to  pieces, 
it  would  damp  the  hopes  and  the  efforts  of  the 
good,  and  give  triumph  to  those  of  the  bad  through 
the  whole  enslaved  world." 


April  29,   7957 


687 


The  United  Nations  and  Responsibilities  for  tiie  Future 


iy  Francis  0.  Wilcox 

Assistant  Secretary  for  International  Organization  Affairs  '■ 


I  should  like  to  direct  attention  to  the  changing 
composition  and  role  of  the  General  Assembly  of 
the  United  Nations.  It  is  not  surprising  that  our 
main  focus  should  be  on  the  General  Assembly. 
A  quick  look  at  the  events  of  the  past  decade  leaves 
us  with  the  impression  that  the  United  Nations 
today  is  a  somewhat  different  organization  from 
that  conceived  at  San  Francisco. 

In  1945  the  Security  Council  was  hopefully  ex- 
pected to  maintain  and  restore  peace.  In  this 
Council  power  and  responsibility  were  neatly  com- 
bined. However,  the  10  years  of  cold  war,  of 
sharp  differences  between  the  Soviet  orbit  and  the 
free  world,  and,  in  particular,  of  repeated  abuses 
of  the  veto  by  the  U.S.S.R.  have  pushed  the  Coun- 
cil into  a  secondary  role.  The  Council  today, 
while  still  available,  tends  to  be  most  useful  pri- 
marily in  situations  where  there  is  a  possibility 
of  East  and  West  finding  a  common  ground.  In 
other  situations  it  has  been  faced  with  increasing 
disuse. 

In  contrast,  the  role  of  the  General  Assembly 
has  outstripped  the  expectations  of  the  framers  of 
the  charter.  The  General  Assembly  was  designed 
to  be  the  less  powerful  organ.  It  was  scheduled  to 
meet  in  regular  annual  sessions.  It  could  not 
make  decisions  as  could  the  Security  Council — 
only  recommendations.  Its  main  weapon  was  dis- 
cussion and  debate.  Power  and  responsibility 
were  not  realistically  reflected  in  it — the  vote  of  a 
small  state  equaled  that  of  a  large  iwwer.  If 
increasing  disuse  has  characterized  the  Security 

'Address  made  before  the  Seventh  Annual  Public 
Forum  on  World  Affairs  of  tlie  Pittsburgh  Foreign  Policy 
Association  at  Pittsl)urgh,  Pa.,  on  Apr.  12  (press  release 
203  dated  Apr.  11). 


688 


Council,    quite    the    opposite    is    true    of    the 

Assembly. 

The  Role  of  the  General  Assembly 

If  "past  is  prologue,"  then  it  would  seem  helpful 
to  consider  the  implications  for  the  future  of  the 
enlarged  General  Assembly  and  the  greater  re- 
sponsibilities that  have  been  assumed  in  the  past 
few  years  by  this  body.  These  are  changes  which 
give  new  dimensions  to  the  United  Nations  and 
which  therefore  pose  for  its  members  new  prob- 
lems and,  I  think,  new  opportunities. 

In  the  last  year  and  a  half  the  United  Nations 
has  grown  from  60  to  81  members.  A  preponder- 
ance of  tlie  increase,  it  is  interesting  to  note,  repre- 
sents newly  sovereign  states  in  Africa,  the  Near 
East,  and  the  Far  East — commonlj'  referred  to  as 
Afro-Asia. 

In  the  last  6  months  the  General  Assembly  has 
assumed  and  discharged  unprecedented  responsi- 
bilities under  the  Uniting-for-Peace  resolution 
which  was  adopted  in  1950  following  the  Com- 
munist aggi-ession  in  Korea."  The  machinery  pro- 
vided by  this  resolution  was  used  for  the  first  time 
when  the  Security  Council  was  prevented  by  nega- 
tive votes  of  some  of  its  permanent  members  from 
dealing  with  the  crisis  in  the  Middle  East  and 
Hungary. 

The  increasingly  important  role  played  by  the 
General  Assembly  and  its  greatly  enlarged  mem- 
bership, taken  together,  are  causing  concern  to 
some  membei's  of  the  United  Nations  and  to  some 
able  students  and  critics  of  world  affairs.    Some 


'  For  text,  see  Bulletin  of  Nov.  20,  1050,  p.  823. 

Department  of  State   Bulletin 


of  our  stanch  allies  are  wondering  whether  the 
Assemblj'  can  ell'ectively  face  up  to  critical  issues 
wliicli  tlireiiten  or  break  the  peace. 

1  think  it  would  be  useful  to  review  briefly  some 
of  these  fears  and  warnings.  Perhaps  in  the 
process  we  can  form  a  judgment  as  to  whether  the 
Assembly  is  in  fact  in  danger  of  becoming  a 
Frankenstein  monster  about  ready  to  destroy  it- 
self as  some  would  have  us  believe. 

First,  the  General  Assembly,  it  is  contended,  is 
becoming  more  and  more  addicted  to  bloc  voting, 
with  loyalty  to  bloc  taking  precedence  over  any 
real  attempt  to  meet  issues  objectively  and  on  their 
merits.  This  is  regarded  as  an  irresponsible,  even 
dangerous,  development  when  a  coalition  vote  of 
over  one-third  can  be  mustered  by  tlie  Afro-Asian 
bloc  alone. 

Second,  it  is  charged  that  there  is  an  increasing 
tendency  to  water  down  resolutions  in  order  to  get 
a  two-thirds  supporting  vote  where  important  is- 
sues are  under  consideration.  This  tendency,  it  is 
contended,  is  producing  diluted  resolutions  of  lit- 
tle force  or  effect. 

Third,  the  principle  of  sovereign  equality,  un- 
der whicli  each  state  has  one  vote,  has  come  in  for 
renewed  criticism  as  giving  an  unreal  and  dis- 
torted reflection  of  the  relative  power  and  influ- 
ence of  the  several  states  in  international  affairs. 
Is  it  right,  it  is  asked,  for  a  small,  economically 
and  politically  weak  state  to  weigh  equally  in  the 
balance  with  a  large  and  strong  state  when  the 
votes  are  counted?  Does  not  this  encourage  a 
tendency  to  "gang  up"  on  the  larger  state? 

Fourth,  it  is  argued  that  the  General  Assembly 
has  a  double  standard  of  justice  and  morality — 
one  for  states  which  abide  by  its  recommendations, 
another  for  states  that  defy  them.  This  also  raises 
the  question  as  to  whether  we  are  at  fault  in  re- 
sorting to  the  United  Nations  on  issues  which  it  is 
powerless  to  resolve  and  which,  therefore,  may 
result  in  a  sense  of  frustration  or  loss  of  faith  in 
the  organization  itself. 

A  Look  at  the  Record 

These  charges  are  serious  ones  and  deserve  our 
careful  consideration.  I  believe  a  look  at  the  rec- 
ord of  the  11th  General  Assembly  will  help  us  de- 
termine their  validity.  With  regard  to  all  of 
them  I  would  like  to  make  the  general  observation 
that  they  imply  a  greater  authority  and  power 

April  29,   7957 

423590—57 3 


than  the  General  Assembly  actually  has.  The 
composition  and  role  of  the  General  Assembly 
may  be  changing,  but  its  duties  as  set  forth  in  the 
charter  remain  unchanged.  It  is  a  recommenda- 
tory body,  whose  influence  depends  on  the  volun- 
tary cooperation  of  its  members. 

Bloc  Voting 

Let  us  take  the  matter  of  bloc  voting.  The  only 
really  consistent  bloc  voting  in  the  General  Assem- 
bly— and  it  is  carried  on  with  monotonous  regu- 
larity— is  done  by  the  U.S.S.R.  and  its  satellite 
states.  This  is  a  pattern  long  established ;  it  is  not 
a  new  phenomenon.  The  fears  currently  ex- 
l^ressed  are  that  the  Afro-Asian  group  of  nations 
may,  as  a  matter  of  agreed  policy,  vote  together 
and  control  Assembly  action  on  impoi-tant  matters 
in  a  manner  contrary  to  our  interests.  This,  in 
my  opinion,  is  more  a  mathematical  possibility 
than  a  logical  exiJectation  or  certainty.  The 
mathematical  facts  are  as  follows. 

As  presently  constituted,  when  all  81  members 
are  voting,  54  votes  are  needed  for  the  Assembly 
to  act  on  matters  requiring  a  two-thirds  majority. 
If  all  the  Afro- Asian  states  were  to  combine,  they 
would  have  a  blocking  minority  of  28  votes,  suffi- 
cient to  block  action  on  matters  requiring  a  two- 
thirds  vote  and  enough  to  give  them  a  major  voice 
in  deciding  all  important  issues.  By  contrast,  in 
the  "new"Assembly,  the  Latin  American  States 
now  have  but  24  percent  of  the  vote,  non-Commu- 
nist Europe  19  percent,  the  Soviet  bloc  11  percent, 
and  the  old  British  Conunonwealth  countries  5 
percent. 

In  practice,  however,  the  Afro-Asian  gi-oup 
does  not  regularly  vote  as  a  bloc,  and,  when  it 
does,  it  is  apt  to  be  on  issues  for  which  there  is 
overwhelming  support  from  states  outside  the 
Afro- Asian  area.  Again,  I  think  we  should  look 
at  the  recoi'd  of  the  last  General  Assembly. 

Take  first  the  vote  on  the  principal  resolutions 
relating  to  the  Middle  East  crisis.  Here,  cer- 
tainly, one  might  expect  to  see  Afro-Asian  soli- 
darity. Yet  out  of  11  important  resolutions  ap- 
proved between  November  1,  1956,  and  February 
2,  1957.  this  bloc  voted  as  an  entity  on  only  2,  and 
in  both  these  cases  the  resolutions  received  total 
votes  of  74  in  favor,  2  against,  and  2  abstentions. 
Indeed,  the  general  observation  may  be  made  that 
the    Afro-Asian    group    displayed    considerable 


689 


unanimity  in  casting  affirmative  votes  on  the  reso- 
lutions which  were  adopted  by  impressive  or  over- 
whelming majorities.  In  other  words,  they  did 
not  act  as  an  irresponsible  splinter  group  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  will  of  the  majority. 

The  voting  record  on  the  Hungarian  situation 
demonstrated  less  unanimity,  although  there  was 
an  increasing  tendency  for  all  United  Nations 
members,  including  those  from  Africa  and  Asia, 
to  be  more  sharply  critical  of  brutal  Soviet  actions 
as  they  became  revealed.  On  this  issue,  it  might 
be  observed,  we  would  have  welcomed  a  solid 
Afro-Asian  bloc  vote.  But  on  only  3  out  of  10 
resolutions  were  more  than  20  Afro- Asian  votes 
cast  affirmatively,  and  these  dealt  with  the  less 
contentious  issues  of  relief  for  the  Hungarian 
refugees.  The  vote  on  the  remaining  7  resolu- 
tions reflected  wide  splits  within  the  bloc.  The 
point  I  want  to  emphasize  is  this :  the  Afro- Asian 
group  does  not  constitute  a  monolithic  bloc. 

Of  course,  there  is  a  tendency  for  states  with 
common  interests  and  problems  to  vote  together 
when  they  think  this  will  serve  those  interests. 
These  tendencies,  wherever  they  exist,  present 
problems  to  all  who  wish  to  see  international 
issues  dealt  with  on  their  merits.  At  the  same 
time,  we  should  not  exaggerate  the  extent  to  which 
such  bloc  voting  prevails  nor  should  we  exaggerate 
the  practical  consequences. 

"Watered  Down"  Resolutions 

Let  us  consider  the  record  on  the  "watering 
down"  of  resolutions.  Now  it  is  true  that  a  resolu- 
tion is  seldom  approved  in  committee  in  the  form 
in  which  it  was  first  submitted.  This  would  be  a 
remarkable  thing  not  only  for  the  General  Assem- 
bly but  for  any  political  deliberative  body.  We 
have  only  to  consider,  for  example,  the  tortuous 
course  of  a  piece  of  legislation,  or  a  simple  resolu- 
tion, in  our  own  Congress. 

This  process  of  compromise  is  certainly  a  demo- 
cratic process.  It  is  an  attempt  to  find  common 
ground  and  secure  the  widest  possible  area  of 
support.  It  is  an  essential  step  if  the  General 
Assembly  is  to  comply  with  the  charter  injunc- 
tion to  liarmonize  the  action  of  nations.  It  exer- 
cises a  moderating  influence  on  the  action  of 
states  and  places  a  premium  on  reasonable  policies 
reflecting  broad  rather  than  narrow  interests. 

A  good  example  of  the  wisdom  and  effectiveness 
of  this  process  is  the  General  Assembly's  handling 


of  the  Algerian  problem.  You  will  recall  that 
France  a  year  ago  withdrew  her  delegation  when 
Algeria  was  inscribed  on  the  agenda.  This  year, 
in  the  11th  General  Assembly,  France,  while  deny- 
ing the  Assembly's  competence,  did  not  oppose  in- 
scription. Wlien  the  matter  came  up  before  the 
Political  Committee  in  February  1957,  a  strong 
resolution  drafted  by  IS  Afro-Asian  states  was  in- 
troduced. While  this  resolution  no  doubt  ex- 
pressed the  convictions  of  the  drafters,  it  was 
obvious  from  the  beginning  that  it  could  never 
receive  the  two-thirds  vote  necessary  for  adoption. 
Actually  no  vote  was  ever  taken  on  this  resolution 
as  a  whole. 

On  February  11,  in  an  effort  to  reach  a  measure 
of  agreement,  a  milder  resolution  was  introduced 
by  Japan,  the  Philippines,  and  Thailand.  The 
following  day  a  number  of  other  powers  tried  their 
hand  at  drafting  an  acceptable  resolution.  Both 
these  resolutions  came  to  a  vote  in  committee  and 
were  adopted.  Neither,  however,  received  a  two- 
thirds  majority. 

On  February  15  the  General  Assembly  in  ple- 
nary session  heard  the  Political  Committee  report 
failure  to  secure  two-thirds  support  for  any  resol- 
ution on  Algeria.  At  this  juncture  the  powers 
which  had  fathered  the  two  resolutions  that  re- 
ceived a  simple  majority  in  committee  introduced 
in  plenary  a  moderate  compromise  resolution. 
This  resolution,  expressing  the  hope  that  a  peace- 
ful, democratic,  and  just  solution  to  the  Algerian 
problem  would  be  found  in  conformity  with  the 
principles  of  the  charter,  was  adopted  by  a  unan- 
imous vote.^  France  refrained  from  voting,  in 
keeping  with  its  position  that  the  General  Assem- 
bly is  not  competent  to  deal  with  the  Algerian 
situation. 

This  result  could  be  called,  I  suppose,  an  exam- 
ple of  a  "watered  down"  resolution.  I  believe  it 
more  accurate  to  describe  it  as  a  practical  com- 
promise arrived  at  after  exhaustive  debate  in 
which  all  sides  had  an  opportunity  to  express  their 
views.  The  debate  cleared  the  air,  and  substantive 
action  by  the  Assembly  which  would  have  ham- 
pered rather  than  promoted  a  solution  was 
avoided.  It  is  clear  from  the  unanimous  vote  that 
during  this  debate  the  states  principally  con- 
cerned had  achieved  understanding,  if  not  ap- 
proval, of  each  other's  attitudes  and  interests.    All 

•  Ibid.,  Mar.  11,  1957,  p.  421. 


690 


Department  of  Slate  Bulletin 


members  faced  the  fact  squarely  that  the  General 
Assembly  on  its  own  could  not  provide  a  solution 
to  the  Algerian  problem.  Progress,  however,  was 
possible,  and  progress  was  made  because  the  As- 
sembly acted  responsibly  in  maintaining  an  at- 
mosphere conducive  to  a  practicable  solution  in 
the  future  by  the  parties  directly  concerned. 

General  Assembly  consideration  of  the  question 
of  Cyprus  followed  very  much  the  same  pattern. 

I  believe  that  the  Assembly's  record  on  the  dis- 
armament question  was  also  an  example  of  respon- 
sible action.  Assembly  members  recognized  fully 
that  before  disarmament  can  be  achieved  the 
principal  powers  must  reach  agi-eement  through 
quiet  negotiations.  The  Assembly  was  aware  that 
the  81-nation  forum  is  not  the  right  place  to  try  to 
reach  agreement  on  highly  technical  details  in- 
volving the  security  of  many  peoples  and  many 
countries.  For  these  reasons  it  voted  unanimously 
to  refer  all  the  disarmament  proposals  before  it 
to  the  Disarmament  Commission  and  its  Sub- 
committee for  prompt,  quiet,  and  detailed  con- 
sideration.* This  is  an  excellent  example  of  the 
Assembly's  realizing  what  it  should  or  should  not 
do  in  a  given  situation. 

Of  course,  not  all  compromise  resolutions  passed 
by  the  Assembly  are  generally  regarded  as  the  best 
result  that  might  have  been  achieved.  For  exam- 
ple, a  good  many  delegations  considered  the  As- 
sembly's last  resolution  on  the  deployment  of  the 
United  Nations  Emergency  Force  in  Egypt*  as 
something  less  than  satisfactory.  It  would  ob- 
viously have  been  preferable  if  the  Assembly  had 
been  more  precise  in  defining  Unef's  role  in  the 
Gaza  Strip  or  at  the  entrance  to  the  Gulf  of  Aqaba. 
But  here,  as  in  other  cases,  the  outcome  was 
determined  by  tlie  prevailing  balance  of  interests 
in  the  Assembly,  in  this  case  by  those  who  favored 
less  precision.  Nevertheless,  the  result,  while  not 
ideal,  did  make  possible  the  effective  interposition 
of  the  Unef  between  Israeli  and  Egyptian  forces. 

Now  I  realize  that  such  halfway  measures  will 
never  satisfy  those  who  expect  the  United  Nations 
to  make  quick,  clear-cut,  and  enforceable  decisions 
based  on  agreed  concepts  of  right  and  wrong  in  a 
given  issue.  Nevertheless,  such  precise  and  com- 
plete solutions  to  problems  are  not  always  possible. 
International  issues  today  often  are  susceptible  of 
only  modest  solutions.    The  Assembly's  willing- 


'  Ibid..  Feb.  11,  1957,  p.  225,  and  Mar.  11,  1957,  p.  423. 
•  Ihid.,  Nov.  19.  1956,  p.  793. 


ness  to  face  up  to  its  limitations  as  well  as  its  ca- 
pacities in  concrete  instances  represents  a  forward 
step  toward  even  greater  responsible  action  in  the 
Assembly. 

The  Voting  Formula 

One  of  the  very  first  actions  that  a  newly  sov- 
ereign state  takes  in  the  international  field  is  to 
apply  for  admission  to  the  United  Nations. 
Membership  in  this  body  is  looked  upon  as  the 
final  stamp  of  approval  by  the  international  com- 
munity. Once  admitted,  the  new  state  is  anxious 
to  demonstrate  its  ability  to  contribute  to  the  ob- 
jectives of  the  charter  and  equally  desirous,  I 
think,  to  assert  and  maintain  its  new-found  inde- 
pendence and  sovereignty.  The  new  state  tends 
to  avoid  actions  which  would  make  it  appear  that 
its  vote  is  "in  someone  else's  pocket." 

I  believe  that,  by  and  large,  these  new  states, 
and  the  so-called  small  or  weak  states,  have  acted 
responsibly  and  in  the  common  interest.  There 
are  occasions,  of  course,  when  a  state  or  group  of 
states  advances  proposals  which  are  impossible  or 
extremely  difficult  for  the  United  Nations  to  carry 
out  and  which  place  the  major  powers  in  a  difficult 
predicament.  On  such  occasions,  in  particular, 
we  may  feel  that  the  one-state,  one-vote  foimula  is, 
in  fact,  an  inequity  and  perhaps  some  consider- 
ation should  be  given  to  weighted  voting  devices. 

But  it  is  hard  to  blame  these  states  for  using  the 
General  Assembly,  on  occasion,  as  an  opportunity 
to  make  the  major  powers  sit  up  and  take  notice. 
Sometimes,  when  the  latter  are  at  loggerheads, 
such  action  may  serve  a  decisively  constructive 
purpose. 

The  General  Assembly  is  as  near  as  the  world 
has  come  toward  the  creation  of  a  parliament  of 
nations.  As  an  international  institution  it  tends 
to  reflect  accurately  the  underlying  political,  eco- 
nomic, and  social  conditions  in  the  world.  It 
should  draw  upon,  as  does  a  democracy,  the  energy 
and  intellectual  resources  of  all  its  members.  The 
atmosphere  of  equality  which  prevails  encourages 
it  to  do  this.  We  should  also  recall  that  the  As- 
sembly, as  a  recommendatory  body,  has  built-in 
safeguards  against  the  imposition  of  the  will  of 
the  majority  on  an  opposing  minority,  even  if  this 
is  a  minority  of  one.  Its  recommendations  may  be 
disregarded. 

However,  where  the  majority  is  overwhelming 
and  the  justice  or  good  sense  of  a  proposal  is 


April  29,  1957 


691 


abundantly  evident,  opposition  or  noncompliance 
by  one  or  more  of  the  great  nations  will  be  at  the 
peril  of  turnino;  world  public  opinion  against 
them.  As  the  General  Assembly  has  grown,  this 
has  been  revealed  as  one  of  its  great  unwritten 
powers.  No  nation  can  lightly  accept  a  position 
of  defiance  to  its  limited  authority. 

The  Double  Standard 

I  would  like  to  say  a  word  now  about  the  so- 
called  "double  standard."  The  failure  of  the 
General  Assembly  to  bring  about  the  withdrawal 
of  Soviet  forces  from  Hmigary,  as  contrasted  with 
its  success  in  the  Middle  East  crisis,  has  become  a 
cause  of  concern. 

The  record  of  Assembly  action  on  these  two 
issues  does  not  support  the  charges  made  against 
it.  The  resolutions  invoked  against  the  Soviet 
Union  and  the  Hungarian  Communist  regime 
were  more  strongly  worded  than  in  the  case  of 
the  action  in  the  Middle  East.  The  Assembly 
climaxed  its  action  with  outright  condemnation  of 
the  U.S.S.R. — a  step  which  has  blasted  the  under- 
pinnings from  the  Soviet  propaganda  campaigns 
of  the  past  years."  Frustrating  United  Nations 
action  has  cost  the  Soviet  Union  dearly. 

We  must  face  the  fact  that  the  possibility  for 
such  frustration  of  United  Nations  action  was 
written  into  the  charter  when  great-power 
unanimity  was  required  for  Security  Council  de- 
cisions. It  was  hoped,  of  course,  that  unanimity 
on  questions  of  aggression  or  threats  of  aggi'ession 
would  prevail,  but  we  were  as  insistent  as  any 
other  power  in  including  this  provision.  It  is 
true  that  the  Uniting-for-Peace  resolution  em- 
powers the  General  Assembly  to  act  in  cases  where 
the  Security  Council  fails  to  act.  But  this  was  a 
resolution,  not  an  amendment  to  the  charter.  The 
fundamental  responsibilities  and  authority  of  the 
Security  Council  and  the  General  Assembly  re- 
main unchanged. 

There  are  and  there  will  remain  those  within 
the  community,  the  state,  and  world  who  attempt 
to  defy  the  law.  In  the  absence  of  enforcement 
power  or  a  "decent  respect  to  the  opinions  of  man- 
kuid,"  they  may — at  least  in  the  short  run — get 
away  with  it.  It  is  true  that  this  is  a  threat  to  the 
rule  of  law,  but  it  is  not  its  abrogation. 

The  Soviet  Union  remains  charged  by  mankind 


with  a  brutal  and  flagrant  violation  of  the  charter 
in  the  case  of  Hungary.  With  regard  to  General 
Assembly  action,  I  believe  the  cause  of  freedom 
was  served  within  the  capacity  of  that  body  to  do 
so  in  the  circumstances  and  that  the  cause  of  Soviet 
communism  was  dealt  a  serious  and  irreparable 
blow. 

I  think  we  underestimate  the  telling  and  lasting 
effect  on  governments  and  people  throughout  the 
world  of  the  long  days  and  nights  of  incisive  de- 
bate and  investigation  of  the  Hungarian  issue  by 
the  General  Assembly.  As  the  details  of  Com- 
munist ruthlessness,  cynicism,  and  falsehood  were 
revealed,  the  eyes  of  many  were  opened  for  the 
first  time  to  the  true  meaning  of  Soviet  imperial- 
ism. This  was  particularly  true  among  the  repre- 
sentatives of  states  who,  for  a  variety  of  reasons, 
have  tended  to  take  a  noncommital  or  detached 
stand,  particularly  on  issues  with  cold-war  over- 
tones. 

By  way  of  illustration,  I  would  like  to  refer  to 
an  episode  in  the  11th  General  Assembly  when  the 
Hungarian  matter  had  been  under  debate  for 
nearly  a  month.  A  resolution  of  condemnation 
of  the  Soviet  Union  was  before  the  Assembly. 
The  delegate  from  Burma  asked  for  the  platform 
and  spoke  as  follows : 

"We  have  hoped,"  he  said,  "that  the  truly  modest 
steps  proposed  by  this  General  Assembly  .  .  . 
would  have  been  unanimously  adopted.  We  ab- 
stained and  waited  during  the  week  of  2  December, 
under  the  expectation  that  surely  the  Secretary- 
General  of  the  United  Nations  would  be  agreeably 
received  in  any  member  country  at  any  time.  We 
abstained  and  waited,  while  the  Secretary-General 
told  us  that  there  was  a  chance  that  he  would  be 
received  in  Hungary  at  a  stipulated  date  within 
the  next  few  days."  Then,  in  telling  the  Assembly 
that  he  was  now  prepared  to  vote  condemnation  of 
the  U.S.S.R.,  the  Burmese  delegate  said,  "We  do 
this  to  keep  our  self-respect.  After  all  responsible 
waiting  for  action  has  passed,  we  can  do  no  less. 
There,"  he  said,  "speaking  of  Hungary,  but  for 
the  Grace  of  God  go  we."  ' 

At  the  conclusion  of  this  debate,  Burma  joined 
14  other  Afro- Asian  nations  in  condemning  So- 
viet violation  of  the  charter.  In  my  opinion,  this 
exposure  and  condemnation  of  Communist  im- 
perialism has  served  to  strengthen  the  bonds  of 


'For  text  of  the   General   Assembly's  resolution,   see 
iUd.,  Dec.  24  and  31, 1956,  p.  979. 

692 


'  U.N.  (ioc.  A/rV.  617  dated  Dec.  12. 

Department  of  State  Bulletin 


the  free  world.  It  may  well  turn  out  to  be  one  of 
the  greatest  blows  suffered  by  the  Soviet  Union 
and  the  satellite  system  in  the  past  decade.  In 
any  consideration  of  a  "double  standard"  it  must 
be  weighed  on  the  positive  side  of  General  Assem- 
bly accomplishment.  For  any  measure  that  re- 
veals the  methods  of  despotism  and  suppression 
of  freedom  serves  the  cause  both  of  the  oppressed 
and  of  the  free  who  wish  to  remain  free. 

Problems  for  the  Future 

Tn  discussing  the  changing  composition  and 
role  of  the  General  Assembly  I  have  attempted  to 
place  the  problems  encountered  in  the  light  of  our 
experience  to  date.  We  will  continue  to  have  these 
problems,  and  new  ones  will  evolve  as  the  re- 
sources within  the  General  Assembly  are  devel- 
oped. 

In  summation,  I  would  like  to  suggest  some 
guidelines  for  the  future. 

We  should  not  assume  that  there  will  be  solid 
bloc  voting  or  mechanical  majorities  in  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  except  for  the  Soviet  Union  and  its 

satellites. 

We  must  remember  that  states  generally  act  in 
what  they  conceive  to  be  their  own  best  interests. 
There  are  varying  gi-adations  of  interests  on  vari- 
ous problems.  There  is  much  in  international  in- 
tercourse that  tends  to  imify— and  as  much  which 
causes  disunity. 

We  should  keep  in  mmd  that,  when  a  two-thirds 
vote  is  required,  it  is  often  necessary  to  negotiate 
among  the  regional  groups  or  blocs  making  up  the 
Assembly.  If,  however,  we  continue  to  demon- 
strate constructive  leadership  and  do  our  utmost 
to  identify  our  interests  with  the  interests  of 
world  peace  and  of  progress,  then  I  believe  the 
General  Assembly  is  not  a  body  to  be  feared,  now 
or  in  the  future. 

In  discussing  earlier  the  question  of  weighted 
voting,  I  did  not  mean  to  close  or  dispose  of  the 
issue.  For  it  may  well  be  true  that  the  General 
Assembly  docs  have  a  voting  system  which  tends 
to  give  a  distorted  reflection  of  the  power  and  in- 
fluence in  the  world  of  the  various  members. 
However,  as  I  indicated  earlier,  there  is  evidence 
of  a  responsible  restraint  exercised  by  members 
of  the  Assembly.  This  is  due,  in  large  part,  to  an 
awareness  that  a  General  Assembly  resolution, 
when  passed,  is  still  only  a  recommendation  and 
that  its  effectiveness  depends  upon  the  degree  to 

April  29,   1957 


which  it  is  followed— particularly  by  the  stronger 
and  more  influential  powers. 

The  mere  fact  that  a  bloc  of  powers  can  muster 
a  two-thirds  vote  on  an  important  issue  does  not 
necessarily  mean  that  they  will  do  so.  I  cite  as 
a  case  in  point  the  reaction  at  the  General  Assem- 
bly to  the  question  of  the  invoking  of  sanctions 
against  Israel  for  failure  to  withdraw  her  forces. 
One  of  the  Middle  Eastern  states  had  actually 
introduced  such  a  sanctions  resolution.  It  was 
very  possible  at  the  time  that  such  a  resolution 
could  have  passed  by  a  two-thirds  majority.  But 
this  potential  majority  exercised  a  commendable 
restraint  and  caution;  they  waited  to  learn,  in 
particular,  what  the  position  of  certain  powers 
would  be  whose  support  might  be  decisive.  As 
it  turned  out,  the  resolution  was  never  brought  to 
a  vote  and  Israeli  forces  were  eventually 
withdrawn. 

Such  responsible  action  is  an  example  of  the 
General  Assembly's  being  used  as  an  instrument 
through  which  our  interdependent  world  realizes 
and  accepts  its  interdependence. 

The  more  influential  states  must  recognize  that 
power  and  responsibility  go  hand  in  hand  and  that 
their  positions  of  leadership  cannot  be  taken  for 
<n-anted.  The  less  influential  states  should  take 
care  not  to  impair  or  destroy  by  their  actions  the 
usefulness  of  the  organization  that  protects  them 
and  gives  them  an  equal  voice  in  the  councils  of 
nations. 

The  United  Nations  should  be  recognized  for 
what  it  is,  an  aid  to  progress  toward  a  more  peace- 
ful world.  It  is  complementary  to  traditional 
diplomacy,  not  a  substitute  for  it  or  for  responsible 
international  conduct.  It  is  not  a  political  Univac, 
where  you  feed  the  problems  in  one  side  and  take 
the  answers  out  the  other. 

In  this  connection  we  have  often  recognized  that 
there  are  certain  international  problems  that  can 
be  more  effectively  handled  outside  the  context  of 
the  United  Nations.  We  have  also  recognized  that 
we  can  never  use  the  United  Nations  as  a  substitute 
for  bold,  imaginative,  and  realistic  foreign  policies 
and  programs  of  our  own— that  we  must  continue 
to  pursue  many  of  our  national  interests  and  ob- 
jectives through  various  regional  arrangements 
and  bilateral  relationships. 

I  think  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  United  Na- 
tions must  develop  more  effective  pressures  to  get 
members  to  abide  by  its  decisions  and  recom- 

693 


mendations  where  threats  to  the  peace  are  in- 
volved. In  this  connection,  I  believe  the  creation 
and  use  of  the  United  Nations  Emergency  Force 
is  an  important  step  in  the  evolution  of  voluntary 
peace-enforcing  devices.  The  experience  gained 
through  this  current  experiment  may  prove  in- 
valuable in  the  future. 

I  look  to  the  future  of  the  United  Nations,  and 
of  the  role  of  the  General  Assembly  in  it,  with 
optimism.  It  has  recently  faced  crucial  issues  and 
has  emerged  a  stronger  and  in  some  ways  a  more 
mature  organization.  We  and  the  other  member 
states  will  be  called  upon  to  assess  its  limitations 
and  exploit  its  resources  if  it  is  to  discharge  well 
the  purposes  for  which  it  was  founded.  The 
United  States  will  continue  to  contribute  its  full 
measure  of  support  to  this  end. 


U.S.  Replies  to  Canadian  Note 
Regarding  E.  H.  Norman 

Press  release  201  dated  AprU  10 

FoUowing  is  an  exchange  of  notes  between  the 
Can/idian  Embassy  and  the  Department  of  State 
concerning  references  made  to  E.  H.  Norman^  the 
late  Canadian  Ambassador  to  Egypt,  dwimg  the 
hearings  of  the  Senate  Internal  Security 
Subconvmittee} 

Text  of  U.S.  Note 

April  10,  1957 

Excellency  :  I  have  the  honor  to  refer  to  your 
note  No.  155  of  March  18,  1957  protesting,  on  be- 
half of  the  Canadian  Government,  against  certain 
references  to  Mr.  E.  H.  Norman,  the  late  Canadian 
Ambassador  to  Egypt,  which  were  made  during 
hearings  of  the  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcom- 
mittee and  which  were  later  made  public. 

I  should  like,  at  the  outset,  to  express  to  the 
Canadian  Government  and  to  Mrs.  Norman  my 
sincere  condolences  and  those  of  my  colleagues 
over  the  death  of  Ambassador  Norman  in  Cairo. 

As  for  the  substance  of  your  note,  I  wish  to  as- 
sure you  that  any  derogatory  information  de- 
veloped during  hearings  of  the  Subcommittee  was 
introduced  into  the  record  by  the  Subcommittee 


'  For  a  Department  announcement  concerning  earlier 
discussions  between  tlie  Canadian  Embassy  and  the  De- 
partment, see  Bulletin  of  Apr.  1,  1957,  p.  539. 


on  its  own  responsibility.  As  you  are  aware,  un- 
der our  system  of  government,  the  Executive 
Branch  has  no  jurisdiction  over  views  or  opinions 
expressed  by  Members  or  Committees  of  the 
United  States  Congress.  The  investigation  being 
undertaken  by  the  Subcommittee  lies  entirely 
within  the  control  of  the  Subcommittee. 

It  is  the  earnest  desire  of  my  government  to 
continue  to  maintain  the  friendliest  relations  with 
the  Government  of  Canada  and  it  deplores  any 
development  from  any  sources  either  American 
or  Canadian  which  might  adversely  affect  those 
relations. 

Accept,  Excellency,  the  renewed  assurances  of 
my  highest  consideration. 

Christian  A.  Herter 

Acting  Secretary  of  State 
of  the  United  States  of  America 

His  Excellency 
A.  D.  P.  Heeney, 

Ambassador  of  Canada. 

Text  of  Canadian  Note 

No.  155  Washington,  D.  C,  March  18, 1957. 

Sir,  I  am  instructed  by  my  Government  to  bring 
to  the  attention  of  the  United  States  Government 
the  allegations  of  disloyalty  which  have  been  made 
in  the  United  States  against  Mr.  E.  H.  Norman, 
the  Canadian  Ambassador  to  Egypt,  a  high  and 
trusted  representative  of  the  Canadian  Govern- 
ment. The  irresponsible  allegations  to  which  I 
refer,  and  which  in  any  event  would  concern  mat- 
ters to  be  dealt  with  by  the  Canadian  Government 
and  not  by  a  Subcommittee  of  the  United  States 
Senate,  were  contained  in  the  textual  record  of 
the  Internal  Security  Subcommittee,  of  the  Sen- 
ate Committee  on  the  Judiciary,  which  was  offi- 
cially released  by  that  body  to  the  press  in  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  at  4 :30  p.  m.  on  March  14. 

I  am  instructed  to  protest  in  the  strongest  terms 
the  action  taken  by  an  official  body  of  the  Ivegis- 
lative  Branch  of  the  United  States  Government 
in  making  and  publishing  allegations  about  a 
Canadian  official.  This  procedure  is  both  surpris- 
ing and  disturbing  because  it  was  done  without 
the  United  States  Government  consulting  or  even 
informing  the  Canadian  Goverimient  and  with- 
out taking  account  of  relevant  public  statements 
made  earlier  by  the  Canadian  Government. 

The  Canadian  Government  examined  similar 


694 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


allegations  as  long  ago  as  1951,  and  as  the  result  of 
an  exhaustive  security  enquiry  the  full  contidence 
of  tlie  Canadian  Government  in  Mr.  Norman's 
loyalty  and  integrity  has  been  contirmed  in  all 
respects.  The  conclusions  of  the  Canadian  Gov- 
ernment were  made  public  at  that  time  and  must 
have  been  known  to  the  Subconnnittee  particularly 
as  the  State  Department  was  requested  at  the  time 
and  again  on  December  11,  1952  to  draw  them  to 
their  attention.  T  am  attaching  the  texts  of  two 
statements  made  by  the  Canadian  Government  on 
this  matter  in  1951. 

The  repetition  of  such  irresponsible  allegations 
in  the  Subcommittee  and  the  publication  on  the 
authority  of  this  official  body  of  a  record  contain- 
ing such  allegations  is  the  kind  of  action  which  is 
inconsistent  with  the  long-standing  and  friendly 
cooperation  characterizing  relations  between  our 
two  countries. 

Accept,  Sir,  the  renewed  assurances  of  my  high- 
est consideration. 

A.  D.  P.  Heeney 

The  Honourable  John  Foster  Dulles, 
Secretaty  of  State  of  the  United  States, 
Washington,  B.C. 

Annex  1 

Following  is  text  of  press  release  issued  by  the 
Department  of  External  Affairs  on  August  9, 
1951: 

"Mr.  Norman  was  subject  to  the  normal  security  in- 
vestigation by  the  appropriate  authorities  of  the  Ca- 
nadian Government,  according  to  rules  laid  down  which 
apply  to  all  members  of  the  Department  of  External 
Affairs. 

"Subsequently,  reports  reached  the  Department  which 
reflected  on  Mr.  Norman's  loyalty  and  alleged  previous 
association  with  the  Communist  Party.  These  reports 
were  very  carefully  and  fully  investigated  by  the  security 
authorities  of  the  Government,  as  a  result  of  which  Mr. 
Norman  was  given  a  clean  bill  of  health,  and  he  therefore 
remains  a  trusted  and  valuable  official  of  the  Department." 

Annex  H 
Following  is  the  text  of  a  statement  made  in 
Ottawa  on  August  16,  1951  by  the  Secretary  of 
State  for  External  Affairs,  Mr.  Pearson : 

"Immediately  on  receipt  of  a  news  report  on  Thursday 
last,  confirmed  shortly  afterwards  by  our  Embassy  in 
Washington,  that  the  name  of  a  Canadian  official  had 
been  mentioned  in  the  hearings  of  a  U.S.  Sub-Committee 
on  Internal  Security,  the  verbatim  record  of  those  hear- 
ings was  requested.  It  was  impossible  to  get  that  ver- 
batim record  until  Monday  afternoon.  After  examining 
this  record,  a  message  was  immediately  sent  to  our  Em- 

t<pt\\  29,   1957 


bassy  in  Washington  requesting  them  to  inform  the  State 
Department  of  our  surprise  that  the  name  of  a  highly 
respected  and  trusted  senior  official  of  the  Canadian  Gov- 
ernment had  lieen  mentioned  in  a  way  which  could  not  fail 
to  prejudice  his  iwsltion. 

"We  emphasized  our  complete  confidence  in  Mr.  Norman 
and  requested  that  the  Congressional  Sub-Committee  be 
informed  of  this  fact,  and  of  our  regret  and  annoyance 
that  his  name  had  been  dragged  into  their  hearings  by 
tlieir  Coun.sel  on  the  basis  of  an  unimpressive  and  un- 
substantiated  allegation  by  a  former  Communist. 

"We  expressed  the  hope  that  the  Committee  would  in- 
struct their  Counsel  to  act  differently  in  future  in  matters 
which  concerned  officials  of  this  Government,  adding  that 
we  expect  that  if  in  investigations  by  committees  of  this 
liind  in  Washington,  names  of  Canadian  officials  appeared, 
that  these  names  should  not  be  made  public  but  that  the 
normal  practice  should  be  followed  of  sending  them  to 
the  Canadian  Government  through  normal  diplomatic 
channels.  The  allegations  made  could  then  be  investi- 
gated here  and  the  results  of  the  investigation  given  to 
all  those  concerned. 

"We  have  our  own  methods  of  security  investigation  in 
Dttawa,  which  may  not  be  the  same  as  those  employed 
in  Washington,  but  which  we  consider  to  be  both  fair 
and  effective." 


U.S.-Canada  Joint  Commission 
Holds  Executive  Session 

The  International  Joint  Commission  (U.S.- 
Canada) announced  at  Washington  on  April  5 
the  completion  of  a  3-day  executive  meeting.  The 
Commission,  which  was  created  to  implement  the 
Boimdary  Waters  Treaty  of  1909,  consists  of  three 
Commissioners  from  the  United  States  and  three 
from  Canada.  The  present  chairmen  are  Len 
Jordan  for  the  United  States  and  Gen.  A.  G.  L. 
McNaughton  for  Canada.  The  Commission  deals 
with  problems  mvolving  the  use  of  waters  which 
flow  along  or  across  the  U.S.-Canadian  boundary, 
the  longest  in  the  world,  and  other  questions  which 
the  Governments  of  the  two  comitries  refer  to  it 
for  joint  study  and  report. 

At  this  meeting  the  Commission  received  prog- 
ress reports  from  the  various  international  engi- 
neering boards  and  technical  advisory  boards 
which  it  has  established  to  advise  it  on  specific 
matters  and  mapped  the  course  of  its  future  oper- 
ations. 

The  remedial  works  at  Niagara  Falls,  designed 
and  constructed  under  the  supervision  of  the  Com- 
mission, will  likely  be  completed  within  the  next  2 
or  3  months.    The  remedial  works  will  preserve 

695 


and  enhance  the  beauty  of  the  falls,  the  crest  of 
which  has  been  erodmg  at  an  alarming  rate  for 
many  years,  and  will  at  the  same  time  permit  the 
generation  of  increased  amounts  of  hydro  power 
on  both  sides  of  the  river.  It  was  learned  also 
that  the  final  cost  of  the  works  will  be  substan- 
tially less  than  the  original  estimate  of  some  $17 
million  which  was  announced  4  years  ago.  An  in- 
ternational ceremony  to  mark  completion  of  the 
project  will  be  held  at  Niagara  Falls  in  Septem- 
ber.^ 

In  its  report  of  1954  to  the  Governments  of  Can- 
ada and  the  United  States  concerning  hydroelec- 
tric developments  in  the  Saint  John  Kiver  Basin, 
the  Commission  recommended  that  for  greater  ef- 
ficiency the  New  Brunswick  Electric  Power  Com- 
mission system  and  the  Maine  Public  Service  Com- 
pany's system  should  be  interconnected.  Under 
the  provisions  of  the  Fernald  Act  the  export  of 
hj'droelectric  power  from  the  State  of  Maine  was 
prohibited.  This  law  has  now  been  repealed  by 
the  Legislature  of  that  State,  and  the  Canadian 
authorities  have  reciprocated  by  authorizing  the 
construction  of  the  necessary  transmission  facili- 
ties and  the  exportation  of  surplus  New  Bruns- 
wick power  to  the  State  of  Maine,  thus  clearing 
the  way  for  interconnection  of  the  two  systems,  as 
recommended  by  the  Ijc. 

Investigation  of  the  international  tidal  power 
potential  of  Passamaquoddy  Bay,  on  the  Maine- 
New  Brunswick  border,  is  proceeding  on  schedule 
and  field  operations  will  begin  in  earnest  in  a  few 
days  as  the  necessary  equipment  arrives  on  the 
scene.^  A  comprehensive  investigation  to  deter- 
mine the  eifect  which  the  project  would  have  on 
the  important  fishing  industry  of  the  area  is  being 
carried  out  simultaneously  by  fisheries  experts  of 
both  countries.  The  Commission  will  visit  the 
area  at  the  end  of  June. 

Maj.  Gen.  Emerson  C.  Itschner,  Chief  of  Engi- 
neers, United  States  Army  Corps  of  Engineers, 
and  U.S.  chairman  of  the  International  Columbia 
River  Engineering  Board,  presented  that  Board's 
26th  progress  report  to  the  Ijc.  Engineering 
aspects  of  the  Board's  final  report,  which  is  now 
nearing  completion,  were  discussed  with  the  Com- 
mission.   The  chairman  of  the  U.S.  Section  of 


'  For  text  of  agreement  on  payment  of  expenditures  on 
remedial  works  at  Niagara  Falls,  see  Bulletin  of  Oct.  18, 
ID.'H,  p.  588. 

'  For  background,  see  ibid.,  Auk.  20,  1956,  p.  322. 


the  Commission  presented  a  chronology  of  the 
U.S.  Government's  two  applications  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  dam  and  reservoir  on  the  Kootenai 
River  ^  near  Libby,  Mont.,  and  mquired  as  to  the 
status  of  Canadian  studies  on  possible  diversion  of 
part  of  the  river's  flow  to  the  Columbia  River  at 
Canal  Flats,  British  Columbia.  He  pointed  out 
the  urgent  need  for  flood  control  on  this  river  and 
the  other  benefits  which  would  accrue  from  this 
project  and  requested  that  definitive  action  be 
taken  with  respect  to  the  present  application  at  an 
early  date.  The  chairman  of  the  Canadian  Sec- 
tion advised  that  studies  on  the  use  of  waters  of 
the  Kootenay  and  Columbia  in  Canada,  including 
the  diversion  of  these  waters,  are  now  well  ad- 
vanced and  that  the  conclusions  reached  by  the 
authorities  concerned  would  be  announced  when 
available.  He  said,  meanwhile,  consideration 
would  be  given  to  observations  made  by  the  chair- 
man of  the  U.S.  Section  and  a  reply  would  be 
presented  shortly. 

Following  presentation  of  the  progress  reports 
of  the  International  Souris-Red  Rivers  Enguieer- 
ing  Board  and  Souris  River  Board  of  Control, 
alternative  proposals  for  the  apportionment  of  the 
waters  of  the  Souris  River,  as  between  the  Prov- 
inces of  Saskatchewan  and  Manitoba  and  the  State 
of  North  Dakota,  were  discussed  by  the  Com- 
mission. 

The  Technical  Advisory  Board's  report  to  the 
Commission  indicated  that  steady  progi'ess  is 
being  made  by  municipalities  and  mdustries  along 
the  connecting  chamiels  of  the  Great  Lakes  in  the 
campaign  to  eliminate  pollution  of  these  waters. 
With  a  view  to  overcoming  the  problem  of  pollu- 
tion discharged  from  ships  plying  these  waters, 
the  Commission  plans  to  hold  a  public  hearing  in 
the  fall,  at  which  the  shipping  interests  and  all 
afl'ected  parties  will  be  given  an  opportunity  to  be 
heard. 

The  Technical  Advisory  Board  on  Air  Pollution 
reported  continued  improvement  in  the  smoke 
emission  performance  of  ships  plying  the  Detroit 
River  during  1956.  The  Commission  authorized 
the  continuation  of  its  voluntary  control  program 
for  the  abatement  of  vessel  smoke  on  the  Detroit 
River  for  the  1957  navigation  season.  The 
Board's  final  report  to  the  Commission  is  now  in 
the  course  of  preparation  and  tentative  findings 

"  Spelled  Kootenai  in  tlie  United  States,  Kootenay  in 
Canada.  For  backKrouuU,  see  ibid.,  .Tune  7,  195-1,  p.  878, 
and  Dee.  12,  1955,  p.  980. 


696 


DeparfmenI  of  State  Bulletin 


and  recommendations  were  discussed  -witli  the 
Conmiission. 

The  International  Lake  Ontario  Board  of  En- 
gineers and  the  International  St.  Lawrence  Board 
of  Control  submitted  reports  on  the  progress  of 
studies  on  the  regulation  of  the  levels  of  Lake 
Ontario.  Gail  Hathaway,  former  special  assist- 
ant to  the  Chief  of  Engineers,  submitted  his  res- 
ignation as  U.S.  member  of  the  International 
Lake  Ontario  Board  of  Engineers.  The  Com- 
mission expressed  its  gratitude  to  Mr.  Hathaway 


for  his  valuable  and  devoted  services  since  the  in- 
ception of  the  Board. 

The  Commission  considered  the  terms  of  a  sup- 
plementary order  which  it  will  issue  with  respei;t 
to  regulation  of  the  levels  of  the  Namakan  Chain 
of  Lakes  on  the  Minnesota-Ontario  boundary.  A 
public  hearing  was  held  at  International  Falls, 
Minn.,  last  year,  at  which  interested  parties  were 
heard  regarding  the  recommendations  of  the  In- 
ternational Eainy  Lake  Board  of  Control  in  this 
i-espect. 


Munitions  Control  and  the  Electronics  Industry 


hy  Leonard  H.  Pomeroy 

Chief,  Compliance  Branch,  Office  of  Munitions  Control  ^ 


Today  I  would  like  to  tell  you  something  about 
the  State  Department's  responsibility  for  exercis- 
ing control  over  the  traffic  in  arms  with  specific 
reference  to  the  field  of  electronics. 

For  many  years  the  control  over  the  interna- 
tional traffic  in  arms  has,  in  one  form  or  another, 
been  a  function  of  the  Department  of  State.  It 
has  been  applied,  of  course,  in  an  effort  to  further 
both  world  peace  and  national  security.  'Wlien 
we  deal  with  arms  and  implements  of  war,  we  are 
not  dealing  with  ordinary  commodities  that  figure 
in  world  trade,  such  as  cotton,  wheat,  automobiles, 
and  the  like.  Instead  we  are  dealing  with  lethal 
items  designed  primarily  to  kill  or  incapacitate. 
Thus  the  need  to  exercise  close  supervision  over  the 
international  movement  of  arms  becomes  readily 
apparent. 

There  is  nothing  recent  about  the  traffic  in  arms 
as  an  international  problem.  It  presented  a  prob- 
lem to  the  American  colonists  when  they  were 
fighting  the  Indians— Indians  armed  with  foreign- 
made  gims.    It  presented  a  problem  when  the 

'  Address  made  before  the  Radio-Electronics-Television 
Manufacturers  Association  at  Washington,  D.  C,  on  Mar. 
13. 


pirates  of  the  Barbary  states  were  defying  the 
great  powers  of  Europe  in  the  Mediterranean  Sea. 
But  it  is  only  in  the  20th  century  that  the  traffic-in- 
arms problem  has  really  become  a  control  problem, 
and  that  is  largely  because  of  our  modern  mass- 
production  techniques,  the  development  of  new 
weapons  of  warfare,  more  rapid  means  of  trans- 
portation and  communication,  and  our  present- 
day,  complex  international  political  institutions. 
The  development  of  new  weapons  of  warfare  and 
new  techniques  of  warfare  in  the  20th  century  has 
made  arms-traffic  control  a  really  important  ele- 
ment in  considerations  which  are  demanding  the 
attention  of  the  Department  of  State  in  the  con- 
duct of  our  foreign  relations. 

Beginning  in  1905,  a  policy  of  applying  restric- 
tions on  arms  exports,  so  as  to  strengthen  recog- 
nized governments,  discourage  revolutions,  and 
maintain  order  and  stability  in  Latin  America  and 
elsewhere  in  the  world,  was  adopted  by  the  United 
States  Government.  This  policy  was  applied 
again  and  again  near  the  beginning  of  the  century 
in  the  cases  of  Mexico,  Cuba,  Honduras,  Nica- 
ragua, and  Brazil  and  was  the  basis  for  the  action 
taken  in  cooperation  with  other  world  powers  in 


April  29,  1957 


697 


the  case  of  China  in  1919.  The  Government  did 
not  exercise  a  formal  licensing  control  in  those 
days,  but  restrictions  were  imposed  by  a  Presiden- 
tial proclamation  whenever  the  outbreak  of  civil 
strife  seemed  to  warrant  such  action.  In  that  early 
period  the  only  statutory  sanction  was  the  Joint 
Eesolution  of  Congress  of  April  22,  1898,  a  Span- 
ish-American War  measure  to  prevent  the  ship- 
ment of  coal  and  contraband  to  Spain. 

The  United  States  cooperated  with  the  other 
major  powers  of  the  world  after  the  First  World 
War  in  seeking  to  prevent  the  vast  surpluses  of 
arms  left  over  after  that  war  from  being  sold  to 
revolutionists.  It  participated  in  the  conventions 
of  St.  Germain  of  1919  =  and  of  Geneva  of  1925.= 
Those  conventions  developed  a  code  for  the  inter- 
national supervision  of  the  traffic  in  arms. 

In  the  1930's  this  country  took  a  leading  part  in 
promoting  international  disarmament  and  arms- 
traffic  control  measures,  and  a  formal  national  ex- 
port and  import  licensing  system  was  incorpo- 
rated in  the  Neutrality  Act  of  1935. 

The  Second  World  War  brought  about  a  repeti- 
tion on  a  larger  scale  of  the  surplus  problem  which 
characterized  the  period  following  World  War  I 
and  also  brought  with  it  a  complex  series  of  new 
situations.  During  the  war  a  further  vast  ad- 
vance in  technological  developments  had  taken 
place  which,  of  course,  added  to  the  complexity  of 
the  control  problem.  Following  the  war  there 
was  a  series  of  uprisings  in  various  parts  of  the 
world,  particularly  against  colonial  authorities. 
Also  in  the  period  following  World  War  II,  the  so- 
called  cold  war  between  the  Communist  bloc  and 
the  Western  nations  lias  given  rise  to  a  new  polit- 
ical situation  and  has  resulted  in  an  embargo  on 
trading  with  the  Soviet  bloc  in  militarily  strategic 
commodities,  as  well  as  in  United  States  Munitions 
List  articles.  All  of  these  factors  have  made  the 
control  problem  of  today  more  complex  and  more 
important  to  our  national  security. 

In  1954  the  most  recent  export  control  law  was 
included  in  the  Mutual  Security  Act  of  that  year. 
Section  414  of  that  act  states  that  the  President  is 
authorized  to  control,  in  furtherance  of  world 


'  Convention  for  the  Control  of  the  Trade  In  Arms  and 
Ammunition,  signed  Sept.  10,  1919;  for  text,  see  Foreign 
Relations  of  the  United  States,  1920,  vol.  I,  p.  180. 

'  Convention  for  the  Supervision  of  the  International 
Trade  in  Arms  and  Ammunition  and  in  Implements  of 
War,  signed  June  17,  1925;  for  text,  see  ibid.,  1925,  vol. 
I,  p.  01. 


peace  and  the  security  and  foreign  policy  of  the 
United  States,  the  import  and  export  of  arms, 
ammunition,  and  implements  of  war — a  function 
which  the  President,  by  Executive  order,  has  dele- 
gated to  the  Department  of  State.  The  jurisdic- 
tion of  the  Department  of  State  in  this  field  is  fur- 
ther defined  by  the  United  States  Munitions  List, 
which  designates  those  articles  which  are  covered 
by  the  term  "arms,  ammunition,  and  implements 
of  war."  The  Departments  of  State  and  Defense, 
incidentally,  have  concurrent  jurisdiction  in  carry- 
ing out  tlie  function  of  designating  articles  for  in- 
clusion on  that  list. 

Electronics  Equipment  on  U.S.  Munitions  List 

There  are  some  eight  types  of  articles  on  the 
United  States  Munitions  List  which  come  under 
the  general  description  of  electronics  equipment 
and  which  I  will  briefly  review : 

1.  Control  mechanisms  and  control  systems  for 
guided  missiles  and  pilotless  aircraft.  This  is  a 
category  of  items  which  shows  the  modern  mili- 
tary adaptations  of  electronics  equipment. 

2.  Fire-control  and  gun-tracking  equipment. 
Up-to-date  fire-control  equipment  is  most  impor- 
tant in  the  operational  use  of  both  land-  and  ship- 
based  artillery.  Gun-tracking  equipment  is  usu- 
ally a  piece  of  radar  equipment  which  controls 
antiaircraft  guns  and  keeps  them  continuously 
pointed  at  a  target. 

3.  Radar  of  all  types,  including  guidance  sys- 
tems and  airborne  or  ground  equipment  therefor. 
The  "master  and  slave  station"  technique  which 
is  employed  in  the  case  of  guidance  systems  pro- 
vides for  the  remote  control  of  aircraft,  missiles, 
vehicles,  or  watercraft  by  the  use  of  the  electronic 
beam. 

4.  Electronic  countermeasure  and  janaming 
equipment.  The  importance  of  this  type  of  equip- 
ment in  thwarting  free-world  broadcasts  to  the 
East  is  well  known. 

5.  Military  underwater  sound  equipment. 
Sonar  and  all  types  of  marine  radar  are  considered 
militarily  important,  and  therefore  such  articles 
are  under  the  State  Department's  export  and  im- 
port licensing  jurisdiction. 

6.  Electronic  navigational  aids  specially  de- 
signed for  military  use,  such  as  radio  direction- 
finding  equipment. 

7.  Radio  distance-measuring  systems,  such  as 
Shoran,  and  hyperbolic  grid   systems,  such  as 


698 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Raydist,  Loran.  and  Decca,  providing  a  "master 
and  slave  station''  technique  in  transmitting  and 
receiving  electronic  impulses,  enable  aircraft  to 
navigate  over  water  with  a  good  deal  of  accuracy 
and  have  other  inijjortant  military  uses. 

8.  Any  military  communications  electronics 
e(}uipment  specially  designed  for  military  use  is, 
of  course,  also  included  under  the  category  of  mili- 
tary electronics. 

AVitli  regard  to  components  and  parts,  the  De- 
partment of  State  is  given  jurisdiction  in  the  fol- 
lowing cases: 

1.  If  the  components  or  parts  are  specially  de- 
signed for  military  use  and  are  used  primarily  for 
military  purposes; 

2.  If  the  components  or  parts  are  specially  de- 
signed for  or  intended  for  use  with  airborne 
equipment. 

On  the  other  hand,  if  the  component  or  part, 
though  originally  designed  for  military  equip- 
ment, has  lost  its  distinctively  military  character, 
it  may  be  transferred  from  State  Department  to 
Commerce  Department  jurisdiction.  Such  a  case 
is  that  of  cathode  ray  tubes,  used  in  television  sets. 

Control  of  Technical  Data 

The  development  of  new  techniques  of  arms 
production  and  intensive  intelligence  collection 
and  espionage  efforts  on  the  part  of  potential 
enemy  powers  has  broadened  the  concept  of  muni- 
tions controls  to  embrace  the  control  of  the  expor- 
tation of  militarily  significant  technical  know- 
how.  The  Department  of  State  has  had  a  leading 
role  in  the  formulation  of  governmental  policies 
on  militaiy  information  control,  particularly  since 
the  passage  of  the  Espionage  Act  of  1917.  provid- 
ing in  part  for  the  control  of  military  secrets. 
Through  an  interagency  coordinating  committee 
the  Departments  of  State  and  Defense  have  co- 
operated in  the  formulation  of  policies  govern- 
ing the  disclosure  of  such  information  to  certain 
foreign  governments. 

As  a  result  of  the  ever-increasing  momentum  in 
American  inventive  and  manufacturing  genius, 
the  technological  aspect  of  munitions  control  is 
becoming  increasingly  more  vital.  Technical  data 
relating  to  munitions  and  all  materials  bearing  a 
security  classification  are  specifically  included  in 
the  United  States  Munitions  List.  Under  the 
provisions  of  section  414  of  the  Mutual  Security 


Act  and  the  implementing  regulations,  a  license 
issued  by  the  Secretary  of  State  is  required  in  all 
cases  for  the  export  of  unclassified  technical  data 
relating  to  articles  on  the  United  States  Munitions 
List  when  they  are  destined  for  the  Sino-Soviet 
bloc  countries.  A  license  is  also  required  for  the 
export  of  such  data  to  all  other  destinations  ex- 
cept when  otherwise  exempted  by  the  Depart- 
ment's regulations.  Exemptions  are  provided  for 
technical-data  exports  to  non-Communist  coun- 
tries in  the  following  four  instances: 

1.  \A1ien  in  published  form; 

2.  When  available  by  subscription  or  purchase 
to  any  individual  without  restriction; 

3.  Wlien  granted  a  second-class  mailing  privi- 
lege by  the  United  States  Government ; 

4.  "Wlien  freely  available  at  public  libraries. 

When  a  license  is  required,  a  flexible  system  of 
control  has  been  devised  in  this  field  which  is 
specially  adaptable  to  varying  industrial  situa- 
tions. Special  clearance  procedures  have  been  de- 
veloped, for  instance,  in  the  case  of  applications 
for  licenses  to  export  technical  data  with  applica- 
tions for  foreign  patents  to  enable  the  foreign 
filing  of  patents  within  the  convention  year,  a 
convention  year  being  the  permissible  lapse  of 
time  by  international  convention  within  which  an 
applicant  for  a  United  States  patent  may  obtain 
prior  rights  abroad  by  filing  in  the  foreign  country. 

In  the  regulatory  process  in  this  field,  as  well 
as  in  the  formulation  of  procedural  rules  and 
policy  criteria,  exchanges  of  views  with  industry 
have  been  practiced  to  foster  an  appreciation  on 
the  part  of  both  industry  and  Government  of  mu- 
tual problems  and  to  develop  a  mechanism  of  con- 
trol which  is  fair  to  industry,  workable,  and  within 
the  intent  of  the  law. 

Division  of  Administrative  Responsibilities 

Perhaps  it  would  be  helpful  if  I  reviewed  some 
of  the  mechanical  aspects  of  licensing  controls. 
In  a  sense,  there  is  a  dichotomy  of  responsibility  in 
the  administration  of  the  law  because  the  Office 
of  Munitions  Control  merely  passes  on  the  ques- 
tion of  whether  arms  shipments  shall  or  shall  not 
be  imported  or  exported  and,  depending  on  that 
decision,  issues  or  refuses  to  issue  licenses  to  im- 
port or  export  arms  shipments.  Customs  officers 
stationed  at  the  ports  of  entry  or  exit  police  the 
matter  by  checking  the  shipments  against  the  au- 


April  29,    1957 


699 


thorizations  set  forth  in  licenses  issued  by  the  De- 
partment. In  the  sense,  therefore,  that  the  De- 
partment of  State  determines  the  question  of  the 
exportability  or  the  importability  of  shipments 
and  the  collectors  of  customs  enforce  the  decision 
at  the  border  point,  there  is  a  division  in  the  ad- 
ministration of  controls  between  the  Bureau  of 
Customs  and  the  Office  of  Munitions  Control. 

Furthermore,  there  are  also  two  readily  dis- 
tinguishable aspects  in  the  enforcement  fimction 
exercised  by  the  Bureau  of  Customs  which  are  dis- 
charged by  separate  branches  of  that  bureau,  i.  e., 
the  collectors  of  customs  on  the  one  hand  and  the 
Customs  Agency  Service  on  the  other.  The  cus- 
toms collectors,  with  their  staffs  of  customs  inspec- 
tors and  other  personnel,  exercise  strict  super- 
vision of  all  outgoing  and  incommg  shipments  to 
insure  compliance  with  the  rules  and  regulations 
of  the  Secretary  of  State.  The  staffs  attached  to 
the  Customs  Agency  Service  investigate  reported 
violations  to  ascertain  all  the  facts,  and  customs 
investigators  prepare  detailed  reports  and  analyses 
of  such  reported  violations.  They  lay  the  basis 
for  legal  action  against  violators  when  that  is  indi- 
cated and  assist  in  procuring  any  documentation 
and  depositions  which  may  be  needed  in  subse- 
quent legal  proceedings. 

Current  internal  administration  of  the  licensing 
system  by  the  Office  of  Munitions  Control  is  based 
upon  the  principle  of  functional  specialization, 
separating  the  responsibilities  connected  with 
intelligence  and  information  collecting,  investi- 
gation, enforcement,  and  prosecution  from  the 
responsibilities  connected  with  the  determinatioji 
and  application  of  policy  criteria.  In  the  admin- 
istration of  the  munitions  control  function,  this 
functional  specialization  permits  more  effective  co- 
ordination of  the  license  issuance  responsibilities 
with  the  policy  and  security  determination  phases 
of  review.  Consequently,  a  more  direct  and  much 
more  efficient  application  of  overall  policy  objec- 
tives to  particular  shipments  of  munitions  is  pos- 
sible. The  need  for  correlation  with  national  pol- 
icy is,  of  course,  more  vital  in  the  munitions  field, 
where  the  items  being  shipped  have  important  im- 
l^lications  for  national  security  and  international 
peace,  and  in  this  respect  it  differs  from  the  li- 
censing function  as  applied  to  shipments  of  non- 
munitions  articles,  both  as  to  administrative 
methods  employed  and  policy  objectives  sought. 

Wliile  a  large  number  of  proposed  shipments 


are  of  routine  character,  many  clearly  involve  com- 
plex policy  questions  containing  elements  of  sig- 
nificance to  the  security  interests  of  the  United 
States  and  other  aspects  of  United  States  foreign 
policy.  In  the  evaluation  process,  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal criteria  for  determining  the  degree  of  con- 
trol to  be  exercised  over  articles  licensed  for  export 
by  the  Secretary  of  State  is  the  war  jjotential  of 
the  articles  proposed  to  be  exported.  The  expor- 
tation of  articles  having  insignificant  war  po- 
tential is  authorized  with  practically  no  delay, 
whereas  the  exportation  of  articles  possessed  of 
high  military  potential,  such  as  guns,  tanks,  mili- 
tary aircraft,  and  vessels  of  war,  is  subject  to  the 
most  careful  scrutiny  to  assure  that  the  shipment 
is  in  conformity  with  current  policies. 

International  Cooperation  in  Arms-Traffic  Control 

It  has  long  been  established  by  students  of  the 
problem  that  no  effective  control  of  the  interna- 
tional traffic  m  arms  can  be  achieved  except  by 
international  agreement.  I  have  mentioned  as 
early  efforts  in  this  direction  the  convention  of  St. 
Germain  of  1919  and  tlie  Geneva  convention  of 
1925.  Since  the  Second  World  "War  the  nations  of 
the  North  Atlantic  Treaty  Organization  have  co- 
operated in  embargoing  to  the  Sino-Soviet  bloc 
military  items  on  the  United  States  Munitions 
List,  as  well  as  certain  groups  of  strategic  items 
not  on  that  list.  Since  most  of  the  governments 
of  Western  nations  feel  tlie  same  way  about  arms 
smuggling  and  since  the  members  of  Nato  include 
the  principal  arms-producing  countries,  it  has 
been  possible  to  enlist  informal  cooperation  on  the 
part  of  those  countries.  Members  of  the  Seato 
and  Anzus  alliances  can  also  be  relied  on  to  co- 
operate in  this  field  and  take  parallel  action  in 
arms-traffic  cases.  The  Anzus  treaty  links  Aus- 
tralia, New  Zealand,  and  the  United  States;  and 
the  Seato  treaty  links  Australia,  France,  Great 
Britain,  New  Zealand,  Pakistan,  the  Philippines, 
Thailand,  and  the  United  States  in  defensive 
alliances. 

The  United  States,  of  course,  is  also  obligated 
under  the  charter  of  the  United  Nations  to  help 
establish  and  maintain  international  peace  and 
security  in  the  words  of  the  charter,  "with  the 
least  diversion  for  armaments  of  the  world's  hu- 
man and  economic  resources."  As  a  member  of 
the  United  Nations,  the  United  States  is  obligated 
to  control  the  exportation  of  munitions  to  any 


700 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


state  against  which  the  United  Nations  is  taking 
preventive  or  enforcement  action. 

The  United  States  has  also  cooperated  with  the 
Council  of  the  Organization  of  American  States 
and  other  signatory  nations  under  the  Rio  Pact 
to  thwart  the  threat  of  Communist  infiltration  and 
tlie  forcible  overthrow  of  constituted  governments 
in  Latin  American  states.  Thus  the  munitions 
control  activities  of  the  Department  of  State  were, 
in  part,  responsible  for  bringing  the  Communist 
threat  in  Guatemala  of  a  few  years  ago  to  public 
attention. 

Many  of  the  objectives  of  munitions  control  are 
directly  related  to  those  of  world  disarmament, 
and  the  techniques  developed  to  aid  in  the  admin- 
istration of  munitions  control  can  be  expected 
eventually  to  serve  as  the  guideposts  for  interna- 
tional disarmament  control  at  such  time  as  an 
accord  is  reached  on  that  important  project. 

Now  in  conclusion  let  me  make  the  following 
observations  by  way  of  summary. 

As  a  result  of  the  technological  developments 
of  recent  years,  military  electronics  is  assuming  an 
increasingly  more  important  role  in  the  weapons 
arsenals  of  modern  military  establishments.    The 
United  States  Munitions  List  covers  those  articles 
in  this  field  which  contribute  to  the  effectiveness 
of  military  equipment.    It  is  the  policy  of  this 
Govermnent  to  exercise  control  over  the  exporta- 
tion and  importation  of  such  equipment  and  over 
the  exportation  of  technical  data  relating  thereto 
in  the  light  of  our  national  security  and  foreign 
policy  interests.    The  Department  of  State,  which 
is  charged  Avith  the  administration  of  the  law, 
seeks  the  loyal  cooperation  of  American  industiy 
and  citizenry  as  a  most  essential  element  in  the 
successful  administration  of  the  law,  and  it  tries 
in  every  way  to  adjust  its  procedures  to  take  into 
account  commercial  considerations  consistent,  of 
course,  with  the  realization  of  our  national  policy 
objectives  to  further  world  peace  and  the  security 
and  foreign  policy  of  the  United  States. 


President  Requests  Further  Data 
on  Imports  of  Safety  Pins 

Wliite  House  press  release  dated  March  29 

The  President  on  March  29  asked  the  U.S. 
Tariff  Commission  for  further  information  on 
several  questions  relating  to  the  Commission's  re- 


April  29,   1957 


cent  investigation  of  the  effect  of  imports  on  the 
domestic  safety-pin  industry.  With  the  addi- 
tional information,  the  President  stated  that  he 
would  be  "in  a  better  position  to  make  a  decision" 
on  the  recommendations  of  the  Commission. 

On  January  30,  1957,  the  Commission  had  re- 
ported to  the  President  its  4^2  decision  recom- 
mending an  increase  in  the  tariff  on  imported 

safety  pins. 

Senator  Harry  Flood  Byrd,  Chairman  of  the 
Senate  Committee  on  Finance,  and  Representative 
Jere  Cooper,  Chairman  of  the  House  Committee 
on  Ways  and  Means,  were  advised  by  the  Presi- 
dent of  his  action. 

President's  Letter  to  Edgar  B.  Brossard,  Chairman 
of  Tariff  Commission 

March  29, 1957 

Dear  Mr.  Chairman  :  I  have  carefully  studied 
the  Commission's  report  of  January  30,  1957  on 
its  investigation  under  Section  7  of  the  Trade 
Agreements  Extension  Act  of  1951,  as  amended, 
regarding  safety  pins. 

Additional  information  on  a  number  of  points 
raised  by  the  Commission's  report  would  be  help- 
ful to  me  in  reaching  a  decision  in  tliis  case. 

It  would  be  very  useful  to  have  the  production, 
sales,  employment,  and  profit  data  on  the  two 
safety  pin  producers  not  presently  included  in  the 
Commission's  report  as  would  similar  data  on  the 
industry's  operations  on  uncapped  pin  wires.  In 
addition,  I  would  like  to  have  data  on  the  other 
products  made  on  safety  pin  machines  and  on  the 
firms  producing  plastic-capped  safety  pins. 

Supplemental    information   on   the   industry's 
profit  experience  would  also  assist  me :  annual  data 
for  safety  pin  operations  and  for  the  total  oper- 
ations of  the  plants  involved  for  1935-39  and  for 
1946-50;  the  basis  for  the  industry's  allocation  of 
costs,  particularly  administrative  and  selling  costs, 
to  its  safety  pin  operations;  and  the  impact  upon 
the  industry  figures  of  the  one  firm  which  reported 
losses  in  four  years  since  1950  and  whether  that 
firm's  operations  have  been  materially  affected  by 
factors  other  than  imports.    Finally,  clarification 
of  the  nature  and  source  of  the  industry's  over- 
capacity, referred  to  in  the  Commission's  report, 
would  be  desirable. 

I  would  appreciate  the  Commission's  supplying 
this  additional  information.    It  may,  to  the  ex- 

701 


tent  necessary  to  avoid  improper  disclosures,  be 
submitted  in  confidence.  With  these  points  clari- 
fied, I  would  be  in  a  better  position  to  make  a 
decision. 

Sincerely, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


President  Decides  Against  Increase 
in  Tariff  on  Straight  Pins 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  29 

The  President  on  March  29  declined  to  accept 
the  recommendation  of  the  U.S.  Tariff  Commis- 
sion for  an  increased  duty  on  straight  (dress- 
makers'or  common)  pins. 

On  January  30, 1957,  the  Tariff  Conunission  had 
reported  to  the  President  tlie  results  of  its  investi- 
gation on  straight  pins  under  section  7  of  the 
Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of  1951,  as 
amended. '  Although  the  Commission  found 
imanimously  that  imports  have  caused  no  serious 
injury  to  the  domestic  straight-pin  industry,  the 
Commission  concluded,  in  a  4-2  decision,  that  im- 
ports threatened  such  injury  in  the  future.  Ac- 
cordingly, the  majority  of  the  Commission  recom- 
mended that  the  duty  on  imported  straight  pins  be 
increased. 

In  identical  letters  to  Senator  Harry  Flood 
Byrd,  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Committee  on 
Finance,  and  Representative  Jere  Cooper,  Chair- 
man of  the  House  Committee  on  Ways  and  Means, 
the  President  noted  that  the  domestic  industry's 
sales,  prices,  and  profits  have  increased  since  1952. 
The  President  also  noted  that  wage  rates  in  the 
industry  have  increased  steadily  and  that  there 
was  no  imemployment  in  the  industry.  The  Presi- 
dent did  not  find  that  the  evidence  in  this  case  was 
"of  such  a  character  as  to  leave  no  doubt  that 
actual  injury  is  imminent." 

President's  Letter  to  Senator  Byrd  and  Representa- 
tive Cooper 

March  29,  1957 

Dear  Mr.  Chairman  :  The  United  States  Tariff 
Commission  submitted  to  me  on  January  30,  1957 
a  report  of  its  investigation  on  straight  (dress- 

•CJopies  of  the  report  may  be  obtained  from  the  U.S. 
Tariff  Commission,  Washington  25,  D.  C. 


makers'  or  common)  pins  under  Section  7  of  the 
Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of  1951,  as 
amended.  Although  the  Commission  found 
imanimously  that  imports  have  caused  no  serious 
injury  to  the  domestic  straight  pin  industry,  the 
Commission  concluded,  in  a  four  to  two  decision, 
that  imports  threatened  such  injury  in  the  future. 
Accordingly,  the  majority  of  the  Commission  rec- 
ommended that  the  duty  on  imported  straight  pins 
be  increased. 

As  the  Commission's  report  shows,  imports  of 
straight  pins  have  increased  since  1948.  Domestic 
production  and  sales  have  apparently  declined 
from  the  peak  post-war  years  and  from  the  pre- 
war average.  Profits  and  employment  are  less 
than  they  were  in  the  highest  post-war  years. 
The  consumption  of  straight  pins,  however,  has 
also  declined. 

Aside  from  the  comparison  with  a  few  peak  post- 
war yeare,  the  sales,  employment,  and  profits  of 
the  domestic  industry  do  not  appear  to  have  been 
endangered.  Hourly  wage  rates  of  workers  in 
the  industry  have  increased  steadily  and  there  is 
no  unemployment.  In  fact,  the  record  suggests  a 
shortage  of  experienced  operators  of  pin-making 
machines. 

Sales  of  the  domestic  industry  have  moved 
fairly  steadily  upward  since  1952  and,  in  the  face 
of  increasing  imports,  their  prices  have  increased 
considerably  more  than  the  wholesale  price  index 
generally  and  more  than  the  index  for  fabricated 
non-structural  metal  products. 

Tlie  profits  of  the  domestic  industry  have  in- 
creased fairly  steadily  since  1952.  The  tariff  con- 
cession was  already  well  in  effect  during  1950  and 
1951,  the  only  post-war  years  in  which  profits  sub- 
stantially exceeded  those  of  1955,  the  last  full  year 
for  which  the  Commission's  report  presents  sta- 
tistics. For  1955  and  for  the  portion  of  1956  for 
which  the  facts  were  given,  furtliermore,  the  rate 
of  profit,  as  a  percentage  of  sales,  on  straight  pins 
exceeded  for  the  first  time  the  producers'  rate  of 
profits  on  tlie  total  output  of  their  phints  manu- 
facturing, among  other  things,  straight  pins. 

When  the  threat  of  injury,  rather  than  present 
injury,  is  the  ground  of  decision,  I  believe,  as  I 
have  said  before,  tliat  the  evidence  bi'ought  for- 
ward to  substantiate  the  judgment  of  threat  must 
be  of  such  a  character  as  to  leave  no  doubt  that 
actual  injury  is  imminent.  I  am  not  persuaded 
that  the  evidence  in  this  case  is  of  such  a  character. 


702 


Department  of  State  Bulletin 


I  am  not,  therefore,  authorizing  an  increase  in 
the  existing  import  duties  on  straight  pins. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 

President  Decides  Against  Increase 
in  Tariff  on  Violins  and  Violas 

White  House  press  release  dated  March  30 

The  President  has  declined  to  accept  the  recom- 
mendations of  the  U.S.  Tariff  Commission  for  an 
increased  dtity  on  imports  of  violins  and  violas 
valued  at  not  more  than  $25. 

On  January  29, 1957,  the  Tariff  Commission  had 
reported  the  results  of  its  investigation  under  sec- 
tion 7  of  the  Trade  Agreements  Extension  Act  of 
1951,  as  amended,  regarding  violins  and  violas 
valued  at  not  more  than  $25  each.  ^  The  Commis- 
sion, by  a  3-2  vote  with  one  Commissioner  absent, 
found  that  the  domestic  industry  was  being  seri- 
ously injured. 

In  identical  letters  to  Senator  Harry  Flood 
Byrd,  Chairman  of  the  Senate  Committee  on  Fi- 
nance, and  Representative  Jere  Cooper,  Chairman 
of  the  House  Committee  on  Ways  and  Means,  the 
President  stated  that  this  was  an  unusual  case  be- 
cause "imports,  in  general,  do  not  undersell  the 
domestic  product."  The  President  said  that  al- 
though he  was  "sympathetic  with  the  problems  of 
the  domestic  manufacturer,"  he  was  not  persuaded, 
on  the  basis  of  the  clear  facts  "that  his  case  satis- 
fies the  statutory  test."  Nor  did  the  President 
believe  that  "an  increase  in  duties,  which  would 
raise  the  cost  of  music  instruction  for  young  peo- 
ple throughout  the  country,  holds  much  promise  of 
solving  the  difficulties  of  the  domestic  manu- 
facturer." 


President's  Letter  to  Senator  Byrd  and  Representa- 
tive Cooper 

March  29,  1957 
Dear  Mr.  Chairman:  I  have  carefully  re- 
viewed the  United  States  Tariff  Commission's 
report  of  January  29,  1957  on  its  investigation 
under  Section  7  of  the  Trade  Agreements  Exten- 
sion Act  of  1951,  as  amended,  regarding  violins 
and  violas  valued  at  not  more  than  $25  each.  The 
Commission,  by  a  three  to  two  vote  with  one  Com- 

'  Copies  of  the  report  may  be  obtained  from  the  U.S. 
Tariff  Commission,  Washington  25,  D.  C. 

April  29,   1957 


missioner  absent,  found  that  the  domestic  industry 
was  being  seriously  injured  and  recommended  that 
the  rate  of  duty  on  violins  and  violas  valued  at 
not  more  than  $25  be  increased. 

Violins  and  violas  of  this  type  are  manufac- 
tured in  the  United  States  by  one  company  with 
about  thirty  production  employees.  This  com- 
pany as  the  Tariff  Commission  report  points  out, 
is  in  difficulties,  and  imports,  although  still  con- 
siderably lower  than  in  the  pre-war  period,  have 
increased  since  the  tariff  concessions  of  1948  and 
1951.  As  a  prerequisite  to  escape  clause  relief, 
however,  the  law  requires  that  the  difficulties  of 
the  domestic  producer  be  substantially  attribut- 
able to  increased  imports,  resulting  at  least  in  part 
from  a  tariff  concession,  of  like  or  directly  com- 
petitive products. 

It  should  be  made  clear  that  this  is  an  unusual 
case.  The  imports,  in  general,  do  not  undersell 
the  domestic  product.  The  price  of  nearly  all  of 
the  imports  exceeds  the  price  of  the  great  bulk  of 
the  domestic  product.  The  school  market,  the 
most  important  market  for  violins  and  violas  in 
the  United  States,  has  preferred  the  higher  priced 
imports.  The  imported  product  meets  the  stand- 
ards of  quality  which  have  been  established  for 
the  school  market.  These  standards,  while  not 
binding,  are  widely  followed  by  the  schools.  The 
bulk  of  the  domestic  production,  the  manufac- 
turer acknowledged,  does  not  meet  these  stand- 
ards. The  domestic  industry's  product  is  largely 
sold  in  the  folk  music  market. 

A  small  portion  of  the  domestic  output  does 
purport  to  meet  the  school  standards.  This  part 
of  the  domestic  production  is  higher  priced  than 
most  of  the  imports,  but  the  domestic  manufac- 
turer has  acknowledged  that  even  his  better  prod- 
uct meets  consumer  resistance  in  the  school  market 
for  reasons  quite  apart  from  price. 

Although  I  am  sympathetic  with  the  problems 
of  the  domestic  manufacturer,  I  am  not  persuaded 
that  his  case  satisfies  the  statutory  test.  Nor  do 
I  believe  that  an  increase  in  duties,  which  would 
raise  the  cost  of  music  instruction  for  young 
people  throughout  the  country,  holds  much  prom- 
ise of  solving  the  difficulties  of  the  domestic 
manufacturer. 

I  have  decided,  therefore,  that  escape  clause 
action  would  be  inappropriate  in  this  case. 
Sincerely, 

DwiGHT  D.  Eisenhower 


703 


INTERNATIONAL  ORGANIZATIONS 
AND  CONFERENCES 


United  Nations  Commission 
on  the  Status  of  Women 

Folloiving  are  two  statements  made  at  the  11th 
session  of  the  U.N.  Commission  on  the  Status  of 
Women  hy  Mrs.  Lorena  B.  Hahn^  U.S.  represent- 
ative. 


STATEMENT     OF     MARCH     21     ON     ACCESS     OF 
WOMEN  TO  EDUCATION 

U.S./U.N.  press  release  2647 

To  assure  educational  opportunity  for  girls, 
three  steps  appear  necessaiy:  (1)  enough  school 
facilities  for  all,  (2)  compulsory  school  attend- 
ance, and  (3)  enforcement  of  school  laws. 

Provision  of  Enough  Schools  for  Ail 

I  say  all,  rather  than  all  girls,  because  I  am 
sure  we  believe  every  boy  should  have  an  educa- 
tion, just  as  every  girl  should  have  an  education, 
and,  where  there  are  not  enough  schools  to  go 
round,  the  problem  is  more  schools  for  boys  and 
girls  alike.  Tliis  matter  of  enough  schools  is  an 
endless  task  in  all  countries.  Schools  wear  out 
and  have  to  be  replaced;  new  towns  and  cities 
grow  up  and  new  schools  must  be  provided  where 
the  children  live;  standards  of  what  constitutes 
adequate  school  facilities  are  constantly  rising, 
so  that  each  community  wants  to  have  the  finest 
in  classrooms,  teachers,  textbooks,  and  play  spaces. 

But  at  the  moment  we  are  concerned  particu- 
larly for  girls  who  have  no  schools  at  all,  or  at 
best  only  a  few  grades  of  education.  A  few  years 
ago  the  International  Conference  on  Public  Ed- 
ucation suggested  that,  where  school  buildings 
had  been  provided  for  boys  but  not  for  girls, 
students  might  be  placed  on  a  double  shift,  with 
the  boys  attending  in  the  morning  and  the  girls 
in  the  afternoon,  or  vice  versa.  In  the  United 
States,  where  scliools  have  been  provided  for  all 
for  many  years,  there  is  often  a  district  in  which 
school  buildings  must  be  used  on  double  shift 


while  new  schools  are  being  built  or  because  the 
number  of  children  in  a  particular  grade  exceeds 
expectation.  Tliis  situation  is  easier  where  co- 
education is  acceptable  and  girls  and  boys  can 
attend  classes  together.  It  is  always  a  tempta- 
tion to  feel  that  new  schools  can  be  postponed,  or 
at  least  that  the  school  for  girls  can  be  postponed. 
But  children  cannot  wait — they  need  to  be  edu- 
cated now.  A  girl  who  cannot  go  to  school  as  a 
child  has  missed  that  opportunity  forever  and 
must  catch  up,  if  at  all,  only  at  the  expense  of 
time  and  energy  needed  for  other  things  in  her 
mature  years. 

Compulsory  School  Attendance 

Since  compulsoi-y  education  laws  apply  equally 
to  girls  and  boys,  our  Commission  has  adopted 
resolutions  at  several  sessions  urging  the  impor- 
tance of  legislation  of  this  type. 

Reports  from  Unesco  confirm  that  in  countries 
having  compulsory  education  the  proportion  of 
girls  in  school  tends  to  be  greater  than  elsewhere. 
Compulsory  education  is  especially  helpful  in 
areas  where  it  has  not  been  usual  to  send  little 
girls  to  school  and  parents  may  therefore  hesitate 
unless  they  are  required  to  do  so.  A  gi-eat  many 
countries  have  already  adopted  school  attendance 
laws  covering  at  least  elementary  education.  The 
report  before  us^  makes  it  clear  that  we  should 
be  especially  vigilant  where  such  laws  do  not  exist. 
However,  as  we  all  know,  laws  in  themselves  are 
of  little  value  unless  there  is  adequate  machinery 
for  law  enforcement.  I  come  thei-efore  to  my 
third  point. 

Law  Enforcement 

"V^Hien  we  begin  to  think  about  enforcing  com- 
pulsory education,  for  girls  as  well  as  boys,  we 
come  back  at  once  to  the  problem  of  more  schools. 
We  cannot  expect  effective  law  enforcement  until 
there  are  enough  schools  for  all.  But  we  should 
think  of  law  enforcement  as  more  than  a  threat. 
Often  the  reason  a  child  is  not  in  school  is  illness 
in  the  family,  or  lack  of  suitable  clothes,  or  diffi- 
culty in  transportation,  or  some  other  problem  in 
which  social  services  are  needed.  This  is  one  of 
the  areas  in  which  technical  assistance  can  be  of 
great  value,  in  the  field  of  health  as  well  as  edu- 
cation. 


•  U.N.  doc.  E/CN.6/291. 


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Department  of  State  Bulletin 


Course  of  Study  for  Girls 

In  this  brief  analysis  I  have  not  touched  on 
courses  of  study  which  should  be  provided  for 
girls.    This  is  another  field  to  which  we  may  want 
to  give  attention,  perhaps  in  some  future  meeting. 
Our  view  in  the  United  States  is  that  girls  and 
boys   should   have   access   to   the   same   courses 
throughout,  even  though  we  can  expect  that  their 
natural  choices  will  result  in  a  larger  proportion 
of  girls  choosing  such  subjects  as  domestic  sci- 
ence.   Wliat  is  of  fundamental  importance,  for 
girls  as  well  as  boys,  is  that  they  be  provided 
with  a  broad  and  thorough  understanding  of  the 
great  ideas  of  our  world,  of  the  humanities  and 
the  sciences,  so  that  they  can  be  possessors  of  cul- 
ture and  can  enjoy  and  appreciate  the  arts.    It  is 
not  enough  to  think  of  education  as  leading  only 
to  a  vocation  or  profession,  though  such  training 
should  be  available  in  equal  measure.    Neither 
is  it  enough  to  think  of  education  for  girls  merely 
in  terms  of  homemaking,  though  all  agree  that 
an  intelligent  and  educated  mother  can  contribute 
far  more  to  her  family  and  to  her  country  because 
she  has  had  years  in  school.    The  purpose  of  edu- 
cation, for  girls  as  well  as  boys,  is  the  develop- 
ment of  the  whole  person  to  his  or  her  greatest 
capacity.    That  is  the  goal,  not  a  cramping  into 
particular  patterns  or  preparation  for  particular 
tasks.    In  the  words  of  the  Universal  Declara- 
tion of  Human  Rights, 

Education  shall  be  directed  to  the  full  development 
of  the  human  personality  and  to  the  strengthening  of 
respect  for  human  rights  and  fundamental  freedoms. 

The  UNESCO  report  in  E/CN.6/291  summarizes 
a  variety  of  activities  in  the  Unesco  program 
bearincr  on  the  access  of  women  to  education. 
This  report  makes  it  possible  for  the  Commission 
to  understand  and  evaluate  the  Unesco  program 
as  it  relates  to  the  status  of  women.  Similar  re- 
ports of  this  type  will  be  useful  in  future  Com- 
mission meetings. 

While  some  sections  of  the  report  indicate 
progress,  the  information  on  exchange  of  persons 
is  disturbing  in  that  the  proportion  of  women 
receiving  foreign  grants  is  small.  For  instance, 
^omen  received  only  4  out  of  35  regional  grants 
5  out  of  35  youth  grants,  6  out  of  65  gi-oup  travel 
grants,  and  2  out  of  125  worker  grants  The 
problem  does  not  appear  to  be  a  lack  of  fellow- 
ships, since  a  considerable  number  are  available 
to  both  sexes  and  a  reasonable  proportion  are  open 
to  women  only.    The  number  of  women  interested 

April  29,  1957 


in  international  study  may  be  less  than  men,  but 
the  disproportion  in  fellowships  granted  appears 
unduly  great.  It  is  probable  that  tradition,  fa- 
voring men,  as  well  as  the  much  smaller  relative 
numl^r  of  women  qualified  to  apply  for  fellow- 
ships, also  plays  a  role. 

Nongovernmental  organizations  might  be  en- 
couraged to  bring  additional  information  about 
fellowships  to  the  attention  of  women.  The 
UNESCO  publication.  Study  Abroad,  lists  such  op- 
portunities with  important  details.  National  or- 
ganizations can  help  their  members  by  publishing 
the  listings  available  to  their  members.  I  mider- 
stand  the  American  Association  of  University 
Women  provides  information  on  international 
fellowships  in  their  Quarterly  Journal. 

The  UNESCO  report  in  E/CN.6/301  shows  that 
women  are  being  used  as  teachers  in  almost  all 
countries  in  considerable  numbers,  particularly 
in  primary  schools.  However,  in  countries  where 
there  have  not  been  many  schools,  the  need  for 
more  teachers  may  be  very  great.  Wliile  the 
proportion  of  women  teachers  in  these  countries 
may  be  encouraging,  the  entire  number  of  teachers 
may  actually  be  very  small.  We  should  there- 
fore be  alert  to  help  girls  in  these  areas  prepare 
for  teaching. 

The  report  points  out  that  conditions  for  women 
in  the  teaching  profession  are  not  always  equal 
and  training  opportunities  are  often  limited. 
UNESCO  proposes  a  survey  which  would  involve 
a  direct  inquiry  to  governments.  Since  this  sur- 
vey would  help  in  considering  measures  to  redress 
inequality  and  attract  women  to  the  teaching  pro- 
fession, the  United  States  favors  further  work  by 
UNESCO  along  this  line. 

The  United  States  has  had  some  experience  m 
training  mature  women  for  teaching  to  meet  a 
shortage  of  teachers  in  the  lower  grades.  Many 
more  children  are  entering  school  at  this  time 
because  our  birth  rate  has  gone  up  the  last  5  or 
6  years.  We  are  finding  that  married  women 
whose  children  are  grown  and  no  longer  in  the 
home  are  now  willing  to  undertake  new  work  or 
to  go  back  to  teaching  which  they  may  have  given 
up^soon  after  marriage.  Our  Women's  Bureau 
has  worked  closely  with  the  United  States  Office 
of  Education  in  encouraging  study  courses  to 
prepare  these  women  for  teaching,  in  some  cases 
refreshing  earlier  skills  and  in  others  supplying 
a  basic  understanding  of  educational  principles 
all  teachers  need. 

705 


STATEMENT  OF  MARCH  25  ON  EQUAL  PAY  FOR 
WOMEN 

D.S./D.N.  press  release  2649 

The  United  States  delegation  -welcomes  this  op- 
portunity to  express  its  appreciation  for  the  valu- 
able reports  prepared  this  year  by  the  Secretary- 
General  and  the  Ilo.^  This  is  the  third  consecu- 
tive year  in  which  the  Secretary-General  has  fur- 
nished us  with  information  from  nongovern- 
mental organizations  on  the  practical  methods 
which  are  being  used  to  put  the  equal-pay  princi- 
ple into  effect. 

The  Ilo  report  also  provides  useful  informa- 
tion on  implementation  of  equal  pay.  We  wish  to 
express  our  appreciation  for  the  inclusion  in  the 
Ilo  report  of  information  on  equal-pay  exper- 
ience in  the  United  States.  This  information  was 
supplied  by  the  United  States  Government  in  re- 
sponse to  the  Ilo  questionnaire  on  application  of 
the  equal  remuneration  principle,  as  stated  in 
convention  100  and  recommendation  90.  It  shows 
that,  as  of  the  date  on  which  the  United  States 
transmitted  its  reply,  substantial  progress  has 
been  made  in  the  United  States  toward  the  effec- 
tive implementation  of  equal  pay. 

Since  that  date,  President  Eisenhower,  in  his 
state-of-the-Union  message  early  in  1956,  called 
for  the  elimination  of  remaining  wage  differen- 
tials against  women  as  a  matter  of  simple  justice. 
The  President  reiterated  this  view  in  both  his 
economic  report  and  his  budget  message  this  year. 

Tlie  reports  before  the  Commission  this  year 
were  prepared  in  response  to  the  Commission  res- 
olution which  called  particular  attention  to  pro- 
cedures for  implementation  of  equal  pay  in  col- 
lective bargaining  agreements.  The  reports  also 
discuss  other  methods  of  implementation,  includ- 
ing the  enforcement  of  equal-pay  legislation.  In 
the  United  States  we  rely  on  both  collective  bar- 
gaining and  legislation  to  give  practical  effect  to 
the  equal-pay  principle.  We  would  accordingly 
like  to  comment  on  equal  progress  in  both  fields. 

Equal  Pay  Progress  Through  Collective  Bargaining 

Both  the  Secretary-General  and  the  Ilo  reports 
show  significant  progress  in  implementation  of  the 
equal-pay  principle  through  collective  bargain- 
ing procedures.  The  Ilo  report  states,  for  ex- 
ample, that  in  France  none  of  the  collective  bar- 
gaining agreements  in  force  at  the  present  time 

•  U.N.  docs.  E/CN.O/296  and  E/CN.6/300. 


establish  wage  differentials  for  men  and  women 
in  identical  occupations.  Moreover,  the  relative 
average  level  of  women's  wages  has  been  raised 
57  percent,  the  highest  percentage  gain  in  women's 
wage  levels  reported  by  any  country. 

In  the  United  Kingdom  a  new  agreement  in  a 
major  industry  provides  for  the  achievement  of 
equal  pay  in  six  successive  annual  adjustments, 
illustrating  the  usefulness  of  a  step-by-step  ap- 
proach. In  Australia  the  Australian  Congress  of 
Trade  Unions  convened  a  1-day  meeting  at- 
tended by  65  Federal  unions  in  which  it  was  agreed 
to  organize  a  national  petition  supporting  equal 
pay.  In  Belgium  the  Government  has  initiated  a 
constructive  program  whereby  unions  are  re- 
quested to  report  on  the  progress  made  toward  the 
elimination  of  discriminatory  rates  in  collective 
bargaining  agreements.  In  the  Philippines  the 
Government  is  encouraging  trade  union  organiza- 
tion among  women  as  a  means  for  creating  a  favor- 
able climate  on  equal  pay.  In  Portugal  the 
Government  has  approved  regulations  establish- 
ing women's  sections  inside  a  number  of  national 
unions. 

Wom^n  Union  Membership:  In  the  United 
States  women  workers  are  estimated  to  constitute 
about  one-sixth  of  the  membership  of  unions. 
Union  organization  among  women  is  particularly 
strong  in  the  manufacturing  industries  employing 
large  numbers  of  women.  Of  199  unions  that  re- 
plied to  a  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  questionnaire 
on  union  membership  in  1954,  the  vast  majority 
reported  that  they  had  women  members.  Six 
unions  reported  having  more  than  100,000  women 
members  each.    They  were: 

International  Ladles'  Garment  Workers'  Union,  with 

330,r)00 
Araalframated    Clothing    Workers    of    America,    with 

279,100 
International  Brotherhood  of  Electrical  Workers,  with 

189,000 
Communications  Worlvers  of  America,  with  180,000 
Retail  Clerks  International  Association,  with  132,500 
Textile  Workers  Union  of  America,  with  117,000 

Uni^n  Eqiuil-Pay  Policy:  A  recent  development 
of  major  significance  was  the  formal  endorsement 
in  June  1956  of  Federal  equal-pay  legislation  by 
the  top  Executive  Committee  of  the  combined 
AFL-CIO  unions.  Prior  to  the  merger  of  these 
two  great  organizations,  both  the  AFL  and  the 
CIO  had  repeatedly  expressed  support  for  the 
equal-pay  principle,  but  the  AFL  for  many  years 


706 


Department   of   State   Bulletin 


opposed  implementation  of  the  principle  through 
Federal  legislation.  The  decision  of  the  combined 
unions  to  work  for  implementation  of  equal  pay 
through  two  major  methods — legislation  and  col- 
lective bargaining — has  been  interpreted  as  both  a 
definite  gain  for  the  equal-pay  movement  and  a 
tacit  recognition  of  the  increasing  importance  of 
women  as  union  members. 

Unions  are  also  continuing  to  press  for  equal- 
pay  clauses  in  the  negotiation  of  contracts.  The 
increasing  importance  of  such  clauses  is  demon- 
strated by  two  United  States  Labor  Department 
studies  made  at  an  interval  of  5  years.  The  first 
study,  made  by  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Labor 
Statistics  in  1951,  showed  that  about  24  percent  of 
the  agreements  had  equal-pay  clauses.  The  second 
such  study,  made  by  the  United  States  Women's 
Bureau  in  1956,  showed  that  almost  40  percent  of 
the  agreements  had  such  clauses. 

A  comparison  of  the  incidence  of  equal-pay 
clauses  in  contracts  for  the  same  industry  in  the 
two  periods  shows  the  same  results.  Thus,  in  the 
electrical  machinery  industry,  equal-pay  clauses 
in  union  contracts  increased  from  42  percent  in 
1951  to  53  percent  in  1956 ;  in  textiles  from  35  per- 
cent to  42  percent ;  in  food  industries  from  24  per- 
cent to  35  percent;  in  fabricated  metals  from  22 
percent  to  29  percent ;  and  in  transportation  equip- 
ment from  29  percent  in  1951  to  40  percent  in 
1956. 

The  fact  that  40  percent  of  the  agreements  con- 
tained equal-pay  clauses  does  not  necessarily  in- 
dicate the  existence  of  discriminatory  wage  rates 
in  the  other  60  percent.  Many  unions  have  estab- 
lished rates  for  the  job  through  participating  with 
management  in  the  development  of  a  sound  and 
objective  rate  structure  based  on  job  content.  The 
significance  of  such  clauses  is  that  the  equal-pay 
principle  is  expressed  in  concrete  terms. 


which  had  been  adopted  prior  to  1920.  Beginning 
with  1942,  and  continuing  to  the  present  period, 
14  additional  States  and  Alaska  have  adopted 
such  laws. 

Since  the  field  is  so  new,  many  innovations  in 
approach  and  language  have  been  tried.  Some  of 
these  have  proved  difficult  to  enforce.  Others 
have  proved  exceptionally  effective.  In  one  State, 
for  example,  the  law  prohibits  payment  of  a  lower 
wage  rate  to  a  woman  who  replaces  a  man,  thus 
discouraging  an  employer  from  discharging  a  male 
employee  in  order  to  hire  a  woman  at  a  lower  rate. 

Amendments  to  these  laws  are  gradually  being 
adopted  as  experience  indicates  the  need  for  them. 
In  one  State,  for  example,  where  the  original  law 
provided  for  equal  pay  for  the  same  work,  the 
law  was  amended  to  provide  for  equal  pay  for 
comparable  work.  This  wording  permits  minor 
variations  in  the  work  between  a  man  and  woman, 
without  depriving  the  woman  of  equal  pay. 

We  have  one  further  comment  on  the  legislative 
aspects  of  the  report,  namely,  the  value  of  mini- 
mum-wage laws  as  a  step  toward  implementation 
of  equal  pay.  Minimum-wage  laws  in  the  United 
States  set  the  same  rates  for  men  and  women 
workers.  No  differentials  in  legal  minimum  wages 
are  in  effect  under  the  Federal  law  or  such  State 
laws  as  apply  to  both  sexes.  Nevertheless,  our 
experience  has  shown  that  minimum-wage  laws 
have  only  a  limited  usefulness  in  removing  wage 
discrimination  against  women.  As  a  practical 
matter,  women  workers  are  sometimes  paid  exactly 
the  minimum  wage  and  men  are  paid  at  a  higher 
rate  for  the  same  work.  The  value  of  minimum- 
wage  laws  consists  primarily  of  raising  the  stand- 
ard of  living  by  eliminating  substandard  wages; 
they  do  not,  however,  insure  that  a  woman  worker 
will  receive  the  same  rate  as  a  man  for  the  same 
job. 


Equal  Pay  Progress  Through  Legislation 

The  Secretary-General's  report  calls  attention 
to  the  importance  of  adequate  wording  in  equal- 
pay  legislation  and  the  relationship  between  such 
wording  and  effective  enforcement  of  such  laws. 
This  has  been  demonstrated  by  experience  with 
State  equal-pay  laws  in  the  United  States. 

The  State  legislatures  in  the  United  States  have 
often  been  referred  to  as  a  laboratory  for  experi- 
mentation in  social  legislation.  Until  about  1942 
only  two  equal-pay  laws  were  in  effect,  both  of 


Next  Steps  That  Should  Be  Considered 

There  has  been  considerable  discussion  in  the 
past  few  days  of  the  importance  of  continuity  in 
the  Commission's  work.  We  are  in  ful